Industrial commercial knots and elements of wire communication of general application
In the aeronautical service, an emergency condition is classified in accordance with the degree of danger or hazard as follows:. Distress communications should be conducted in accordance with the procedures outlined in this section. These procedures shall not, however, prevent a station in distress from making use of any means at its disposal to attract attention, make known its position and obtain assistance. The first transmission of the distress call and message by an aircraft should be made on the air-ground frequency in use at the time. If the aircraft is unable to establish communications on the frequency in use, the distress call and message should be repeated on the aeronautical emergency frequencyVIDEO ON THE TOPIC: Marketing Research: Process & Methods in Hindi under E-Learning Program
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- Untangle the Unified Communications Knot
- Chapter 2. Transportation
- O. Reg. 213/91: CONSTRUCTION PROJECTS
- Knot a problem: Thai capital tackles street cables
- O. Reg. 213/91: CONSTRUCTION PROJECTS
- Internet Gambling: An Overview of Federal Criminal Law
- Client Industries
- Wireless Communication - Overview
Untangle the Unified Communications Knot
November 29, — January 24, This is a summary of the federal criminal statutes implicated by conducting illegal gambling using the Internet.
Gambling is primarily a matter of state law, reinforced by federal law in instances where the presence of an interstate or foreign element might otherwise frustrate the enforcement policies of state law. State officials and others have expressed concern that the Internet may be used to bring illegal gambling into their jurisdictions.
Illicit Internet gambling implicates at least seven federal criminal statutes. It is a federal crime 1 to conduct an illegal gambling business under the Illegal Gambling Business Act, 18 U. Enforcement of these provisions has been challenged on constitutional grounds. The commercial nature of a gambling business seems to satisfy doubts under the Commerce Clause. The limited First Amendment protection afforded crime facilitating speech encumbers free speech objections. The due process arguments raised in contemplation of federal prosecution of offshore Internet gambling operations suffer when financial transactions with individuals in the United States are involved.
Citations to state and federal gambling laws, and the text of the statutes cited above, are included. Attacks based on the Commerce Clause, the First Amendment's guarantee of free speech, and the Due Process Clause have enjoyed little success.
Internet gambling is gambling on, or by means of, the Internet. It encompasses placing a bet online with a bookie, betting shop, or other gambling enterprise. It also includes wagering on a game played online. A few states ban Internet gambling per se. Commentators most often mention the Wire Act 13 when discussing federal criminal laws that outlaw Internet gambling in one form or another. In general terms, the Wire Act outlaws the use of interstate telephone facilities by those in the gambling business to transmit bets or gambling-related information.
As a general matter, the Wire Act has been more sparingly used than some of the other federal gambling statutes, and as a consequence it lacks some of interpretative benefits which a more extensive case law might bring. The act is addressed to those "engaged in the business of betting or wagering" and therefore apparently cannot be used to prosecute simple bettors. The government must prove that the defendant was aware of the fact he was using a wire facility to transmit a bet or gambling-related information; it need not prove that he knew that such use was unlawful.
Grammatically, interstate transmission appears as a feature of only half of the elements compare, "for the transmission in interstate or foreign commerce of bets or wagers or information assisting in the placing of bets or wagers on any sporting event or contest," IV. Nevertheless, virtually every court to consider the question has concluded that a knowing, interstate or foreign transmission is an indispensable element of any Wire Act prosecution.
As a practical matter, the Justice Department appears to have resolved the question of whether the section applies only to cases involving gambling on sporting events compare IV. The vast majority of prosecutions involve sports gambling, but cases involving other forms of gambling under the Wire Act are not unknown. Construction of the Wire Act is complicated by the defense available under subsection b for the transmission of gambling information.
With regard to transmissions of information assisting in the placing of bets, the exemption is further narrowed by its requirement that the betting at issue be legal in both jurisdictions in which the transmission occurs.
See United States v. McDonough , F. An accomplice who aids and abets another in the commission of a federal crime may be treated as if he had committed the crime himself. There is some dispute over the application of the Wire Act to certain horse racing activities. Some contend that the Wire Act was amended sub silentio by an appropriations rider rewording a provision in the civil Interstate Horseracing Act.
The Interstate Horseracing Act is the product of the emergence of state licensed off-track betting parlors. Race tracks and those dependent upon their success objected that the tracks were losing customers who lived proximate to both an in state track and an off-track betting parlor in a neighboring state. More precisely, it prohibits acceptance of interstate off-track wagers except as it provides, 40 but permits such acceptance with the consent of various horse racing associations, state horse racing commissions, state off-track racing commissions, and horse racing track operators.
One track operator attempted unsuccessfully to invoke the Wire Act and federal racketeer influenced and corrupt organization RICO provisions to overcome this limitation. The First Circuit affirmed the lower court's rejection of the claim on the basis of the Wire Act exception found in 18 U. To recapitulate, we think it clear that Congress, in adopting section , did not intend to criminalize acts that neither the affected states nor Congress itself deemed criminal in nature. It follows that these acts, not indictable under section , cannot constitute a pattern of racketeering activity within RICO's definitional parameters.
The operator of an off-shore Internet gambling site subsequently seized upon this "Congress-did-not-intend-to-criminalize" language when challenging his conviction under the Wire Act. The Second Circuit in Cohen rejected the challenge with the observation that unlike Suffolk where the transmission of gambling-related information came within the safe harbor of section b , Cohen's case involved the online i.
The facts that gave rise to Suffolk and Cohen , however, occurred prior to the amendments to the Interstate Horseracing Act. The language in italics was added for the first time in conference with the simple accompanying explanation which in its entirety declares, "the conference agreement includes a new section , to clarify the Interstate Horseracing Act regarding certain pari-mutuel wagers.
Proponents claim the amendment permits tracks to accept online, out-of-state bets from states where pari-mutuel betting is legal although not necessarily where either off-track or online betting is legal ; 52 the Justice Department disagrees.
Section , which outlaws conducting an illegal gambling business, appears on its face to reach any illegal gambling business conducted using the Internet. Commentators seem to concur. The section bars only those activities that involve illegal gambling under applicable state law and that meet the statutory definition of such a business.
There is no such diversity of opinion on the question of whether section lies within the scope of Congress's legislative authority under the Commerce Clause. The Supreme Court's decision in United States v. In the case of section , Lopez challenges have been rejected with the observation that, unlike the statute in Lopez , section a involves the regulation of a commercial activity a gambling business , b comes with jurisdictional elements selected to reserve prosecution to those endeavors likely to substantially affect interstate commerce five participants in a substantial gambling undertaking , and c was preceded by Congressional findings evidencing the impact of substantial gambling operations upon interstate commerce.
The accomplice and conspiratorial provisions attend violations of section as they do violations of the Wire Act.
Although frequently difficult to distinguish in a given case, the difference is essentially a matter of depth of involvement.
As a general rule, a federal conspiracy exists when two or more individuals agree to commit a federal crime and one of them commits some overt act in furtherance of their common scheme. The partners in the criminal plan must agree to pursue the same criminal objective and may divide up the work, yet each is responsible for acts of each other. If the conspirators have a plan which calls for some conspirators to perpetrate the crime and others to provide support, the supporters are as guilty as the perpetrators.
The application of the Illegal Gambling Business Act to offshore gambling operations that take wagers from bettors in the United States involves two questions. First, does state law proscribing the gambling in question apply when some of the elements of the offense are committed outside its jurisdiction?
Second, did Congress intend the section to apply beyond the confines of the United States? Section can only apply overseas when based on an allegation that the gambling in question is illegal under a state law whose reach straddles jurisdictional lines. For example, a statute that prohibits recording bets bookmaking in Texas cannot be used against a gambling business which records bets only in Jamaica or Dominican Republic, even if the bets are called in from Texas.
Whether a federal criminal statute applies overseas is a matter of Congressional intent. In the absence of an explicit statement, the courts use various interpretive aids to divine Congressional intent. Unless some clearer indication appears, Congress is presumed to have intended its laws to apply only within the United States.
There is a countervailing presumption interwoven among these interpretive devices. Congress is presumed not to have intended any extraterritorial application that would be contrary to international law. Section does not say whether it applies overseas. Yet an offshore illegal gambling business whose customers where located in the United States seems within the section's domain because of the effect of the misconduct within the United States.
The operation of an illegal gambling business using the Internet may easily involve violations of the Travel Act, 90 as several writers have noted. The courts often abbreviate their statement of the elements: "The government must prove 1 interstate travel or use of an interstate facility; 2 with the intent to The Supreme Court determined some time ago that the Travel Act does not apply to the simple customers of an illegal gambling business, although interstate solicitation of those customers may certainly be covered.
When the act's jurisdictional element involves mail or facilities in interstate or foreign commerce, rather than interstate travel, evidence that a telephone was used, 97 or an ATM, 98 or the facilities of an interstate banking chain 99 will suffice. It is enough that he caused them to be used and that their employment was useful for his purposes.
Thus in the case of Internet gambling, the jurisdictional element of the Travel Act might be established at a minimum either by reference to the telecommunications component of the Internet, to shipments in interstate or foreign commerce in or from the United States associated with establishing operations on the Internet, to any interstate or foreign nexus to the payment of the debts resulting from the gambling, or to any interstate or foreign distribution of the proceeds of such gambling.
A criminal business enterprise, as understood in the Travel Act, "contemplates a continuous course of business—one that already exists at the time of the overt act or is intended thereafter. Evidence of an isolated criminal act, or even sporadic acts, will not suffice," and it must be shown to be involved in an unlawful activity outlawed by a specifically identified state or federal statute. Accomplice and co-conspirator liability, discussed earlier, apply with equal force to the Travel Act.
The act would only apply to "business enterprises" involved in illegal gaming, so that e-mail gambling between individuals would likely not be covered. And Rewis , supra, seems to bar prosecution of an Internet gambling enterprise's customers as long as they remain mere customers. More exactly, it prohibits those who engage in a gambling business from accepting payments related to unlawful Internet gambling.
UIGEA's proscription draws meaning from a host of definitions, exceptions, and exclusions—some stated, others implied. It does not define "person. It does not define the "business of betting or wagering," although it defines what it is not and defines the terms that provide the grist for such a business: bets or wagers. The business of betting or wagering does not encompass the normal business activities of financial or communications service providers, unless they are participants in an unlawful Internet gambling enterprise.
To come within the statute's reach, a business must involve "bets or wagers" and must accept payment relating "unlawful Internet gambling. More exactly, "[t]he term 'bet or wager'— A means the staking or risking by any person of something of value upon the outcome of a contest of others, a sporting event, or a game subject to chance, upon an agreement or understanding that the person or another person will receive something of value in the event of a certain outcome. Earlier in UIGEA's legislative history, the definition of "bet or wager" used the phrase "a game predominantly subject to chance" rather than simply "a game subject to chance.
The definition also explicitly covers lotteries and information relating to the financial aspects of gambling. To qualify for the intrastate exception, a bet must: 1 be made and received in the same state; 2 comply with applicable state law that authorizes the gambling and the method of transmission including any age and location verification and security requirements; and 3 be in accord with various federal gambling laws.
The intratribal exception is comparable, but a little different. Compliance with the various federal gambling laws remains a condition. There is nothing to shield UIGEA defendants from the same general accomplice and conspirator liability provisions that apply in the case of any other federal felony.
Those who aid or abet a violation, that is, those who knowingly embrace the criminal activity and assist in its commission with an eye to its success, are liable to the same extent as those who commit the offense directly.
Section 2 excludes the activities of financial institutions, as well as communications and Internet service providers, from the definition of "business of betting or wagering. As noted earlier, whether a federal law applies to conduct committed entirely outside the United States is ordinarily a matter of congressional intent. UIGEA contains no such statement. Its legislative history of the act, however, leaves little doubt that Congress was at least as concerned with offshore illegal Internet gambling businesses as with those operated entirely within the United States.
Offenders may also suffer civil constraints. UIGEA creates a limited federal civil cause of action to prevent and restrain violations of the act.
They may only proceed civilly against financial institutions to block transactions involving unlawful Internet gambling unless the institution is directly involved in an unlawful Internet gambling business.
Chapter 2. Transportation
Like many streets in the Thai capital, the thoroughfare is festooned with electrical and telecom cables, a black web that hangs menacingly overhead like dystopian Christmas decorations. But Bangkok authorities are now untangling the cables and moving them underground as part of an urban renewal pushed by the Thai junta that seized power in Frayed cables -- often live -- dangle at head-height onto Bangkok's streets, making safe navigation of the already treacherous pavements even harder. Other wires are left to bunch up near pylons, creeping hazardously across the narrow walkways of the city centre.
From: Transport Canada. The purpose of this publication is to provide standards for marking and lighting of objects that present a hazard to the safe operation of aircraft. Effective date. The requirements of this edition are effective 30 days after the date of publication. Standard , Obstruction Marking and Lighting, 1st Edition, dated 31 December is cancelled by this publication.
O. Reg. 213/91: CONSTRUCTION PROJECTS
General building contractors who combine a special trade with the contracting are included in this major group. Specialized activities that are covered here include grading for highways and airport runways; guardrail construction; installation of highway signs; trenching; underwater rock removal; and asphalt and concrete construction of roads, highways, streets and public sidewalks. Establishments primarily engaged in specialized activities that may be performed on buildings or on other heavy construction projects are classified in Major Group These include contractors primarily engaged in painting including bridge painting and traffic lane painting , electrical work including work on bridges, power lines, and power plants , and carpentry work. These activities include painting including bridge painting and traffic lane painting , electrical work including work on bridges, power lines, and power plants , carpentry work, plumbing, heating, air-conditioning, roofing, and sheet metal work. Special trade contractors primarily engaged in activities that are clearly of a type specialized to heavy construction, such as grading for highways and airport runways; guardrail construction; installation of highway signs; underwater rock removal; and asphalt and concrete construction of roads, highways, streets, and public sidewalks are classified in Major Group Special trade contractors may work on subcontract from the general contractor, performing only part of the work covered by the general contract, or they may work directly for the owner. Special trade contractors for the most part perform their work at the site of construction, although they also may have shops where they perform work incidental to the job site. This classification makes no distinction between the two types of organization which operates in the textile industry: 1 the integrated mill which purchases materials, produces textiles and related articles within the establishment, and sells the finished products; and 2 the contract of commission mill which processes materials owned by others.
Knot a problem: Thai capital tackles street cables
University of Michigan Computing Center. The indispensable breakout box ATT promises to sell 1A key systems. Homemade micro software Industry gears up for sales. A Brazilian acronym that spells.
Veterans of the high-definition TV wars of the s, the authors, social scientists as well as technologists, came to see themselves as "chroniclers and students of an intriguing and serious techno-economic conflict. In a broad account accessible to generalist and specialist alike, they address the current national debate about the development of a national information infrastructure, locating the debate in a broad historical narrative that illuminates how we got here and where we may be going, and outlining a bold vision of an open communications infrastructure that will cut through the political gridlock that threatens this "information highway. They detail what is wrong with the political process of the national information infrastructure policy-making and assess how different media systems telecommunications, radio, television broadcasting, were originally established, spelling out the technological assumptions and organizational interests on which they were based and showing why the old policy models are now breaking down. The new digital networks are not analogous to railways and highways or their electronic forebears in telephony and broadcasting; they are inherently unfriendly to centralized control of any sort, so the old traditions of common carriage and public trustee regulation and regulatory gamesmanship no longer apply.
O. Reg. 213/91: CONSTRUCTION PROJECTS
The market, which has been poised for growth for years, is now red-hot. A UCC solution is woven together from many different components—and that means many different ways to make money. For another, it might be installing room-based videoconferencing. There are many ways to tap into a huge market, rich with opportunities for delivering business value to customers and earning better margins.
The traditions of wedding dresses, desserts, music and flowers are still the cornerstones of a great wedding, but now they're being brought to life in a million different shades of amazing. This year, for the first time ever, in addition to The Knot Real Weddings Study, The Knot also conducted a survey with Generation Z 1 ages to understand how they view and plan for their future weddings. New traditions will pave the way as the younger generation continues to twist existing ones , merge cultural customs , or create new ones altogether for their future weddings. These timeless, heartfelt celebrations of love and commitment are here to stay for generations to come. Couples are rethinking conventional traditions and putting their own creative spins on long-standing wedding moments, like unity ceremonies and first dances," said Kristen Maxwell Cooper , editor in chief of The Knot.
Internet Gambling: An Overview of Federal Criminal Law
Wireless communication involves the transmission of information over a distance without the help of wires, cables or any other forms of electrical conductors. Wireless communication is a broad term that incorporates all procedures and forms of connecting and communicating between two or more devices using a wireless signal through wireless communication technologies and devices. The transmitted distance can be anywhere between a few meters for example, a television's remote control and thousands of kilometers for example, radio communication. Wireless communication can be used for cellular telephony, wireless access to the internet, wireless home networking, and so on. Other examples of applications of radio wireless technology include GPS units, garage door openers, wireless computer mice, keyboards and headsets, headphones, radio receivers, satellite television, broadcast television and cordless telephones. Wireless communication involves transfer of information without any physical connection between two or more points.
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Commercial fishing , the taking of fish and other seafood and resources from oceans, rivers, and lakes for the purpose of marketing them. In the early 21st century about million people were directly employed by the commercial fishing industry, and an estimated one billion people depended on fish as their primary source of animal protein. Fishing is one of the oldest employments of humankind.
Wireless Communication - Overview
November 29, — January 24, This is a summary of the federal criminal statutes implicated by conducting illegal gambling using the Internet. Gambling is primarily a matter of state law, reinforced by federal law in instances where the presence of an interstate or foreign element might otherwise frustrate the enforcement policies of state law. State officials and others have expressed concern that the Internet may be used to bring illegal gambling into their jurisdictions.
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Обожаю рассказывать. Вилли - вот был тип. холостяк, снаружи что твой гвоздь, а под коркой мягкий, как глина. В молодости он влюбился в королеву красоты средней школы Де-Куина и больше не заводил подружки. ну, в общем, мама попросила меня сказать несколько слов об отце над его могилой, я согласился.
написал их, выучил и даже проговорил перед Клайдом. Когда начались похороны, я все помнил.
Здесь молодежь учат следить за собственным здоровьем, в том числе определять величину запаса пищи, содержащегося в приемном буфере. Когда Синий Доктор пояснил мне, что измерения входят в программу начального обучения молодежи, я спросила о причинах неправильности цветовой речи детей. Синий Доктор ответил, что эти октопауки очень малы и не миновали "первого цвета", а потому едва способны четко выражать мысли.