Plant commercial lavatory items
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The problem of developing a good sausage plant layout is relatively complex, however small the plant may be.
First of all, it would be inadvisable, and even impossible, to adapt a uniform approach in all countries or regions because of the geophysical, economical and social differences and variations in livestock, the meat trade, customs and food habits etc. It is always indispensable to make a careful survey of the existing livestock and meat supply conditions before any sausage plant construction or remodelling is proposed.
The attitude and outlook of livestock and the meat trade, especially in the less developed regions, must be seriously taken into account. A hindrance to progress may be the bad habits and unhygienic meat handling practices in the local slaughterhouse which intends providing the meats for the sausage plant. The food habits and flavour preferences of the local meat consuming public should also be investigated.
In this chapter technical details are given as well as a description of the underlying principles for sausage plants which may assist those planning new plants or remodelling old ones in consultation with architects to select the most suitable solution for local conditions. Simplicity of design and costs are of particular importance for small sausage plants. These suggestions have been outlined merely as a guide and they may require modification to suit particular conditions.
Because of variations in requirements, a standard blueprint cannot be produced. Only occasionally the standard type sausage plant would be directly applicable to a particular situation.
In the majority of cases the design must be considerably modified to meet the local peculiarities of the site selected for the plant, its environment, local handling and transport practices and human and material resources. The local health and veterinary authorities, where they exist, must be consulted before a final decision is taken. Whenever the construction of a new sausage plant or the remodelling of an old one is envisaged, a plan to overcome possible defects is recommended.
It is of paramount importance to draw up a plan giving the greatest efficiency to the entire sausage plant. It is essential to follow a system in planning and designing even if the plant will initially have a small throughput. The remodelling of an old and obsolete plant often requires more compromises than does the design of a new layout. Economic and marketing considerations are vitally important in determining the most suitable location for a sausage manufacturing plant.
The first and the most important consideration is the meat supply, followed by the distribution of sausage products to consumers. The discrepancies between the retail price paid to farmers for live animals and the price for locally sold sausages, which should be determined on the basis of commercial research, are essential factors for choosing a specific geographical area to locate a sausage plant.
Rather than build a sausage plant large enough to deal with the periodic sausage marketing peaks, it is considered advisable to base the size on average daily requirements and to extend hours of processing during peak periods. The site of a sausage plant within a distinct area should be selected on the basis of certain factors. Where legislative measures do not exist, there are certain considerations which must be observed. The sausage plant should be located in an area free from objectionable odours, smoke, dust etc.
No communication by doors or windows is permissible. Attention should be given to an adequate potable water supply, arrangement for drainage and adequate electric power sources. In planning a sausage plant, consideration must be given to a location or an arrangement of buildings that will permit future expansion.
The traditional location of a sausage plant close to the slaughterhouse is still advantageous since the problems of professional workers and fresh meat and by-product supply are markedly simplified.
However, if the sausage plant is well managed, it will do its share of business regardless of whether it is located near to or far from a slaughterhouse. Although it is not customary to have a small sausage factory as an integral part of a small slaughterhouse, occasionally such a situation does occur, either in a private or cooperative form.
In general, the space of a sausage plant must be compact and designed for economical throughput in relation to the capital and operating costs. The whole structure must suit local climatic conditions. Brick, stone, reinforced concrete, and prefabricated steel structures are the most widely used building materials. Although in the tropics it may be cheap and often immune to parasites, wood is not a satisfactory material for use in a sausage plant. A non-slip, hard, smooth and impervious floor, that will not absorb moisture and can be readily cleaned, is indispensable.
It should be of the best lasting quality. Sharp corners, joining the walls and floor should be avoided. The surfaces of interior walls must be impervious and smooth and made of non-absorbent materials. Walls should be covered and coated with lead-free paint or tiled at least to a height of 1. Ceiling surfaces of rooms, where wet operations are conducted, should be smooth and flat and of sufficient height.
Natural ventilation is always preferred but very often artificial ventilation is the only solution. The slop usually of 1. All effluent drainage lines must have a sufficient inside diameter of at least 10 cm with the fat traps incorporated in the drainage system. Drainage lines from toilets and urinals should be constructed as a separate system.
A well-designed sausage plant cannot be attained through buildings alone. Sanitation is also essential in a well-run sausage producing plant. The hygienic maintenance of equipment and the plant as a whole is a cardinal factor for production efficiency and keeping quality of finished products.
Tile walls, hard-surfaced brick or concrete floors, carefully sloped to drains, stainless steel table tops, galvanized metal trucks, barrels and pans are an integral part of a good sanitation programme. Briefly, strict sanitary methods and conditions must be employed through the entire process.
Provisions should be made for elimination or removal of any vapour which would cause condensatipon on walls and ceilings. A sausage producing plant must be provided with suitable facilities for collection and disposal of bones, ligaments and other offals, and for such wastes as paper etc. Waste containers for bones, inedible fats etc. Lavatories and other washing and shower facilities should be provided for workers of both sexes, supplied with hot and cold water and maintained in a clean condition.
Consideration should be given to the incorporation of a small laundry in the sausage plant and also to the provision of changing rooms and eating rooms for employees. Cabinets must be provided for efficient cleaning and sterilization of trucks and other movable equipment. Equipment is placed in the cabinets and then sprayed with cleansing solutions, and finally rinsed with clean hot water.
Stationary equipment, such as cutters etc. Every possible precaution should be taken to keep the plant free of flies, rats and mice. Screens for outer openings that do not admit entry of files are often useful. Adequate arrangements should exist for effluent disposal.
The governing principle in daily routine cleaning in any sausage plant is the scrupulous cleaning of all contaminated places and surfaces. Brushing and flushing with water under pressure should be the most used method of cleaning.
The cutting and trimming section requires exceptionally careful attention. Steam or hot water is required to remove grease adhering to the surfaces of tables and machines. Detergents contribute considerably in cleaning because they emulsify fat and dissolve proteins. It is of primary importance that disinfection of the sausage plant is done in connection with general and thorough cleaning.
The regular repair of walls, floors and equipment is also an important part of plant sanitation. Fly control is a basic sanitary step for any sausage manufacturing plant located in a warm climatic region. Although the main objective of fly control is the elimination of conditions encouraging fly development, fly proofing of the sausage plant is strongly recommended. Ants, mosquitoes and other insects, as well as birds, may also be a problem in the tropics against which the sausage plant should adequately protected.
While sausage plant layouts vary widely according to the diversity and volume of products, certain well-defined principles are always respected in present-day plants.
Anywhere where space permits, product movement should follow a straight line pattern, from the receipt of raw material and its storage through trimming, mincing, emulsifying, filling, smoking and cooking operations to the packaging, storage and distribution of the finished product. The main technological and hygienic principles in developing sausage plant layout are the maximum speed in handling raw materials aand products and the shortest time intervals between operations resulting in the shortest possible distances consistent with the size and type of the plant.
There are some common requirements determining the layout of a sausage plant. Doubtlessly, the basic requirement is that the raw materials should enter at one end of the building and the sausage products, either chilled or unchilled, leave at the opposite end.
The arrangement should be that the meat and products move in one direction without any risk of contamination. The operators are placed along the tables and machines and they move the raw materials and sausages in the necessary direction. Normally, a sausage plant begins with a receiving and chilling section. When the meats reach the plant by truck, provision has to be made for an offloading ramp. There should be a direct and unobstructed entrance from the receiving area to the chillroom and main processing room.
The operation of receipt, weighing and storage of meats should be carried out in a refrigerated room adjacent to the main workroom.
Where output permits, nonmeat raw materials casings, spices, packaging materials etc. Effort should be made to provide refrigeration in the cutting and trimming room. The deboning and trimming operations should be performed on special tables in a clean and controlled atmosphere. The deboning of hot carcasses should have priority. All grinding, chopping, stuffing, linking and other processing operations have to be organized in a separate room.
The type and extent of equipment required for comminuting meat and stuffing sausages depend upon the variety and volume of the operations. For operations of any magnitude, equipment such as an ice crusher or ice generator, knife grinder, frozen meat slicer etc. The meat, after being trimmed, graded, chopped and mixed with nonmeat ingredients, is conveyed from the cutter to the stuffer for filling into casings and then the sausages, hung on smoke rods, are carried from the meat chopping and mixing area to the smoking and cooking facilities.
Any sausage manufacturing line terminates in the smokehouse and cooker, where the necessary trucks, cages and other accessories are available.
The size of the smokehouse and boiler will depend upon the factory throughput. Adequate provisions should be made even in the smallest plant for weighing, grading, storing and distribution of final products. Chopping and mixing area : 3 - mixer, 4 - grinder and cutter, 5 - vacuum mixer, 6 - steam sterilizer, 7 - colloid mill, 8 - washing vat.
In such a way, a sausage plant is composed of the following areas or section: a receiving and chilling, b cutting and trimming, c nonmeat ingredients, d meat chopping and mixing, e smoking and cooking and f wrapping and dispatch sections. Layouts of these sections can be combined in varying ways depending on the size and shape of space available, amount and structure of production, the methods selected etc. A proper integration of section layouts is required if maximum efficiency, smooth flow of operations, reduced labour and managerial control are to be achieved.
A good layout always shows a certain degree of adaptability to products other than those shown in the planned programme. The environment in a sausage plant varies from normal room temperature and normal relative humidity, through hot and highly humid air around the smokehouse and cookers, to cold saturated air in chillers.
The sausage manufacturers who intend to make a new or remodel an existing sausage plant should contact the Government Meat Inspection Service and furnish drawings of the plant layout and other information required.
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A Malaysian man, and Halliburton employee, is facing charges of video voyeurism after he allegedly planted a hidden camera in an airplane bathroom earlier this year. The criminal complaint, filed in the Southern District of Texas earlier this week, outlines the lengths FBI investigators went to track down Lee after a fellow passenger on that flight stumbled across the camera. A woman flying in first class on the flight went to use the bathroom and "noticed an item with a blue blinking light" that was "located near the cabinet and wall area close to a door hinge," according to the criminal complaint. The woman picked up the item with a paper towel and gave it to the flight crew after leaving the bathroom. Once the flight landed at George Bush Intercontinental Airport, the item was handed over to United Airlines Corporate Security, which confirmed it was a video camera, according to the court documents. According to the complaint, security viewed footage on the camera and saw the man who installed it on the plane was wearing a watch on his left wrist and small bracelet on his right, as well as a blue short-sleeve shirt and blue jeans. They could not, however, see the man's face. FBI San Diego and the Houston Police Department viewed surveillance footage from the respective airports and managed to locate the man in question and matched his outfit to Lee, who was sitting in first class on United Airlines flight
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The problem of developing a good sausage plant layout is relatively complex, however small the plant may be. First of all, it would be inadvisable, and even impossible, to adapt a uniform approach in all countries or regions because of the geophysical, economical and social differences and variations in livestock, the meat trade, customs and food habits etc. It is always indispensable to make a careful survey of the existing livestock and meat supply conditions before any sausage plant construction or remodelling is proposed.
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