Production cotton wool and cotton products
Cotton, a valuable raw material and a mainstay of the textile industry, has been around for centuries and remains one of the most crucial resources to this day. Cotton has been used by humans as far back as the most ancient civilisations but for Europeans, it was not until the age of exploration and maritime trade that the material became highly sought after. Back in BC the ancient civilisations of South America were cultivating cotton. In Mexico, archaeological digs have uncovered fragments dating back centuries, showing the common use of fabrics with cotton accessible from the coastline where conditions were most humid.VIDEO ON THE TOPIC: Exploring Australian approaches to producing cotton, timber and wool
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Cotton is a soft, fluffy staple fiber that grows in a boll , or protective case, around the seeds of the cotton plants of the genus Gossypium in the mallow family Malvaceae. The fiber is almost pure cellulose. Under natural conditions, the cotton bolls will increase the dispersal of the seeds. The plant is a shrub native to tropical and subtropical regions around the world, including the Americas, Africa, Egypt and India.
The greatest diversity of wild cotton species is found in Mexico, followed by Australia and Africa. The fiber is most often spun into yarn or thread and used to make a soft, breathable textile. The use of cotton for fabric is known to date to prehistoric times; fragments of cotton fabric dated to the fifth millennium BCE have been found in the Indus Valley Civilization , as well as fabric remnants dated back to BCE in Peru.
Although cultivated since antiquity, it was the invention of the cotton gin that lowered the cost of production that led to its widespread use, and it is the most widely used natural fiber cloth in clothing today. Current estimates for world production are about 25 million tonnes or million bales annually, accounting for 2. India is the world's largest producer of cotton. The United States has been the largest exporter for many years.
The two New World cotton species account for the vast majority of modern cotton production, but the two Old World species were widely used before the s. While cotton fibers occur naturally in colors of white, brown, pink and green, fears of contaminating the genetics of white cotton have led many cotton-growing locations to ban the growing of colored cotton varieties.
This was the usual word for cotton in medieval Arabic. Cotton fabric was known to the ancient Romans as an import but cotton was rare in the Romance-speaking lands until imports from the Arabic-speaking lands in the later medieval era at transformatively lower prices. The earliest evidence of the use of cotton in the Old world , dated to BCE and preserved in copper beads, has been found at the Neolithic site of Mehrgarh , at the foot of the Bolan Pass in Balochistan , Pakistan.
In Peru , cultivation of the indigenous cotton species Gossypium barbadense has been dated, from a find in Ancon, to c. Cotton was grown upriver, made into nets, and traded with fishing villages along the coast for large supplies of fish.
The Spanish who came to Mexico and Peru in the early 16th century found the people growing cotton and wearing clothing made of it. The Greeks and the Arabs were not familiar with cotton until the Wars of Alexander the Great , as his contemporary Megasthenes told Seleucus I Nicator of "there being trees on which wool grows" in "Indica". According to the Columbia Encyclopedia : .
Cotton has been spun, woven, and dyed since prehistoric times. It clothed the people of ancient India, Egypt, and China. Hundreds of years before the Christian era, cotton textiles were woven in India with matchless skill, and their use spread to the Mediterranean countries.
In Iran Persia , the history of cotton dates back to the Achaemenid era 5th century BC ; however, there are few sources about the planting of cotton in pre-Islamic Iran. The planting of cotton was common in Merv , Ray and Pars of Iran. In Persian poets ' poems, especially Ferdowsi 's Shahname , there are references to cotton "panbe" in Persian. Marco Polo 13th century refers to the major products of Persia, including cotton. John Chardin , a French traveler of the 17th century who visited Safavid Persia , spoke approvingly of the vast cotton farms of Persia.
Egyptians grew and spun cotton in the first seven centuries of the Christian era. Handheld roller cotton gins had been used in India since the 6th century, and was then introduced to other countries from there. The Indian version of the dual-roller gin was prevalent throughout the Mediterranean cotton trade by the 16th century. This mechanical device was, in some areas, driven by water power.
The earliest clear illustrations of the spinning wheel come from the Islamic world in the eleventh century. During the late medieval period, cotton became known as an imported fiber in northern Europe, without any knowledge of how it was derived, other than that it was a plant. Because Herodotus had written in his Histories , Book III, , that in India trees grew in the wild producing wool, it was assumed that the plant was a tree, rather than a shrub.
This aspect is retained in the name for cotton in several Germanic languages, such as German Baumwolle , which translates as "tree wool" Baum means "tree"; Wolle means "wool".
Noting its similarities to wool, people in the region could only imagine that cotton must be produced by plant-borne sheep. John Mandeville , writing in , stated as fact that "There grew there [India] a wonderful tree which bore tiny lambs on the endes of its branches. These branches were so pliable that they bent down to allow the lambs to feed when they are hungry.
Cotton manufacture was introduced to Europe during the Muslim conquest of the Iberian Peninsula and Sicily. The knowledge of cotton weaving was spread to northern Italy in the 12th century, when Sicily was conquered by the Normans , and consequently to the rest of Europe. The spinning wheel , introduced to Europe circa , improved the speed of cotton spinning. Under the Mughal Empire , which ruled in the Indian subcontinent from the early 16th century to the early 18th century, Indian cotton production increased, in terms of both raw cotton and cotton textiles.
The Mughals introduced agrarian reforms such as a new revenue system that was biased in favour of higher value cash crops such as cotton and indigo , providing state incentives to grow cash crops, in addition to rising market demand. The largest manufacturing industry in the Mughal Empire was cotton textile manufacturing , which included the production of piece goods , calicos , and muslins , available unbleached and in a variety of colours.
The cotton textile industry was responsible for a large part of the empire's international trade. The worm gear roller cotton gin , which was invented in India during the early Delhi Sultanate era of the 13th—14th centuries, came into use in the Mughal Empire some time around the 16th century,  and is still used in India through to the present day. The diffusion of the spinning wheel, and the incorporation of the worm gear and crank handle into the roller cotton gin, led to greatly expanded Indian cotton textile production during the Mughal era.
It was reported that, with an Indian cotton gin, which is half machine and half tool, one man and one woman could clean 28 pounds of cotton per day. With a modified Forbes version, one man and a boy could produce pounds per day. If oxen were used to power 16 of these machines, and a few people's labour was used to feed them, they could produce as much work as people did formerly.
In the early 19th century, a Frenchman named M. Jumel proposed to the great ruler of Egypt , Mohamed Ali Pasha , that he could earn a substantial income by growing an extra-long staple Maho Gossypium barbadense cotton, in Lower Egypt , for the French market.
Mohamed Ali Pasha accepted the proposition and granted himself the monopoly on the sale and export of cotton in Egypt; and later dictated cotton should be grown in preference to other crops. Egypt under Muhammad Ali in the early 19th century had the fifth most productive cotton industry in the world, in terms of the number of spindles per capita. Exports continued to grow even after the reintroduction of US cotton, produced now by a paid workforce, and Egyptian exports reached 1.
Initially imported as a novelty side line, from its spice trading posts in Asia, the cheap colourful cloth proved popular and overtook the EIC's spice trade by value in the late 17th century. The EIC embraced the demand, particularly for calico , by expanding its factories in Asia and producing and importing cloth in bulk, creating competition for domestic woollen and linen textile producers.
The impacted weavers, spinners, dyers, shepherds and farmers objected and the calico question became one of the major issues of National politics between the s and the s.
Parliament began to see a decline in domestic textile sales, and an increase in imported textiles from places like China and India. Seeing the East India Company and their textile importation as a threat to domestic textile businesses, Parliament passed the Calico Act, blocking the importation of cotton cloth. As there was no punishment for continuing to sell cotton cloth, smuggling of the popular material became commonplace. In , dissatisfied with the results of the first act, Parliament passed a stricter addition, this time prohibiting the sale of most cottons, imported and domestic exempting only thread Fustian and raw cotton.
The exemption of raw cotton from the prohibition initially saw 2 thousand bales of cotton imported annually, to become the basis of a new indigenous industry, initially producing Fustian for the domestic market, though more importantly triggering the development of a series of mechanised spinning and weaving technologies, to process the material. This mechanised production was concentrated in new cotton mills , which slowly expanded till by the beginning of the s seven thousand bales of cotton were imported annually, and pressure was put on Parliament, by the new mill owners, to remove the prohibition on the production and sale of pure cotton cloth, as they could easily compete with anything the EIC could import.
The acts were repealed in , triggering a wave of investment in mill based cotton spinning and production, doubling the demand for raw cotton within a couple of years, and doubling it again every decade, into the s .
Indian cotton textiles, particularly those from Bengal , continued to maintain a competitive advantage up until the 19th century. In order to compete with India, Britain invested in labour-saving technical progress, while implementing protectionist policies such as bans and tariffs to restrict Indian imports. India's cotton-processing sector changed during EIC expansion in India in the late 18th and early 19th centuries.
From focusing on supplying the British market to supplying East Asia with raw cotton. As the Artisan produced textiles were no longer competitive with those produced Industrially, and Europe preferring the cheaper slave produced, long staple American, and Egyptian cottons, for its own materials.
The advent of the Industrial Revolution in Britain provided a great boost to cotton manufacture, as textiles emerged as Britain's leading export. In , Lewis Paul and John Wyatt , of Birmingham , England, patented the roller spinning machine, as well as the flyer-and-bobbin system for drawing cotton to a more even thickness using two sets of rollers that traveled at different speeds.
Later, the invention of the James Hargreaves ' spinning jenny in , Richard Arkwright 's spinning frame in and Samuel Crompton 's spinning mule in enabled British spinners to produce cotton yarn at much higher rates. From the late 18th century on, the British city of Manchester acquired the nickname " Cottonopolis " due to the cotton industry's omnipresence within the city, and Manchester's role as the heart of the global cotton trade.
Production capacity in Britain and the United States was improved by the invention of the modern cotton gin by the American Eli Whitney in Before the development of cotton gins, the cotton fibers had to be pulled from the seeds tediously by hand. By the late s, a number of crude ginning machines had been developed. However, to produce a bale of cotton required over hours of human labor,  making large-scale production uneconomical in the United States, even with the use of humans as slave labor.
The gin that Whitney manufactured the Holmes design reduced the hours down to just a dozen or so per bale. Although Whitney patented his own design for a cotton gin, he manufactured a prior design from Henry Odgen Holmes , for which Holmes filed a patent in By the s, India was no longer capable of supplying the vast quantities of cotton fibers needed by mechanized British factories, while shipping bulky, low-price cotton from India to Britain was time-consuming and expensive.
This, coupled with the emergence of American cotton as a superior type due to the longer, stronger fibers of the two domesticated Native American species, Gossypium hirsutum and Gossypium barbadense , encouraged British traders to purchase cotton from plantations in the United States and plantations in the Caribbean.
By the midth century, " King Cotton " had become the backbone of the southern American economy. In the United States, cultivating and harvesting cotton became the leading occupation of slaves. During the American Civil War , American cotton exports slumped due to a Union blockade on Southern ports , and also because of a strategic decision by the Confederate government to cut exports, hoping to force Britain to recognize the Confederacy or enter the war. This prompted the main purchasers of cotton, Britain and France , to turn to Egyptian cotton.
British and French traders invested heavily in cotton plantations. The Egyptian government of Viceroy Isma'il took out substantial loans from European bankers and stock exchanges. After the American Civil War ended in , British and French traders abandoned Egyptian cotton and returned to cheap American exports, [ citation needed ] sending Egypt into a deficit spiral that led to the country declaring bankruptcy in , a key factor behind Egypt's occupation by the British Empire in During this time, cotton cultivation in the British Empire , especially Australia and India, greatly increased to replace the lost production of the American South.
Through tariffs and other restrictions, the British government discouraged the production of cotton cloth in India; rather, the raw fiber was sent to England for processing.
The Indian Mahatma Gandhi described the process:. In the United States, Southern cotton provided capital for the continuing development of the North. The cotton was largely produced through the labor of enslaved African Americans. It enriched both the Southern landowners and the Northern merchants.
Much of the Southern cotton was trans-shipped through northern ports. In this era the slogan " Cotton is king " characterized the attitude of the South toward this monocrop.
Production of Cotton/Wool Fabrics
Cotton is the single most important textile fiber in the world, accounting for about 35 percent of all fibers produced. The United States remains a major producer of cotton for the international market, ranking third behind China and India. The United States also remains the leading cotton exporter in the world. Cotton is produced in 17 states.
Tiras Cotton is a company specialized in manufacturing cotton sliver for the production of cotton buds. Due to its long experience Tiras is recognized as being a leading company in this field. Tiras's flexibility allows to satisfy any specific requirement for the production of cotton swabs, cotton balls and baby buds also in different color. To avoid goods being damaged all goods are carefully packed in polypropylene bags and in carton boxes.
Environmental and Ethical Issues In The Production Of Natural Fabrics and Fibres
Cotton Club is the leading manufacturer of cotton products and hygiene products with own production facilities in the Russian Federation. One of the key advantages of Cotton Club is a vertically integrated production that makes it possible to fully control the manufacturing process of both semi-finished products sliver, sticks, lotions, non-woven fabric and finished products. Cotton Club produces cotton wool from raw cotton. Equipment for the production of cotton tape by Marzoli Italy is used in the production of own sliver. In order to create a complete cycle of production of cotton swabs, the production of plastic sticks equipment by Bellaform, Germany and glasses thermoplastic automatic machine by TOYO, Japan. Polyethylene bags for cotton pads and buds are made on the leading European equipment Hetler, Lemo. The unique technology used in the company makes it possible to produce 2 types of cloth: MD:CD MD-material direction to CD-cross direction - the material stretches uniformly in all directions. Wet wipes are available in various packaging formats: pocket, big, flip-top, duo-pack, trio-pack. Thanks to three of its own machines, Cotton Club has the ability to produce three types of diapers: anatomical shape I shape , classical T shape , disposable panties. The production of all layers of the diaper: top sheet, back sheet, ADL, medium absorbent layer, as well as non-woven material for the ears and cuffs, also takes place at its own capacities.
Advantages of medical cotton wool produced by Campus Cotton Club
Register Now. Cotton is a seed fiber, meaning the fiber grows from seeds. It is perhaps the most important of all fibers. Cotton is the most important natural textile fiber, as well as cellulosic textile fiber, in the world, used to produce apparel, home furnishings, and industrial products. Cotton fibers are seed hairs from plants of the order Malvales, family Malvaceae, tribe Gossypieae, and genus Gossypium.
All the batches of bleached cotton fiber, which are delivered for processing on production facilities in Kherson, have positive conclusions from the State Sanitary and Epidemiological Service of Ukraine. At our production in Kherson there is a production-technological laboratory that is certified in the State Enterprise Kherson Standard Metrology. We carry out a very strict control of the quality of raw materials, stuff and finished products. We produce cotton wool from bleached cotton fiber, which was not subjected to any mechanical processing.
What is Cotton
Many of us tend to believe that natural fibres, being products of nature, are naturally better than their synthetic counterparts. However, this isn't always the case. The production of most natural fibres such as cotton, wool and silk have their fair share of environmental and ethical issues too - it's just that 'natural' is often associated with 'good'. Although the impact on the environment, workers and animals or plants involved in the production varies for each fibre, the impacts nevertheless exist.
Cotton fabric is one of the most commonly used types of fabrics in the world. This textile is chemically organic, which means that it does not contain any synthetic compounds. Cotton fabric is derived from the fibers surrounding the seeds of cotton plants, which emerge in a round, fluffy formation once the seeds are mature. The earliest evidence for the use of cotton fibers in textiles is from the Mehrgarh and Rakhigarhi sites in India, which date to approximately BC. The Indus Valley Civilization, which spanned the Indian Subcontinent from to BC, was able to flourish due to cotton cultivation, which provided the people of this culture with readily available sources of clothing and other textiles.
The Cotton Industry
Consumption is measured by the amount of raw cotton fibre purchased and used to manufacture textile materials. Worldwide cotton production is annually about 80 to 90 million bales The rest is produced by about 75 other countries. Raw cotton is exported from about 57 countries and cotton textiles from about 65 countries. Many countries emphasize domestic production to reduce their reliance on imports. Yarn manufacturing is a sequence of processes that convert raw cotton fibres into yarn suitable for use in various end-products. A number of processes are required to obtain the clean, strong, uniform yarns required in modern textile markets.
Cotton is a shrubby plant that is a member of the Mallow family. Its name refers to the cream-colored fluffy fibers surrounding small cottonseeds called a boll. The small, sticky seeds must be separated from the wool in order to process the cotton for spinning and weaving. De-seeded cotton is cleaned, carded fibers aligned , spun, and woven into a fabric that is also referred to as cotton. Cotton is easily spun into yarn as the cotton fibers flatten, twist, and naturally interlock for spinning.
The amount of water needed to produce one kilogram of cotton; equivalent to a single t-shirt and pair of jeans. Cotton is the most widespread profitable non-food crop in the world. Approximately half of all textiles are made of cotton. Bringing cotton production in line with even minimally acceptable environmental standards is a challenging task.
ERS research in this topic area focuses on the economic, social, spatial, temporal, and demographic factors that affect the poverty status of rural residents. ERS conducts research on USDA's child nutrition programs and their role in children's food security, diets, and well-being. The data include historical U. ERS compares the prices paid by consumers for food with the prices received by farmers for their corresponding commodities.
The origins of cotton production and use go back to ancient times. The first evidence of cotton use was found in India and Pakistan, and dates from about 6, B. Scientists believe that cotton was first cultivated in the Indus delta. The species used in ancient South Asia were Gossypium herbaceum and Gossypium arboretum which originated in India and Africa.
Cotton has been grown for food, fiber, and even fuel for over 6, years. You can find cotton in your clothes, sheets, and towels, but cotton is also used to make things like rope, U. The benefits and versatility of cotton are numerous. Cotton goes beyond just your favorite summer dress, and can help bring more ease, comfort, and simplicity to your life, so you can focus on being your best self. Cotton is a natural fiber, grown from the earth and spun into a soft yarn. Cotton farming has made, and continues to make, huge strides toward sustainability and environmental responsibility.
Cotton is the most widely produced natural fiber on the planet. Other natural fibers include silk, made from the cocoons of silkworms; wool, made from the fur of sheep or alpacas; and linen, made from fibers in the stems of flax plants. Cotton fibers come from cotton plants.