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Production manufactory fruit wines

Production manufactory fruit wines

Days at the factories; or, The manufacturing industry of Great Britain described , 1. George Dodd. Sayfa A Day at a Brewery. A Day at a Distillery. A Day at a SugarRefinery.

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Winemaking

NCBI Bookshelf. Fermentation is biotechnology in which desirable microorganisms are used in the production of value-added products of commercial importance. Fermentation occurs in nature in any sugar-containing mash from fruit, berries, honey, or sap tapped from palms. If left exposed in a warm atmosphere, airborne yeasts act on the sugar to convert it into alcohol and carbon dioxide.

The making of wines and beers uses this biotechnology under controlled conditions. Alcoholic beverages have been produced for centuries in various societies. They are often central to the most valued personal and social ceremonies of both modern and less literate societies. In such traditional ceremonies as childnaming, marriage feasts, and funerals, alcoholic beverages are often present.

In Africa, maize, millet, bananas, honey, palm and bamboo saps, and many fruits are used to ferment nutrient beers and wines. The best known being kaffir beer and palm wines. Industrial fermentation processes are conducted with selected microorganisms under specified conditions with carefully adjusted nutrient concentrations. The products of fermentation are many: alcohol, glycerol, and carbon dioxide are obtained from yeast fermentation of various sugars.

Butyl alcohol, acetone, lactic acid, monosodium glutamate, and acetic acid are products of bacteria action; citric acid, gluconic acid, antibiotics, vitamin B 12 , and riboflavin are some of the products obtained from mold fermentation. Yeasts, the main microorganisms involved in alcoholic fermentation, are found throughout the world.

More than 8, strains of this vegetative microorganism have been classified. About 9 to 10 pure strains, with their subclassifications, are used for the fermentation of grain mashes. These belong to the type Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Each strain has its own characteristics and imparts its special properties to a distillate when used in fermentation. A limited number of yeasts in the classification Saccharomyces ellipsoides are used in the fermentation of wines from which brandy is distilled.

The strains used in the fermentation of grain mashes are also used in the fermentation of rum from sugarcane extracts and in beer production. Since yeasts function best in slightly acid medium, the mash, juice, sap, or extract prepared for fermentation must be checked for adequate acidity. If acidity is insufficient, acid or acid-bearing material are added.

The alcohol content of the fermented must is about 7 to 9 percent. For most distilled liquors, the raw material used is a natural sugar as found in honey, ripe fruit, sugarcane juice, palm sap, beet root, milk, or a substance of amylaceous starchy nature that can be easily converted into simple sugars using enzymes present in cereals or through the addition of suitable malted cereal.

Maize or corn is the most important grain used as fermentable starchy cereal. Starchy roots and tubers are also used. Industrial production of alcohol from cassava in Brazil has been described by De Menezee 1. The alcohol produced is concentrated in a second distillation column to Malt is important in distilled liquor. In addition to converting starches from other carbohydrates to sugars, malt contains soluble proteins that contribute flavor to the distillate obtained from the fermentation of grain malt mixtures.

Grown throughout the tropics and semitropics, sugarcane and its products, including cane juices, molasses, and sugar are used to make rum and an alcohol derived from rum. Pressed juice from sugarcane can be used as the base raw material for fermentation, or the juice can be concentrated for sugar production with the molasses residue from sugar crystallization used as a base for alcohol fermentation. Molasses contains about 35 percent sucrose and 15 percent reducing sugars.

This gives molasses its principal value as an industrial raw material for fermentation to produce rum. Two or 3 liters of molasses produces 1 liter of rum. Acetone and butanol also are produced from molasses by fermentation with Clostridiurn bacteria. Food yeast Torulopsis utilis , is prepared from molasses, as are baker's and brewer's yeasts 2.

The coconut palm finds many uses on the tropical islands of the Pacific. Toddy is produced by tapping the unopened flower spathe of the coconut palm. The spathe is bruised slightly by gentle tapping with a small mallet and is tied tightly with fiber to prevent it from opening. It is bent over gradually to allow the toddy to flow into a receptacle. About 5 centimeters is cut from the tip of the spathe after about 3 weeks. Thereafter, a thin slice is shaved off once or twice a day and the exuding sap is collected.

Palms are tapped for 8 months of the year and rested for 4 months. The average daily yield per palm is about 2 liters. The yield per spathe varies from 15 to 80 liters, and an average palm can yield liters during 8 months of tapping. The fresh sweet toddy contains 15 to 20 percent total solids, of which 12 to Toddy ferments rapidly due to naturally occurring yeasts.

Fermented toddy contains about 6 percent alcohol. After 24 hours the toddy contains 4 to 5 percent acetic acid and is unpalatable as a beverage. It can be used for the production of vinegar. Fermented toddy can be distilled to produce arrack. Freshly fermented toddy is used instead of yeast in bread making. Constant tapping of coconut palms for toddy eliminates the nut crop.

In in wine distilleries in Sri Lanka, over 49 million liters of toddy was fermented to give 4. By tapping the male inflorescence of the oil palm, a sweet sap is obtained.

The leaf subtending the immature male inflorescence is removed to provide access, the inflorescence is excised, and thin slices are cut once or twice daily. The exuding sap is funneled into a calabash or a bottle. The fresh sap contains 15 percent sugar. Tapping is done daily for 2 to 3 months, yielding about 3. The sap ferments by the action of bacteria and natural yeast to produce a beverage with a milky flocculent appearance and a slight sulfurous odor known as palm wine.

Palm wine is produced and marketed in considerable quantities in Nigeria. The sap may be boiled to produce dark-colored sticky sugar or jaggery, which does not keep well. About 9 liters of juice produces 1 kilogram of jaggery. The fermented sap also yields yeasts and vinegar. A mean annual yield of 4, liters of sap per hectare of palms has been recorded in eastern Nigeria. This was estimated to have a value more than double that of oil and kernels from similar palms.

Tapping, however, reduces the fruit yield. Sap can also be obtained by tapping the crown of the tree laterally or by felling the palm and drilling a hole through the growing point. Both these methods are very wasteful since they kill the plant. The Palmyra palm yields about 2 liters of palm sap per day.

Large palms with several tapped inflorescences give as much as 20 liters per day. A single palm of this type is estimated to produce 12, liters of sap during its tapping life. Grapes are the most common fruit used as raw material for alcoholic fermentation. They are used in distilled liquor to make brandy. Historically, wine is the product of fermentation of grape species Vitis vinifera. The high sugar content of most V.

Their natural sugar content provides the necessary material for fermentation. It is sufficient to produce a wine with an alcohol content of 10 percent or higher. Wines containing less alcohol are unstable because of their sensitivity to bacterial spoilage.

The grape's moderate acidity when ripe is also favorable to wine making. The fruit has an acidity of less than 1 percent, calculated as tartaric acid, the main acid in grapes, with a pH of 3.

The flavor of grapes varies from neutral to strongly aromatic, and the pigment pattern of the skin varies from light greenish-yellow to russet, pink, red, reddish violet, or blue-black. Grapes also contain tannins needed to give bite and taste in the flavor of wines and to protect them from bacteria and possible ill effects if overexposed to the air. Other fruits can be used to produce wine. When fruits other than grapes are used, the name of the fruit is included, as in papaya or pineapple wine.

Apples and citrus fruits with sufficient fermentable sugars are crushed, and the fermentable juices are either pressed out for fermentation or the entire mass is fermented. Tropical fruits such as guava, mangoes, pineapple, pawpaw, ripe banana, ripe plantain, tangerine, and cashew fruit also contain fermentable sugars with levels varying from 10 to 20 percent. Overripe plantain pulp was reported to contain 16 to 17 percent fermentable sugar, with the skin containing as much as 30 percent 3.

The tropical climate prevailing in Africa is ideal for the growth and multiplication of microorganisms. The environment is abundant in biomass and in raw materials, which are high in starches and sugars and can be used for fermentation. The available literature is sufficient in information on conditions and control measures required for optimum microbial activity in the various microbial processes.

Convincing research results are also available to support utilization of microorganisms in the production of high-quality products of commercial importance. What is lacking, however, is organization of the available information to enable selection of appropriate microbial processes that can be put together to form an integrated system to harness desirable microorganisms as a labor force for industrial exploitation.

Below an account is given of an attempt to organize four microbial processes into a production system to produce fruits, wines, and alcohol in an experimental project. An experimental project was established aimed at providing adequate conditions and control measures in four separate biological subsettings to produce quality products through the action of microorganisms.

An attempt was then made to synchronize the activities of the subsettings into an integrated system for the production of fruits, wines, and alcohol with jam production as an integral part of the production system. The four biotechnological subsettings used were: a compost pile, stimulated microbiological activity in the soil for release of nutrients, yeast activity in extracted fruit juices for the production of wines, and yeast activity in juice extracted from pineapple by-products for the production of alcohol.

In a two-compartment wooden structure measuring 2 x 1 x 1 meters was constructed to hold two piles of composting material.

Winemaking or vinification is the production of wine , starting with the selection of the fruit, its fermentation into alcohol , and the bottling of the finished liquid. The history of wine -making stretches over millennia. The science of wine and winemaking is known as oenology. A winemaker may also be called a vintner. The growing of grapes is viticulture and there are many varieties of grapes.

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NCBI Bookshelf. Fermentation is biotechnology in which desirable microorganisms are used in the production of value-added products of commercial importance. Fermentation occurs in nature in any sugar-containing mash from fruit, berries, honey, or sap tapped from palms. If left exposed in a warm atmosphere, airborne yeasts act on the sugar to convert it into alcohol and carbon dioxide.

Wine is an alcoholic beverage produced through the partial or total fermentation of grapes. Other fruits and plants, such as berries, apples, cherries, dandelions, elder-berries, palm, and rice can also be fermented. Grapes belong to the botanical family vitaceae, of which there are many species. The species that are most widely used in wine production are Vitis labrusca and, especially, Vitis vinifera, which has long been the most widely used wine grape throughout the world. The theory that wine was discovered by accident is most likely correct because wine grapes contain all the necessary ingredients for wine, including pulp, juice, and seeds that possess all the acids, sugars, tannins, minerals, and vitamins that are found in wine. As a natural process, the frosty-looking skin of the grape, called "bloom," catches the airborne yeast and enzymes that ferment the juice of the grape into wine. The cultivation of wine grapes for the production of wine is called "viticulture. Wine can be made in the home and in small-, medium- or large-sized wineries by using similar methods. Wine is made in a variety of flavors, with varying degrees of sweetness or dryness as well as alcoholic strength and quality. Generally, the strength, color, and flavor of the wine are controlled during the fermentation process.

Ну, и денек выдался. спасибо за. После того как Синий Доктор вошел в дом, Николь направилась к декоративному фонтану посреди улицы. Она припала к одной из четырех струй, разделявшихся на уровне ее груди. С лица Николь капли упали в чашу фонтана, и даже в сумраке Николь заметила, как закишела, заметалась там какая-то живность.

Только представь себе, что бы _мы_ делали, если бы Мариус был приписан к Носителю. - Ну, это понятно, - быстро ответила Эпонина.

После школьных занятий полагался ленч. Потом все, кроме Ричарда, дремали, чтобы скомпенсировать долгий день - на восемь часов превосходящий земной. Большую часть дня Элли, Николь и Ричард проводили с октопауками, либо стараясь узнать что-нибудь о хозяевах, либо рассказывая им о Земле.

Остальные четверо взрослых почти все свое время проводили с Бенджи и детьми в отведенном людям уголке тупика.

Длинный и тощий биот, похожий на трех связанных рядком сверчков, стал над конвейером. На изготовление пищи много времени не потребовалось. Мгновение спустя котел остановился, и обработанный материал появился на конвейерной ленте. Сегментированный биот-сверчок поместил изготовленную для людей пищу себе на спину и отправился восвояси.

Они заговорили, но Николь не следила за их цветовыми полосами. "Ричард ушел навсегда. Я одна". Синий Доктор поднесла воду к губам Николь, но та не сумела выпить. "Ричарда убили". А потом она погрузилась во мрак.

Усаживаясь, Элли попыталась совладать с наполнявшими ее сильными чувствами. "На моем лице ничто не должно проявиться, - сказала она. - И тело не может позволить даже крохотного намека. Никто не должен заподозрить, что я знаю о побеге матери". К ней разом обернулись несколько человек. Элли ощутила, как сразу затрепетало сердце, и только потом поняла, что ее узнали.

Подобное любопытство вполне естественно.

Or that wine, cyder, beer, malt, fruit, sugar, and molasses, are all capable of yielding — and many of them are actually made to yield, in manufacture — that very.

Какая-то чудовищная эпидемия. "Октопауки, - поняла Элли, - наконец нанесли контрудар". Она обняла безутешного мужа.

Юноша кивнул и оставил столовую, отправившись к себе в спальню. - Он что-нибудь знает. - тихо спросила Наи.

В жутких припадках отчаяния, когда запасы наркотиков подходили к концу, она впадала в ярость и колотила у себя все, что подворачивалось по руку. за исключением фотографий Ричарда и Патрика. К концу припадка, израсходовав всю энергию, Кэти всегда брала эти снимки со столика и бережно клала их на постель, ложилась рядом с ними и рыдала.

После незначительной коррекции она соприкоснулась с главным шлюзом. Николь улыбнулась .

Прости, Арчи, но мы не принимаем гостей. по крайней мере тех, которые могут и подождать. пока мы не выпьем кофе, или как там у вас называется то дерьмо, которое нам каждый день дают на завтрак. Когда октопаук повернулся, чтобы уйти, Николь поднялась из-за стола. - Не обращай внимания на Макса, - сказала .

Ричард и Николь торопливо совершили последний обход, остановились возле фонтана, попили воды. - А как ты себя чувствуешь. - спросил Ричард. - Великолепно. Ни боли, ни одышки. Вчера меня обследовала Синий Доктор, она не обнаружила новой патологии. Мое сердце просто ослабело и состарилось.

Спросила Николь несколько секунд спустя, удивленная неожиданным взрывом эмоций. Ричард задумался. - Последнюю неделю, - взволнованно произнес он, - я разрабатывал совершенно безумный, но великолепный план. Я знаю, как он опасен и, пожалуй, даже глуп, но, подобно всем прежним, новая идея не отпускает .

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  1. Zulkinos

    In my opinion it only the beginning. I suggest you to try to look in google.com