Space factory general-Purpose Wired Communications Equipment
Switching over to wireless has made M2M communication much easier and enabled more applications to be connected. In general, when someone says M2M communiciation, they often are referring to cellular communication for embedded devices. Examples of M2M communication in this case would be vending machines sending out inventory information or ATM machines getting authorization to despense cash. IoT and M2M have similar promises: to fundamentally change the way the world operates.VIDEO ON THE TOPIC: LIVE – Two astronauts are taking part in a spacewalk to install communications equipment
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Jeff Bezos Wants Us All to Leave Earth—for Good
Single-throw knife switches, molded-case switches, switches with butt contacts, and circuit breakers used as switches shall be connected so that the terminals supplying the load are deenergized when the switch is in the open position. However, blades and terminals supplying the load of a switch may be energized when the switch is in the open position where the switch is connected to circuits or equipment inherently capable of providing a backfeed source of power. If specified in paragraph j 4 of this section that one piece of equipment shall be "within sight of" another piece of equipment, the piece of equipment shall be visible and not more than By Standard Number Part Number:.
Wiring methods, components, and equipment for general use. The provisions of this section do not apply to conductors that are an integral part of factory-assembled equipment. Any nonconductive paint, enamel, or similar coating shall be removed at threads, contact points, and contact surfaces or be connected by means of fittings designed so as to make such removal unnecessary.
The metal raceway shall be supplemented by an internal insulated equipment grounding conductor installed to ground the equipment enclosure. No wiring system of any type may be installed in any duct used for vapor removal or for ventilation of commercial-type cooking equipment, or in any shaft containing only such ducts.
Except as specifically modified in this paragraph, all other requirements of this subpart for permanent wiring shall also apply to temporary wiring installations.
However, if installed as permitted in paragraph a 2 i C of this section, and if accessible only to qualified persons, feeders may be run as single insulated conductors. If run as open conductors, they shall be fastened at ceiling height every 3. Unless installed in a continuous grounded metallic raceway or metallic covered cable, each branch circuit shall contain a separate equipment grounding conductor and all receptacles shall be electrically connected to the grounding conductor.
Multiwire branch circuits shall be provided with a means to disconnect simultaneously all ungrounded conductors at the power outlet or panelboard where the branch circuit originated.
Note to paragraph a 2 viii of this section. Circuit breakers with their handles connected by approved handle ties are considered a single disconnecting means for the purpose of this requirement. Brass shell, paper-lined sockets, or other metal-cased sockets may not be used unless the shell is grounded. Support shall be in the form of staples, cables ties, straps, or similar type fittings installed so as not to cause damage.
Supports shall be installed as follows:. The tubing shall be in continuous lengths not exceeding 4. Each conductor shall be carried through a separate tube or sleeve. However, where cable with an entirely nonmetallic sheath enters the top of a surface-mounted enclosure through one or more nonflexible raceways not less than mm 18 in.
If metal covers are used, they shall be grounded. In completed installations, each outlet box shall have a cover, faceplate, or fixture canopy. Covers of outlet boxes having holes through which flexible cord pendants pass shall be provided with bushings designed for the purpose or shall have smooth, well-rounded surfaces on which the cords may bear.
In addition to other requirements in this section, the following requirements apply to pull and junction boxes for systems over volts, nominal:. Note to paragraph b 3 ii of this section: Underground box covers that weigh over Single-throw knife switches shall be so placed that gravity will not tend to close them. Single-throw knife switches approved for use in the inverted position shall be provided with a locking device that will ensure that the blades remain in the open position when so set.
Double-throw knife switches may be mounted so that the throw will be either vertical or horizontal. However, if the throw is vertical, a locking device shall be provided to ensure that the blades remain in the open position when so set. Snap switches mounted in boxes shall have faceplates installed so as to completely cover the opening and seat against the finished surface.
Snap switches, including dimmer switches, shall be effectively grounded and shall provide a means to ground metal faceplates, whether or not a metal faceplate is installed. However, if no grounding means exists within the snap-switch enclosure, or where the wiring method does not include or provide an equipment ground, a snap switch without a grounding connection is permitted for replacement purposes only. Such snap switches shall be provided with a faceplate of nonconducting, noncombustible material if they are located within reach of conducting floors or other conducting surfaces.
Switchboards that have any exposed live parts shall be located in permanently dry locations and shall be accessible only to qualified persons. Panelboards shall be mounted in cabinets, cutout boxes, or enclosures designed for the purpose and shall be dead front.
However, panelboards other than the dead front externally-operable type are permitted where accessible only to qualified persons. Exposed blades of knife switches mounted in switchboards or panelboards shall be dead when open. Cabinets, cutout boxes, fittings, boxes, and panelboard enclosures in damp or wet locations shall be installed so as to prevent moisture or water from entering and accumulating within the enclosures and shall be mounted so there is at least 6.
However, nonmetallic enclosures may be installed without the airspace on a concrete, masonry, tile, or similar surface. The enclosures shall be weatherproof in wet locations.
Switches, circuit breakers, and switchboards installed in wet locations shall be enclosed in weatherproof enclosures. All conductors used for general wiring shall be insulated unless otherwise permitted in this subpart. The conductor insulation shall be of a type that is approved for the voltage, operating temperature, and location of use. Insulated conductors shall be distinguishable by appropriate color or other suitable means as being grounded conductors, ungrounded conductors, or equipment grounding conductors.
Hard-service cord and junior hard-service cord No. This paragraph applies to portable cables used at more than volts, nominal. Multiconductor portable cable for use in supplying power to portable or mobile equipment at over volts, nominal, shall consist of No. Cables operated at over 2, volts shall be shielded for the purpose of confining the voltage stresses to the insulation.
Grounding conductors shall be provided. All shields shall be grounded. The minimum bending radii for portable cables during installation and handling in service shall be adequate to prevent damage to the cable. Connectors used to connect lengths of cable in a run shall be of a type that lock firmly together. Provisions shall be made to prevent opening or closing these connectors while energized.
Strain relief shall be provided at connections and terminations. Portable cables may not be operated with splices unless the splices are of the permanent molded, vulcanized, or other approved type. Termination enclosures shall be suitably marked with a high voltage hazard warning, and terminations shall be accessible only to authorized and qualified employees.
Fixture wires shall be approved for the voltage, temperature, and location of use. A fixture wire which is used as a grounded conductor shall be identified. Fixture wires may be used only:. Fixture wires may not be used as branch-circuit conductors except as permitted for Class 1 power limited circuits and for fire alarm circuits. However, rosettes and cleat-type lampholders and receptacles located at least 2.
Metal shell, paper-lined lampholders may not be used. Where supplied by a circuit having a grounded conductor, the grounded conductor shall be connected to the screw shell.
Lampholders installed in wet or damp locations shall be of the weatherproof type. The cover for wire terminations shall be a part that is essential for the operation of an attachment plug or connector dead-front construction. Attachment plugs shall be installed so that their prongs, blades, or pins are not energized unless inserted into an energized receptacle. No receptacles may be installed so as to require an energized attachment plug as its source of supply.
However, a ampere T-slot receptacle or cord connector may accept a ampere attachment plug of the same voltage rating. Note to paragraph j 2 v of this section. A receptacle is considered to be in a location protected from the weather when it is located under roofed open porches, canopies, marquees, or the like and where it will not be subjected to a beating rain or water runoff.
If an appliance is supplied by more than one source, the disconnecting means shall be grouped and identified. If the appliance is to be used on a specific frequency or frequencies, it shall be so marked. Where motor overload protection external to the appliance is required, the appliance shall be so marked. This paragraph applies to motors, motor circuits, and controllers. A disconnecting means shall be located within sight of the controller location.
However, a single disconnecting means may be located adjacent to a group of coordinated controllers mounted adjacent to each other on a multi-motor continuous process machine. The controller disconnecting means for motor branch circuits over volts, nominal, may be out of sight of the controller, if the controller is marked with a warning label giving the location and identification of the disconnecting means that is to be locked in the open position.
If more than one disconnect is provided for the same equipment, only one need be readily accessible. These provisions do not require overload protection that will stop a motor where a shutdown is likely to introduce additional or increased hazards, as in the case of fire pumps, or where continued operation of a motor is necessary for a safe shutdown of equipment or process and motor overload sensing devices are connected to a supervised alarm.
Locks and latches shall be so arranged that a vault door can be readily opened from the inside. Note to paragraph j 5 vii of this section. Piping or other facilities provided for vault fire protection, or for transformer cooling, are not considered foreign to the electrical installation.
The isolating means shall provide a visible gap in the electric circuit adequate for the operating voltage;. Provisions shall be made for sufficient diffusion and ventilation of gases from storage batteries to prevent the accumulation of explosive mixtures.
Understanding Plenum and other NEC Cable Ratings
Today marks the beginning of a new way to think about the future of manufacturing. The 5G Innovation Zone is located in Samsung Austin Semiconductor, one of the most advanced semiconductor fabrication facilities in the world. As would be expected in a smart factory, the Innovation Zone is designed to leverage a combination of multiple connectivity technologies, including 5G, LTE, and Wi-Fi.
Single-throw knife switches, molded-case switches, switches with butt contacts, and circuit breakers used as switches shall be connected so that the terminals supplying the load are deenergized when the switch is in the open position. However, blades and terminals supplying the load of a switch may be energized when the switch is in the open position where the switch is connected to circuits or equipment inherently capable of providing a backfeed source of power. If specified in paragraph j 4 of this section that one piece of equipment shall be "within sight of" another piece of equipment, the piece of equipment shall be visible and not more than By Standard Number Part Number:. Wiring methods, components, and equipment for general use. The provisions of this section do not apply to conductors that are an integral part of factory-assembled equipment. Any nonconductive paint, enamel, or similar coating shall be removed at threads, contact points, and contact surfaces or be connected by means of fittings designed so as to make such removal unnecessary. The metal raceway shall be supplemented by an internal insulated equipment grounding conductor installed to ground the equipment enclosure.
Intelligence at the Edge Part 3: Edge Node Communication
Connected industrial machines can sense a wide array of information used to make key decisions within the Industrial Internet of Things IIoT. A sensor within an edge node can be spatially far removed from any data aggregation point. It must connect through a gateway that links edge data with a network. Sensors form the front-end edge of the IIoT ecosystem.
By , more than 50 billion devices will connect to the Internet, most wirelessly. This is placing wireless communication under increasing pressure. Put simply, the radio spectrum is becoming congested.
Cisco pushes 5G to hasten industrial IoT
While 5G deployments are nascent, Cisco says it expects rapid future development of the mobile technology will be expand industrial IoT use cases. The emerging 5G standards with New Radio NR are targeting new capabilities such as vehicle-to-everything and ultra reliable low-atency communication for industrial use cases. Vendors need to show users on a case-by-case, application-by-application basis what works, Doyle said.SEE VIDEO BY TOPIC: Testing Small Spacecraft Communications Technology
Until now, IT and OT have gone about business in their own domains. Embedded sensors and software in physical industrial machines delivering data to be analyzed to optimize the manufacturing process is blurring the lines between them. IT and OT must work together to ensure greater agility and productivity, while ensuring the safety of employees. Industry 4. In the not too distant future, we will see manufacturers roll out easily configurable, highly flexible and modular production systems operating on-demand. They will provide enhanced data mining from connected devices, which can be fed into digital twins, for example, to provide production line simulations.
Glossary of IT Terms
Using ActiveX tools, interactive web content can be created. Example: In addition to viewing Word and Excel documents from within a browser, additional functionality such as animation, credit card transactions, or spreadsheet calculations. Examples: an e-mail address sales dataprise. Also referred to as a "nickname". Typically, you enter anonymous as a username and your e-mail address as a password. Anti-Spam To prevent e-mail spam, both end users and administrators of e-mail systems use various anti-spam techniques.
Transmitter, receiver, transmission medium — these are the basic elements that make up a communication system. Every human being is equipped with a basic communication system. The mouth and vocal cords is the transmitter, ears are the receivers, and air is the transmission medium over which sound travels between mouth and ear. The transmitter and receiver elements of a data modem such as the type used in a traffic signal system controller box may not be readily visible. The modem's transmission medium is typically copper wire, fiber, or radio.
AT&T and Samsung Bring 5G to Life for the Manufacturing Industry
Wired communication refers to the transmission of data over a wire -based communication technology. Examples include telephone networks , cable television or internet access , and fiber-optic communication. Also waveguide electromagnetism , used for high-power applications, is considered as wired line.
Telemetry is the collection of measurements or other data at remote or inaccessible points and their automatic transmission to receiving equipment for monitoring. Systems that need external instructions and data to operate require the counterpart of telemetry, telecommand. Although the term commonly refers to wireless data transfer mechanisms e.
When you run cable through any building you first need to consider plenum spaces. Plenum spaces are the open spaces above the ceiling or below the floor that are used for air circulation. Technically, any ductwork is considered a plenum space too. These spaces are important for air circulation in any building, but they also bring some problems if you ever have a fire because of the high oxygen content and lack of fire barriers. Using untreated cables in plenum spaces can spread the fire to other areas very quickly and spread noxious smoke throughout the building.
Николь пребывала в смятении. Периоды долгого молчания прерывались потоками явно нелогичных вопросов. Так, ей пришло в голову спросить, почему у одних Узлов четыре модуля, а у других - три. Орел объяснил ей, что добавляется Модуль Познания, примерно к каждому десятому или двенадцатому Узлу. Тогда Николь захотела узнать, чем именно характерен Модуль Познания.
Орел ответил ей, что в нем скапливается вся информация об этой части Галактики.
Вел танец Омэ, в том самом зеленом одеянии, что было на нем в Риме, когда он явился к ней в гостиницу за несколько дней до запуска "Ньютона". Все ее друзья из Изумрудного города и четверо ближайших знакомых среди октопауков также плясали. Кеплер и Галилей дрались, Элли и Никки держались за руки. Октопаук Геркулес был облачен в ярко-пурпурный африканский костюм.