Space industrial diabetic Confectionery
Kids love sweets. Of course, so do many adults. But even those grown-ups with a serious sweet tooth would likely struggle to polish off a big bag of candy, while the average kid would relish that chore. Cohen says the prevailing theory is that a taste for sugary foods offered early humans an evolutionary advantage: In nature, sweet foods—stuff like fruits or honey—tend to be both safe and rich in calories, while bitter foods are more likely to be toxic. So humans may be born with an inherent desire for sugary foods that fades with age and eating experience.VIDEO ON THE TOPIC: Types of Foods That Never Be Consumed When You Have Diabetes - Worst Foods for Diabetics
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- 5 blood sugar friendly diabetic snacks
- Is Sugar as Bad for Kids as It Is for Adults?
- Functional Components of Carob Fruit: Linking the Chemical and Biological Space
- Food processing
- Taste the Future: 3D Printing Chocolate at Hershey
- Former advertising executive reveals junk food-pushing tactics
- Functional Properties of Snack Bars
- The sugar wars are about to change your food label. Here’s why
5 blood sugar friendly diabetic snacks
The contribution of natural products to the drug-discovery pipeline has been remarkable since they have served as a rich source for drug development and discovery. Natural products have adapted, during the course of evolution, optimum chemical scaffolds against a wide variety of diseases, including cancer and diabetes.
Herein, we attempt to integrate the information on the chemical composition and the associated biological impact of carob fruit in regards to human health.
The carob tree Ceratonia siliqua L. The fruit is an indehiscent pod, elongated, compressed, straight or curved, thickened at the sutures, 10—30 cm long, 1. Pods are brown with a wrinkled surface and are leathery when ripe. The pulp comprises an outer leathery layer pericarp and softer inner region mesocarp.
Seeds occur in the pod transversally, separated by mesocarp [ 3 ]. The chemical composition of the pulp depends on cultivar, origin and harvesting time. This gum comes from the endosperm of the seed and chemically is a galactomannan. It is added as thickener, stabilizer or flavoring in food. In addition to the food industry, LBG is widely used for pharmaceutical purposes as it is linked with the inhibition of gastrointestinal diseases [ 5 , 6 , 7 , 8 ].
Furthermore, LBG is exploited as a carrier agent for the controlled release of drugs alone or in combination with other carrier molecules [ 9 , 10 , 11 , 12 , 13 , 14 , 15 , 16 ].
Recently, researchers have focused on the valorization of carob pods since they are an excellent source of bioactive compounds such as dietary fiber, polyphenols, and cyclitols and contain low amounts of fat. In addition, carob pods can be used as a cocoa substitute since they do not contain caffeine and theobromine.
The whole unprocessed fruit or its by-products, such as the germ, fruit extract, kibbles without seeds and the seed peel, have also been investigated by food technologists.
Different parts of carob fruits have been used as food ingredients in bakery and confectionery products [ 17 , 18 ], as well as in fermented and non-fermented pastas due to their health-promoting properties [ 19 , 20 , 21 ].
Furthermore, researchers have attempted to formulate carob-based milk beverages and decoctions [ 22 , 23 ]. Carob pods are an ideal substrate for the production of food ingredients exploiting biotechnology. In particular, they are mainly used to produce citric acid [ 24 ], lactic acid [ 25 ], mannitol [ 26 ], succinic acid [ 27 ] and ethanol [ 28 ]. In the last two decades, numerous studies have demonstrated interesting findings concerning the bioactivity of carob pulp constituents.
Fiber, cyclitols, polyphenols and tannins have mainly attracted scientific attention. These groups of bioactive compounds have been linked with the health-promoting effects of carob in different therapeutic areas, including anti-cancer, anti-diabetes, anti-diarrheal and anti-hyperlipidemia [ 29 , 30 , 31 , 32 , 33 , 34 ].
These findings have rendered carob fruit an excellent ingredient for the development of functional food and herbal supplements. The valorization of these bioactive constituents is more attractive if we consider that they are usually discarded as LBG and simple sugars are used by the industry. In the present review, the beneficial effects of carob fruit are demonstrated. In an attempt to review critically its health-promoting effects, the nutritional and bioactive composition is presented, followed by specific effects on human health.
Carob fruit is a complex mixture of primary and secondary metabolites, with the presence of sugars and fibers being characteristic for these fruits, followed by a great diversity of polyphenols. Numerous minerals and amino acids are also present in carob fruits. Figure 1 summarizes the major constituents in carob pulp and seed.
Main chemical constituents in carob pulp and seed with nutritional and health-promoting properties. Carob fruit is known for its high sugar content that is responsible for the nutritional value of beans. In general, cultivated carob cultivars have higher sugar content than wild ones [ 35 ].
Fructose and glucose with 1. Carob sugars are usually extracted for the production of natural carob syrup. Furthermore, an innovative process has been patented for their recovery in order to produce carob syrup [ 37 ].
As all legumes, a set of cyclitols with multiple health benefits in carob bean has been confirmed [ 38 ]. In carob bean, the major cyclitol is d -pinitol 3- O -methyl- d -chiro-inositol and its content showed great diversity 1. Figure 2 a. The concentration of d -pinitol is influenced by genetic and environmental factors; especially the mean d -pinitol content of wild carob cultivars is higher than mean d -pinitol content of cultivated ones [ 35 ].
The presence of d -pinitol is of high importance as it can be used as a marker of carob adulteration by cocoa [ 39 ]. In addition, carob bean can be considered as an excellent reservoir of d -pinitol and its isolation procedure has been patented [ 40 ]. Recently, ultrasound-assisted extraction and supercritical fluid extraction have been proposed for the isolation of d -pinitol from carob [ 23 , 41 ].
Chemical structures of a d -pinitol and b locust bean gum LBG. Dietary fiber is a heterogeneous group of substances, commonly divided into soluble and insoluble fibers. A method of making the natural carob fiber has also been patented [ 42 ]. The high proportion of polyphenols present in carob fiber differentiates it from other dietary fiber sources.
In general, carob fiber is considered as a predominantly insoluble and practically non-fermentable dietary fiber [ 43 ]. Finally, carob fiber has a great effect on dough rheology when it is used as an ingredient in bakery products [ 44 , 45 ]. LBG is a white to creamy white powder obtained from the seed endosperm of the fruit pod of the carob tree.
Galactose and mannose are the two components of LBG. The galactose to mannose ratio in LBG has been calculated between The distribution of d -galactosyl residues or side chains along the mannose backbone chain can be random, blockwise and ordered. The molecular size and structure of galactomannans are of great importance, as they greatly affect the functional properties of CBG [ 46 , 47 ].
Functional properties of LBG such as solubility, rheology, viscosity, hydration rate, synergistic gel formation and water adsorption have been studied [ 48 ]. Finally, many patents describe the novel use of LBG in food products such as jelly foods, baby food etc.
LBG is also exploited for the development of novel barriers to improve organoleptic characteristics of food products [ 51 ]. Polyphenols constitute one of the most common and widespread groups of substances in plants. Several thousand plant polyphenols are known, encompassing a wide variety of molecules consisting of one or more aromatic rings with variable degrees of hydroxylation, methoxylation and glycosylation [ 52 ].
The main categories of phenolic compounds found in carob fruit are phenolic acids, gallotannins and flavonoids. The concentration of polyphenols in carob fruits depends strongly on genetic, environmental and extraction methods and ranges between 45— mg gallic acid equivalents per g [ 53 , 54 , 55 ].
In carob fruits, phenolic compounds are found as free, as bound or as soluble conjugated forms; Dubravka et al. In addition, carob germ and carob seed are rich sources of phenolic compounds [ 1 ]. Polyphenolic composition of different parts of carob is presented in Table 1. Carob polyphenols have attracted scientific interest; thus many extraction methods have been proposed to recover polyphenols from carob [ 55 , 57 , 58 ].
In addition, a patent towards the extraction and purification of phenolic compounds has been registered [ 59 ]. Phenolics, subdivided into benzoic and cinnamic acids, are the most abundant class of polyphenols in carob fruits. Indeed, gallic acid and its derivatives such as methyl gallate comprise the majority of phenolic acids [ 53 , 61 ]. Carob fruit is one of the richest source of gallic acid as its content has been estimated between According to the Phenol-Explorer database, only chestnut and cloves had higher gallic acid content than carob fruits.
Syringic acid, 4-hydrobenzoic acid, and gentisic acid are also benzoic acids that are found in carob fruit [ 53 , 57 , 62 ]. The concentration of cinnamic acids in carob fruit is relatively low; cinnamic acid, coumaric acid, ferulic acid and chlorogenic acid have been identified in carob fruit extracts [ 57 , 62 , 64 ].
Flavonoids represent the most diverse group of phenolics, with two aromatic A and B rings associated via C-C bonds by a 3 C oxygenated heterocycle. On the basis of the oxidation state of the central ring, flavonoids are further divided into anthocyanins, flavonols, flavanols, flavones, flavanones and isoflavonoids.
Carob fruits are particularly rich in flavonols such as quercetin, myricetin, kaempferol and their glucosidic derivatives. Quercetin and myricetin rhamnosides are usually the most abundant flavonoids in carob. The presence of flavones apigenin, luteolin and chrysoeriol , flavanones naringenin or isoflavones genistein are of low abundance [ 53 , 61 , 64 ].
Tannins comprise the most characteristic group of polyphenols in carob fruits and contribute to their astringency. In carob juice the concentration of tannins is ten-fold higher than in grape juice and it is decreased with the progress of fruit ripening [ 65 ]. Tannins are classified into hydrolysable and condensed or non-hydrolysable forms.
In general, hydrolysable tannins are considered as multiple esters of gallic or ellagic acid with glucose and products of their oxidative reactions and are known as galloyl tannins and ellagitannins, respectively [ 52 ]. On the other hand, condensed tannins are non-hydrolysable oligomeric and polymeric proanthocyanidins [ 66 ]. Avallone and co-workers reported the presence of hydrolysable and condensed tannins in different parts of carob fruit [ 67 ].
In particular, carob pods contain a mean value of 2. Germ comprises higher concentration of tannins The amino acid content of carob fruits consists of a mixture of 17 residues aspartic acid, glutamic acid, serine, glycine, histidine, arginine, threonine, alanine, tyrosine, valine, proline, methionine, isoleucine, leucine, cysteine, phenylalanine and lysine [ 36 , 68 ].
Aspartic acid, asparagine, alanine, glutamic acid, leucine and valine together comprise ca. In general, carobs can be considered a good source of amino acids according to World Health Organization WHO standards for protein. More specifically, it contains all seven essential amino acids threonine, methionine, valine, isoleucine, leucine, phenylalanine and lysine at concentrations that meet the WHO standards [ 68 ].
Carob fruits are an excellent reservoir of potassium and calcium. Taking into consideration that cow milk contains an average of mg calcium per liter, a portion of carob fruit contains an almost equivalent concentration of calcium with a cup of milk [ 70 ]. Macrominerals such as phosphorus and magnesium have been also found in carob fruits at lower concentrations.
Carob fruits also contain many microminerals including iron, copper, zinc, manganese, nickel, barium, cobalt, etc. Among the microminerals, iron has the highest concentration. Finally, its seeds generally contain higher macro- and microminerals than the pods [ 36 , 63 , 68 , 69 ]. Numerous studies have revealed several physiological responses to carob fruit and its products that may be relevant to the promotion of human health and the prevention or treatment of some chronic diseases.
Below we categorize the health benefits of the carob fruit in cancer, diabetes, diarrhea, and hyperlipidemia. An emphasis on the clinical trials that carob has been subjected to is also provided. Table 2 highlights the chemical components of carob and their associated evaluation in human health.
Is Sugar as Bad for Kids as It Is for Adults?
The chronicle of the factory "Spartak" began on June 4, in Gomel, when confectionery company "Prosvet" was opened. The main products manufactured by the factory are: caramel candy, chocolate and chocolate products, biscuits, wafer products, cakes and pastries. Quality requirements are defined by technical specifications and national standards. In addition to the fact that the product must be of high quality, it must still be safe for the consumer.
In Food Biochemistry and Food Processing, Second Edition, the editors have brought together more than fifty acclaimed academicians and industry professionals from around the world to create this fully revised and updated edition. This book is an indispensable reference and text on food biochemistry and the ever increasing developments in the biotechnology of food processing. Beginning with sections on the essential principles of food biochemistry, enzymology, and food processing, the book then takes the reader on commodity-by-commodity discussions of biochemistry of raw materials and product processing. Chapters in this second edition have been revised to include safety considerations and the chemical changes induced by processing in the biomolecules of the selected foodstuffs.
Functional Components of Carob Fruit: Linking the Chemical and Biological Space
Mannitol is a type of sugar alcohol used as a sweetener and medication. Common side effects from medical use include electrolyte problems and dehydration. The discovery of mannitol is attributed to Joseph Louis Proust in Mannitol is used to reduce acutely raised intracranial pressure until more definitive treatment can be applied, e. It may also be used for certain cases of kidney failure with low urine output , decreasing pressure in the eye , to increase the elimination of certain toxins, and to treat fluid build up. Intraoperative mannitol prior to vessel clamp release during renal transplant has been shown to reduce post-transplant kidney injury, but has not been shown to reduce graft rejection. Mannitol acts as an osmotic laxative  in oral doses larger than 20 g,  and is sometimes sold as a laxative for children.
Forget government-issued food pyramids. Let an algorithm tell you how to eat. Erik Blad. By Eric Topol.
Nowadays, people spend more time and effort to gain greater control over their health by exploring alternative or herbal medicines and natural health products to prevent disease or for a healthier life. It is known that people who consume a diet rich in natural foods, such as fruits, vegetables, nuts, whole grains, and fish, tend to lead a life free of diseases. Recent studies suggest that regular or increased consumption of fruits and vegetables can reduce the risk of chronic diseases, and these health benefits are believed to be primarily due to their natural antioxidants and dietary fiber content. At present, consumers prefer foods with health benefits and, at the same time, convenient for consumption, storage, and handling.
Taste the Future: 3D Printing Chocolate at Hershey
Dan Parker, who was a successful advertising executive earning his living promoting Coca Cola and McDonalds, told the Guardian in his first interview that the food industry is behaving like Big Tobacco. If it behaves like tobacco it will end up being treated like tobacco. Parker founded a charity called Living Loud, bringing on board others from marketing and advertising. In their first year of existence, they have helped anti-obesity campaigners like the Jamie Oliver Food Foundation understand the industry and communicate their messages. You can share your story using our encrypted form here. We will feature some of your contributions in our reporting.
Former advertising executive reveals junk food-pushing tactics
Looking for some snacks that are blood sugar friendly? Health coach and mySugr blogger Markus Berndt shares some of his secrets for taming the snack monster. Today is all about diabetic snacks, or snacks that are more blood sugar friendly than your typical carb bombs we often crave. Thankfully we have Markus here to help. He was diagnosed with type 2 diabetes in May of which catalyzed his devotion to healthy living through diet and exercise. He's currently a management consultant for workplace health promotion and a health coach.
Starch is an important food product and a versatile biomaterial used world-wide for different purposes in many industrial sectors including foods, health, textile, chemical and engineering sector. Starch versatility in industrial applications is largely defined by its physicochemical properties and functionality. Starch in its native form has limited functionality and application.
Functional Properties of Snack Bars
Food processing is the transformation of agricultural products into food , or of one form of food into other forms. Food processing includes many forms of processing foods, from grinding grain to make raw flour to home cooking to complex industrial methods used to make convenience foods. Primary food processing is necessary to make most foods edible, and secondary food processing turns the ingredients into familiar foods, such as bread. Tertiary food processing has been criticized for promoting overnutrition and obesity, containing too much sugar and salt, too little fiber, and otherwise being unhealthful in respect to dietary needs of humans and farm animals.
The sugar wars are about to change your food label. Here’s why
Formerly a division director and instructor at the College of Southern Idaho for two decades, he taught biology, food science, and animal science. Currently, Dr. An experienced author, Dr.
The pervasive health and wellness trend continues to influence the dark chocolate market, with manufacturers incorporating organic ingredients and natural sweeteners. In the recent past, the demand for dried fruits, as well as blueberries and cranberries has witnessed steady growth in the manufacture of dark chocolate. The consumers are concerned about the impact of their food intake on their health and wellness. The health benefits associated with dark chocolate are high, owing to the high percentage of cocoa present in it. Thus, the high-quality premium dark chocolates are consumed comparatively more.
The contribution of natural products to the drug-discovery pipeline has been remarkable since they have served as a rich source for drug development and discovery. Natural products have adapted, during the course of evolution, optimum chemical scaffolds against a wide variety of diseases, including cancer and diabetes. Herein, we attempt to integrate the information on the chemical composition and the associated biological impact of carob fruit in regards to human health. The carob tree Ceratonia siliqua L. The fruit is an indehiscent pod, elongated, compressed, straight or curved, thickened at the sutures, 10—30 cm long, 1.
Encyclopedia of Food Chemistry is the ideal primer for food scientists, researchers, students and young professionals who want to acquaint themselves with food chemistry. Well-organized, clearly written, and abundantly referenced, the book provides a foundation for readers to understand the principles, concepts, and techniques used in food chemistry applications. Articles are written by international experts and cover a wide range of topics, including food chemistry, food components and their interactions, properties flavor, aroma, texture the structure of food, functional foods, processing, storage, nanoparticles for food use, antioxidants, the Maillard and Strecker reactions, process derived contaminants, and the detection of economically-motivated food adulteration. The encyclopedia will provide readers with an introduction to specific topics within the wider context of food chemistry, as well as helping them identify the links between the various sub-topics.