Storage industrial horse breeding, donkeys and mules
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Horses, donkeys and mules and their utility
Contact Us Press Room. N28, Z. Horse races at the Oklahoma State Fairgrounds BH, Z. For farm work, hauling, riding, racing, and showing, horses and mules have been a steady, profitable industry in Oklahoma since the first inhabitants began using the animals in the eighteenth century.
Horses formed an important part of American Indian trade patterns and by the nineteenth century enabled Plains tribes to subsist successfully by bison hunting.
In the Territorial Era horses were necessary accouterments for ranchers and cowboys in order to work cattle. Mules, too, were even more important than horses in ranch farming, general farming, and hauling. Horses and mules continued to be important as power sources in the economy of Indian Territory and Oklahoma Territory until the general adoption of the gasoline engine to power mechanized equipment. After the demise of horse-powered agriculture, activities in the horse industry included breeding for pleasure riding and racing and for competitive events such as horse shows, rodeos, and hunting-jumping competitions.
Breeding of horses and mules was a serious pursuit in the nonmotorized world of work in the nineteenth and early twentieth century. As Oklahoma was an agriculture-oriented region, plowing was important in farm work. By Oklahoma Territory and Indian Territory farms had an aggregate of 75, horses and 18, mules. Ten years later the numbers had grown to , and 58,, respectively. By agriculture had developed rapidly, and Oklahomans owned , horses and 91, mules.
After Oklahoma City developed into a noted regional marketplace for mule traders, with a thousand animals per month being sold in Packingtown now called the Stockyards City Historic District. By the city was the nation's fourth largest mule market, behind St.
Louis, Kansas City, and Atlanta. He was one of the best-known mule dealers in the United States in his day. After that, horses were increasingly deemed inefficient, due to the cost of feed. Mules were also used extensively in the Tri-State Lead and Zinc District, until the mines began to close in the s. Army mules as well. The state supplied draft horses, draft mules, and pack mules in huge numbers for the battlefront.
By the s, however, the army, too, had begun closing its stables in favor of motor-driven vehicles. By Oklahoma farmers, ranchers, and breeders owned , horses and , mules, and a vital horse show and breeding industry had developed.
The circuit of county and state fairs promoted scientific breeding by hosting horse shows as part of the annual events. Nevertheless, the number of animals continued to decline because of mechanization. With the onset of the Great Depression in , during the s the number actually increased slightly, as farmers could little afford new tractors or the fuel to keep them running. As the economy improved, the numbers of work animals declined again.
After horses were no longer used as motive power, people still bred them for pleasure riding, for competition in shows, and for racing. Purebred draft, saddle, and harness horses were raised by ranchers and various wealthy individuals.
Virtually every breed has been a part of the Oklahoma scene since the mid-nineteenth century. Draft horses, important for farm work, had a long history in the United States, the first Percherons having arrived in They were used by farmers and by teamsters.
The breed became the dominant draft breed through the s and remained in use. In the s Enid oilman Herbert H. Champlin raised Belgian draft horses. In the late twentieth century entrepreneur Bob Funk maintained a Clydesdale breeding facility in Canadian County.
The history of the breed extends to the seventeenth century, with the first recognized shows in the early s. Kentucky became the best-known breeding place. Saddlebreds have three natural gaits, and many are trained to five gaits for show competition. Several important breeders have operated in Oklahoma, including W.
Lewis also owned Astral King, an important five-gaited horse. Another pioneer breeder was I. Crouch of Vinita, whose horse Monarch was a son of Highland Denmark, the original Denmark having been the breed's foundation sire. By the Saddlebred for riding, light harness, hunting, jumping, and dressage was well established, with stables in Oklahoma City, Tulsa, and elsewhere.
The breed called Thoroughbred was carefully created for long-distance speed contests, and the registry dates from in England. In the United States the stud book dates to , but the breed has been popular from the eighteenth century. Oklahoma-raised Thoroughbreds have been trained for polo, harness racing, and racing in general. Among the most celebrated historical stables were those of Charles B. Campbell, at his 7BC Ranch. When the latter horse won the Kentucky Derby in , it was owned by the Hoots family, ranchers near Hominy Falls, Oklahoma.
Quarter Horses became famous for working cattle as well as for winning money on the track. Peter McCue, a foundation sire and son of the legendary horse Dan Tucker, was foaled in in Illinois and occasionally raced in western Oklahoma. After being injured at age three, he never competed again but sired thousands of important horses. In Milo Burlingame, of Cheyenne, Oklahoma, bought him, put him at stud, and sold him in Easy Jet was named World Champion Quarter Running Horse in and over two years accumulated a record of twenty-seven wins, seven second places, and two third places from thirty-eight starts.
At the end of the twentieth century the American Quarter Horse was the most numerous breed in the state, numbering between 50 and 60 percent of the state's , horses. Horse racing has always been popular in Oklahoma.
Its attraction was evident from the early statehood years, a period when local, county, and state fairs prominently advertised racing as a major event. As an indigenous economic activity racing expanded greatly in the last half of the twentieth century as the racehorse-training industry developed. The Oklahoma Horse Racing Act, passed in , became effective in That legislation permitted betting at officially licensed tracks. Remington Park Oklahoma City has offered primarily Thoroughbred events.
Equestrian competition, or the "show-horse industry," which may have begun as early as in Virginia, became very popular in the United States after that time. The American Horse Shows Association, established in , and its affiliates sponsor competitions that include hunters and jumpers as well as dressage the training of horses and riders. Horse shows have a lengthy history in Oklahoma. As early as an annual event was held at the Oklahoma State Fair.
Among other breeds, the American Saddlebred competed for a trophy for the best stallion or mare registered in the American Saddle Horse Register. The categories included roadster trotters, harness horses, and five-gaited saddle horses. With four thousand people there on opening day, it was a major social event for the city and state. By the late s Oklahoma City social leaders had developed a new horse show. The event was conceived by Gilbert A. Nichols, the city's largest breeder of Saddlebreds, and by a committee that included Ed Overholser.
The Junior League directed the arrangements. Nichols also established the Saddle Club Stable and built an extensive system of bridle paths in Nichols Hills, a residential community he developed within Oklahoma City. Skelly, T. Simmons, C. Flint, and other prominent leaders. By the turn of the twenty-first century Oklahoma had developed a reputation as a national center for the horse industry. Virtually all breed associations have been represented in the state.
Among the commercial activities that continued to involve horses were breeding, training, boarding, trail ride operations, horse sales, and wholesale and retail horse feed and gear outlets, as well as racing and horse shows.
By , when there were 6. According to the National Agricultural Statistics Service, in that year one in every forty-six Oklahomans approximately seventy-three thousand owned a horse. Hilton M. Briggs and Dinus M. Briggs, Modern Breeds of Livestock 4th ed.
Washington, D. David W. Diane B. Copyright to all of these materials is protected under United States and International law. Users agree not to download, copy, modify, sell, lease, rent, reprint, or otherwise distribute these materials, or to link to these materials on another web site, without authorization of the Oklahoma Historical Society. Individual users must determine if their use of the Materials falls under United States copyright law's "Fair Use" guidelines and does not infringe on the proprietary rights of the Oklahoma Historical Society as the legal copyright holder of The Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History and part or in whole.
Photo credits: All photographs presented in the published and online versions of The Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History and Culture are the property of the Oklahoma Historical Society unless otherwise stated. Books Published More Bibliography Hilton M.
Horse, Donkey, and Mule Import
A mule is the offspring of a male donkey jack and a female horse mare. Of the two first generation hybrids between these two species, a mule is easier to obtain than a hinny , which is the offspring of a female donkey jenny and a male horse stallion. The size of a mule and work to which it is put depend largely on the breeding of the mule's female parent dam.
In the world today it is believed there are approximately 44 million mules and donkeys. These two groups of equids are currently receiving a lot of attention as recreational animals in the United States. They very well may be the fastest growing part of the recreational equine industry. Mules in particular can be found doing everything from trail riding and packing, to dressage, racing, jumping and western pleasure.
Dream job in research: improving the lives of horses and mules
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Instagram’s Most Famous Mules
Equus mulus [ citation needed ]. A hinny is a domestic equine hybrid that is the offspring of a male horse a stallion and a female donkey a jenny. It is the reciprocal cross to the more common mule , which is the product of a male donkey, a jack, and a female horse, a mare. The hinny is distinctive from the mule both in physiology and temperament as a consequence of genomic imprinting. Hinnies are the reciprocal cross to the more common mule.
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What to feed your donkeys
It seems that the Poitou donkey first appeared in the 10 th century in France. The Poitou mule breeding industry, which flourished particularly from the 17 th to the 19 th century, gave a solid reputation to the donkey as a procreator, and it was widely exported to many countries America, Mediterranean countries etc. Annick Audiot, who was put in charge of this work, could only record 44 Poitou donkeys, 20 jacks and 24 jennies, belonging to 14 owners.SEE VIDEO BY TOPIC: Mules - Breed Donkey Jack and Mare Horse - Meet Carol-Anne!
The International Museum of the Horse. Slideshow : Beautiful horses. Donkeys, zebras and mules all differ somewhat from horses in conformation. The most noticeable difference is of course the ears. Donkeys' ears are MUCH longer in proportion to their size than a horse's.
A mule is the offspring of a male donkey a jack and a female horse a mare. A horse has 64 chromosomes, and a donkey has The mule ends up with However, a male mule should be gelded in order to make him a safe and sociable animal. Except for the long ears, mules look very similar to horses, but their muscle composition is different. Mules have smoother muscles than horses. Both are very strong, but the mule has greater physical strength for its size, and more endurance.
The benefits of using frozen semen when breeding a mare are numerous. Cryopreservation freezing allows long-term sperm storage, which in turn allows a breeder to but and store semen from a stallion of interest and save it for the right mare in the future. The ability to import frozen semen from other countries allows breeders access to quality stallions all over the world. And storing frozen semen gives mare owners the option to breed to stallions that have died, have been castrated or are actively competing and not available for collection. While it might take more than one cycle to achieve a pregnancy using frozen semen, most young fertile mares will conceive over the course of a breeding season.
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As donkey owners or guardians, we always make sure we feed our donkeys with the right foods to ensure they stay healthy. Donkey nutrition varies from animal to animal depending on their age and health requirements. In their natural habitat donkeys will browse, eating highly fibrous plant material in small quantities throughout the day. During the spring and summer the donkeys at The Donkey Sanctuary have access to restricted grazing. In addition to the restricted grazing our donkeys always have access to barley straw to ensure they are getting plenty of fibre to meet their nutritional needs.
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