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Electro-Motive Diesel EMD is an American manufacturer of diesel-electric locomotives , locomotive products and diesel engines for the rail industry. The company is owned by Caterpillar through its subsidiary Progress Rail Services. EMD's headquarters, engineering facilities and parts manufacturing operations are based in McCook, Illinois , [note 1] while its final locomotive assembly line is located in Muncie, Indiana. As of , EMD employed approximately 3, people,  and in it held approximately 30 percent of the market for diesel-electric locomotives in North America. Harold L.VIDEO ON THE TOPIC: Visit to the factory of marine engines, generator sets, spare parts and marine accessories
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Last updated: August 14, W ind turbines look like airplane propellers running on the spot—spinning round but going nowhere. They're serving a very useful purpose, however. There's energy locked in wind and their giant rotors can capture some of it and turn it instantly into electricity. Have you ever stopped to wonder how wind turbines work?
Let's take a closer look! Photo: A small wind farm in Colorado, United States. These are relatively small turbines: each one produces about kW of energy enough to supply about homes. The turbines are 79m ft high from the ground to the very top of the rotors and the rotors themselves are The top part of each turbine called the nacelle rotates on the tower beneath so the spinning blades are always facing directly into the wind.
Photo: Head for heights! You can see just how big a wind turbine is compared to this engineer, who's standing right inside the nacelle main unit carrying out maintenance. Notice how the white blades at the front connect via an axle gray—under the engineer's feet to the gearbox and generator behind blue.
A turbine , like the ones in a wind farm, is a machine that spins around in a moving fluid liquid or gas and catches some of the energy passing by. All sorts of machines use turbines, from jet engines to hydroelectric power plants and from diesel railroad locomotives to windmills.
Even a child's toy windmill is a simple form of turbine. The huge rotor blades on the front of a wind turbine are the "turbine" part. The blades have a special curved shape, similar to the airfoil wings on a plane. When wind blows past a plane's wings, it moves them upward with a force we call lift; when it blows past a turbine's blades, it spins them around instead.
The wind loses some of its kinetic energy energy of movement and the turbine gains just as much. As you might expect, the amount of energy that a turbine makes is proportional to the area that its rotor blades sweep out; in other words, the longer the rotor blades, the more energy a turbine will generate.
Obviously, faster winds help too: if the wind blows twice as quickly, there's potentially eight times more energy available for a turbine to harvest. That's because the energy in wind is proportional to the cube of its speed. Wind varies all the time so the electricity produced by a single wind turbine varies as well. Linking many wind turbines together into a large farm, and linking many wind farms in different areas into a national power grid, produces a much more steady supply overall.
Although we talk about "wind turbines," the turbine is only one of the parts inside these machines. For most but not all turbines, another key part is a gearbox whose gears convert the relatively slow rotation of the spinning blades into higher-speed motion—turning the drive shaft quickly enough to power the electricity generator.
The generator is an essential part of all turbines and you can think of it as being a bit like an enormous, scaled-up version of the dynamo on a bicycle. When you ride a bicycle, the dynamo touching the back wheel spins around and generates enough electricity to make a lamp light up.
The same thing happens in a wind turbine, only the "dynamo" generator is driven by the turbine's rotor blades instead of by a bicycle wheel, and the "lamp" is a light in someone's home miles away.
In practice, wind turbines use different types of generators that aren't very much like dynamos at all. You can read about how they work, more generally, in our main article about generators.
If you've ever stood beneath a large wind turbine, you'll know that they are absolutely gigantic and mounted on incredibly high towers. The longer the rotor blades, the more energy they can capture from the wind.
The giant blades typically 70m or feet in diameter, which is about 30 times the wingspan of an eagle multiply the wind's force like a wheel and axle , so a gentle breeze is often enough to make the blades turn around. Even so, typical wind turbines stand idle about 14 percent of the time, and most of the time they don't generate maximum power. This is not a drawback, however, but a deliberate feature of their design that allows them to work very efficiently in ever-changing winds.
Think of it like this. Cars don't drive around at top speed all the time: a car's engine and gearbox power the wheels as quickly or slowly as we need to go according to the speed of the traffic. Wind turbines are analogous: like cars, they're designed to work efficiently at a range of different speeds. A typical wind turbine nacelle is 85 meters feet off the ground—that's like 50 tall adults standing on one another's shoulders!
There's a good reason for this. If you've ever stood on a hill that's the tallest point for miles around, you'll know that wind travels much faster when it's clear of the buildings, trees, hills, and other obstructions at ground level.
So if you put a turbine's rotor blades high in the air, they capture considerably more wind energy than they would lower down. If you mount a wind turbine's rotor twice as high, it will usually make about a third more power. And capturing energy is what wind turbines are all about.
Since the blades of a wind turbine are rotating, they must have kinetic energy , which they "steal" from the wind. Now it's a basic law of physics known as the conservation of energy that you can't make energy out of nothing, so the wind must actually slow down slightly when it passes around a wind turbine.
That's not really a problem, because there's usually plenty more wind following on behind! It is a problem if you want to build a wind farm: unless you're in a really windy place, you have to make sure each turbine is a good distance from the ones around it so it's not affected by them.
Photo: This unusual Darrieus "egg-beater" wind turbine rotates about a vertical axis, unlike a normal turbine with a horizontal rotor. Its main advantage is that it can be mounted nearer to the ground, without a tower, which makes it cheaper construct. It can also capture wind coming from any direction without using things like pitch and yaw motors, which makes it simpler and cheaper. Even so, turbines like this suffer from a variety of other problems and are quite inefficient at capturing energy, so they're very rare.
Photo by courtesy of US Department of Energy. At first sight, it's hard to imagine why anyone would object to clean and green wind turbines—especially when you compare them to dirty coal-fired plants and risky nuclear ones, but they do have some disadvantages. One of the characteristics of a wind turbine is that it doesn't generate anything like as much power as a conventional coal, gas, or nuclear plant.
A typical modern turbine has a maximum power output of about 2 megawatts MW , which is enough to run 2kW electric toasters simultaneously—and enough to supply about homes , if it produces energy about 30 percent of the time.
The world's biggest offshore wind turbines can now make 8 megawatts, since winds are stronger and more persistent out at sea, and power about homes. In theory, you'd need 2MW turbines to make as much power as a really sizable MW or 2GW coal-fired power plant or a nuclear power station either of which can generate enough power to run a million 2kW toasters at the same time ; in practice, because coal and nuclear power stations produce energy fairly consistently and wind energy is variable, you'd need rather more.
If a good nuclear power plant operates at maximum capacity 90 percent of the time and a good, brand new, offshore wind farm manages to do the same 45 percent of the time , you'd need twice as many wind turbines to make up for that. Ultimately, wind power is variable and an efficient power grid needs a predictable supply of power to meet varying demand. In practice, that means it needs a mixture of different types of energy so supply can be almost percent guaranteed.
Some of these will operate almost continually like nuclear , some will produce power at peak times like hydroelectric plants , some will raise or lower the power they make at short notice like natural gas , and some will make power whenever they can like wind. Wind power can't be the only form of supply—and no-one has ever pretended that. As we've just seen, you can't jam a couple of thousand wind turbines tightly together and expect them to work effectively; they have to be spaced some distance apart typically 3—5 rotor diameters in the "crosswind" direction, between each turbine and the ones either side, and 8—10 diameters in the "downwind" direction, between each turbine and the ones in front and behind.
Put these two things together and you arrive at the biggest and most obvious disadvantage of wind power: it takes up a lot of space. If you wanted to power an entire country with wind alone which no-one has ever seriously suggested , you'd need to cover an absolutely vast land area with turbines. You could still use almost all the land between the turbines for farming; a typical wind farm removes less than 5 percent of land from production for the turbine bases, access roads, and grid connections.
You could mount turbines out at sea instead, but that raises other problems and costs more. Even onshore, connecting arrays of wind turbines to the power grid is obviously a bigger hurdle than wiring up a single, equivalent power plant. Some farmers and landowners have objections to new power lines, though many earn handsome profits from renting out their land potentially with a guaranteed income for a quarter of a century , most of which they can continue to use as before.
On the plus side, wind turbines are clean and green: unlike coal stations, once they're constructed, they don't make the carbon dioxide emissions that are causing global warming or the sulfur dioxide emissions that cause acid rain a type of air pollution. Once you've built them, the energy they make is limitless and except for spare parts and maintenance free over a typical lifetime of 25 years.
That's even more of an advantage than it sounds, because the cost of running conventional power plants is heavily geared to risky things like wholesale oil and gas prices and the volatility of world energy markets.
Wind turbine towers and nacelles contain quite a bit of metal , and concrete foundations to stop them falling over a typical turbine has parts in total , so constructing them does have some environmental impact. Even so, looking at their entire operating lifespan, it turns out that they have among the lowest carbon dioxide emissions of any form of power generation, significantly lower than fossil-fueled plants, most solar installations, or biomass plants.
Now nuclear power plants also have relatively low carbon dioxide emissions, but wind turbines don't have the security, pollution, and waste-disposal problems many people associate with nuclear energy, and they're much quicker and easier to construct.
They're also much cheaper, per kilowatt hour of power they produce: half the price of nuclear and two thirds the price of coal according to figures quoted by Milligan et al. According to the Global Wind Energy Council, a turbine can produce enough power in 3—6 months to recover the energy used throughout its lifetime constructing, operating, and recycling it. Some people worry that because wind is very variable, we might suddenly lose all our electricity and find ourselves plunged into a "blackout" a major power outage if we rely on it too much.
The reality of wind is quite different. Wherever you live, your power comes from a complex grid network of intricately interconnected power-generating units ranging from giant power plants to individual wind turbines. Utility companies are highly adept at balancing power generated in many different places, in many different ways, to match the load the total power demand as it varies from hour to hour and day to day.
The power from any one wind turbine will fluctuate as the wind rises and falls, but the total power produced by thousands of turbines, widely dispersed across an entire country, is much more regular and predictable. For a country like the UK, it's pretty much always windy somewhere. As Graham Sinden of Oxford University's Environmental Change Institute has shown, low wind speeds affect more than half the country for only 10 percent of the time; for 60 percent of the time, only 20 percent of the UK suffers from low wind speeds; and only for one hour per year is 90 percent of the UK suffering low speeds Sinden , figure 7.
In other words, having many wind turbines spread across many different places guarantees a reasonably steady supply of wind energy virtually all year round. Photo: You can put lots of turbines together to make a wind farm, but you need to space them out to harvest the energy effectively. Combining the output from many wind farms in many different areas produces a smoother and more predictable power supply.
It's also worth bearing in mind that wind is relatively predictable several days in advance so it's easy for power planners to take account of its variability as they figure out how to make enough power to meet expected demands. Opponents of wind power have even suggested that it might be counter-productive, because we'd need to build extra backup coal, nuclear, biomass, or hydro plants or some way of storing wind-generated electricity for those times when there's not enough wind blowing.
That would certainly be true if we made all our energy from one, single mega-sized wind turbine—but we don't! In reality, even countries that have large supplies of wind energy have plenty of other sources of power too; as long as wind power is making less than half of a country's total energy, the variability of the wind is not a problem.
Denmark, for example, makes 20 percent of its electricity—and meets 43 percent of its peak load—with wind; Eric Martinot's article "How is Denmark Integrating and Balancing Renewable Energy Today?
In practice, every country's electricity has always come from a mixture of different energy sources, and the ideal mix varies from one country to another for geographical, practical, and political reasons.
Photo: How pumped storage works: When there's lots of cheap electricity about at night or when the wind is blowing , water is pumped up the mountain to the high-level lake at low cost. When electricity is more expensive and valuable in the day, at peak times , the water drains from the high lake to the low one, powering a hydroelectric turbine. Wind could play a bigger part in the future if we could find cost-effective ways of storing electricity produced on windy days for times when there's little or no wind to harvest.
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An official shipping ceremony of five Model Expo international railway fair in Scherbinka, Russia. In accordance to the contracts signed in February-March , and with support from Sberbank Leasing, TMH will manufacture carriages. Tver Carriage Works part of TMH is conducting tests of new sleeper coaches — the first ones in Russia designed to operate in pairs.
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Henry Meadows , usually known simply as Meadows , of Wolverhampton , England were major suppliers of engines and transmissions to the smaller companies in the British motor industry. Founded in in Park Lane, Wolverhampton, as a car gearbox maker, they expanded into petrol engines in and in the s built a large factory in Fallings Park , Wolverhampton. Early production was connected with the move from W. Dorman's son, John E. Dorman in August , and a design engineer Mr R. Dorman had been producing engines from The early Meadows engines and gearboxes were produced with Meadows-Dorman on the castings.
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Now in South Korea: clocks for websites. The separator can be established on any vehicle with the diesel engine. Main of the most important functions of a fuel separator can call separation of water from fuel since availability of water in fuel causes not only wear, but also can lead to major maintenance of the diesel engine.
Новобрачные разделили свои первые объятия с - А ты когда-нибудь разговаривал с Патриком о сексе. - спросила Николь Ричарда, после того как вечеринка закончилась и все разошлись. - Нет. Макс вызвался.
Когда ты вытрешься и оденешься.
Благодарю вас, Робин, благодарю вас, брат Тук, - Макс помог дамам подняться в багги, - за ваше внимание к моим подругам. Брат Тук приблизился к багги, явно намереваясь задать очередной вопрос, но Макс нажал на педали. - Сегодня ночь костюмов и тайн, - произнес он, отмахиваясь от мужчины. - Мы не можем ждать - море зовет.
В итоге в течение ближайших 36 часов ни один из членов семьи не оставлял большую комнату, разве что по физиологической необходимости. К концу этого времени всех - в особенности птенцов и близнецов - буквально лихорадило. Ричард и Наи взяли Тамми, Тимми, Бенджи и младших в коридор, безуспешно пытаясь утихомирить их, и повели от большого зала к вертикальному коридору с острыми выступами, опускавшемуся глубже в логово октопауков.
Ричард, на спине которого, как и всегда, путешествовала Никки, заранее предостерег Наи и близнецов - они приближались к опасному месту. Но едва тоннель расширился и они оказались возле вертикальной шахты, предприимчивый Галилей скользнул вниз по выступам, прежде чем мать успела остановить.
Там он застыл в испуге. Ричарду пришлось извлекать мальчишку, уцепившегося за пару выступов почти под самым полом, кольцом окружавшим огромную пропасть.
Когда птенцы еще не проклюнулись, во время моих долгих прогулок я иногда видел их вдали. Они остановились перед единственной дверью в стене сооружения, выходившей в сторону канала. - Итак, входим.