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An investigation of organic sheep and goat production by nomad pastoralists in southern Iran
December , Cite as. The nomadic pastoralist system in Baft district in Kerman province is well known in Iran for producing cashmere from Raeini goats. However, there is little information regarding the organic sheep and goat production systems. Interviews and field observations were carried out with 30 Siahjel nomad families of Raen origin in proximity of Baft city to characterize the organic production system in terms of feeding, animal health and veterinary treatments, husbandry management practices, transport, slaughtering and housing.
Unimproved rangeland was found to be the main source of sheep and goat nutrition belonging to nomads in southern Iran. Nomad livestock were not fed in stables or in restricted areas but moved and grazed freely in extensive open grazing areas.
As a nomadic traditional feeding management practice, there were no minerals, vitamins, pro-vitamins or GMOs for animal feed. Nomad sheep and goat breeds were considered to be robust, adapted to the environment and disease-tolerant livestock. In the nomadic system, no animal cruelty practices such as tail ducking, dehorning and tethering were allowed. To keep ruminants in groups to meet their social needs, nomad families stayed and kept animals together to support each other in different livestock activities, including shepherding, feeding, milking and health care.
Due to natural breeding in nomadic herds, the male breeding stock was kept and grazed separately from does during the breeding season. Nomadic livestock products, i. The increasing incidences of residues of pesticides, chemical fertilizers, antibiotics and hormones in livestock products overrecent years are of great concern.
For ensuring food safety and protecting human health, the attitude toward organic products is rapidly gaining positive perceptions from people in developing countries including Middle Eastern countries IFOAM ; Jaffee and Howard ; Schleenbecker and Hamm ; FiBL Livestock organic production entails production of highly nutritive quality foods free from all kinds of impurities for sound human health, in which ethological characteristics of animals are respected.
Organic livestock producers commit to respect a list of specifications governing animal care, welfare and feeding, obliging them to give their livestock access to pasture Leroux et al. Organic sheep and goat production based on grazing Rahmann , could be a valid alternative to animals kept in intensive or industrial systems fed with standard rations of concentrates.
Existing similarities between organic agricultural products and extensive farming systems in many developing countries Ben Kheder ; Znaidi enable many traditional farmers, including nomads, to convert to organic systems. The geographical and ecological conditions of Iran are well-suited to small ruminant production. The relatively low cost of sheep and goat farming local breeds - well adapted to their environment plus extensive free communal grazing areas and the increasing demand for expensive organic products in domestic and regional export markets Herman and Steidle ; Steidle and Herman ; Ak and Koyuncu encourages nomads to shift to organic production.
There is evidence that, besides being usually free from undesirable residues, the products from pastoralists are also appreciated for their high nutritional value and better taste.
In Iran, milk and meat produced by nomads is regarded as a local specialty and is much preferred to that of animals raised by large industrial complexes. In addition to these material benefits of nomadic pastoralist products, there are significant immaterial values. Pastoralist breeds are part of the local heritage and contribute to local and regional identity, besides often being essential for traditional rituals.
Despite this array of advantages, nomadic pastoralists currently continue to market their products generically and there is no awareness about the taste and health benefits of their animals among consumers, policy-makers and even themselves.
Nomads play an important role in sheep and goat production mainly because they keep Sheep and goat populations of Iran comprise Nomadic systems in Iran are characterized by low population densities, movement of livestock between grazing areas regions and provinces in different seasons, weak linkages to markets and public services, and based on several multiple co-resident family units clusters of two to five households staying together.
The majority of the nomadic pastoralists do not have permanent settlements and consequently use mobile homes such as tents Ansari-Renani ; Ansari-Renani et al. Growing demand for organic sheep and goat products will continue to be the main driver of nomadic livestock systems for domestic and export markets. At present, information regarding Iranian nomadic organic sheep and goat production systems is very limited.
The objective of the present study was to describe the characteristics of and to evaluate potentials and conditions under which nomad pastoralists of southern Iran are able to produce different organic livestock products. Attempts were made to address constraints and shortcomings of the sustainable nomadic system in livestock organic production. Map of Iran showing the study area and distribution of 30 nomad households chosen within the Baft region in Kerman province. The nomads are completely dependent on livestock as a source of income.
Highly performing, special breeds and cross-breeds according to product aimed for. Only animals reared in organic farms, diversity of breeds, sometimes rare breeds, natural breeding. Animal protection laws requirements for keeping of animal according to species.
Special requirements for keeping animals oriented toward animal welfare stock density, space, grazing, tiding, etc. According to current foodstuff legislation permitted food additives such as enzymes and synthetic amino acids. Foodstuffs produced as much as possible on site, feeding rations according to animal welfare e. Rangeland is considered the main source of livestock nutrition, no synthetics, no GMOs, no pesticides and chemical fertilizers, livestock are not fed in stables or in restricted areas but they move and graze freely in extensive open grazing areas.
Managed breeding, if necessary stable-wide prophylaxis, legally required waiting periods according to drug prescription law. No prophylaxis exception: legally required vaccination , minimal allopathical treatments per year, no tethering, polling and tail clipping.
They were integral to their respective eco-systems and provided a host of environmental services. Taking droughts and hunger in their stride and acting as insurance, these breeds walk for miles in harsh terrain and seek out scattered, spiky, fibrous plants that survive in areas where crops could never be grown.
In organic farming, the breeding of small ruminants should be done by natural mating. Artificial insemination is allowed, but not embryo transfer, oestrus synchronization, etc. In the nomadic system, animal breeding was only by natural mating, and techniques such as artificial insemination, embryo transfer and oestrus synchronization were not popular among nomads. As industrial modes of livestock production are spreading, domestic animal diversity is in rapid decline. According to FAO, one third of all livestock breeds have either perished or are threatened with extinction, due to intensive selection for high production by means of artificial insemination and embryo transfer and spreading of a small number of genetically narrow high-performance breeds around the whole world.
Percentage of nomad herds moving together and adopting different management practices. In organic systems, castration of male stock is allowed so as to keep traditional animal husbandry practices. In the nomadic areas, breeding management was difficult in mixed flocks of male and female animals, without male castration. All nomad livestock owners castrated the male kids and lambs at a very young age.
The surgical technique of cutting the scrotum open with a knife and pulling the testicles was the common method of castration among nomads. They castrated their animals during the cool months of the spring and autumn, to reduce the chances of infection being spread by flies and other insects.
In organic farming, ruminants have to be kept in groups to meet their social needs; however, it is not defined how social needs can be fulfilled in farm conditions. Contrarily, nomads had well-defined social methods for keeping livestock under farming conditions. Furthermore, families staying and keeping their livestock together allowed nomads to herd adult and young animals separately as the social needs and feed requirements of different aninal age groups differ and require particular management practices.
The kidding period at the beginning of winter was at a season of lower temperatures and lower feed availability. Hence, animals were supplemented with limited amount of barley, and to avoid losses, at the end of autumn, most nomads migrated to warmer areas in the southern provinces adjacent to the Persian Gulf. As a result of natural breeding and the high proportion of males to females in the nomadic flock, male breeding stock was kept and grazed separately during the breeding season.
Bucks come into rut during the breeding season. Rut is characterized by a decrease in appetite, obsessive interest in the does and a strong heat. Nomads knew that when strong-smelling bucks are not separated from the does during breeding season, their scent will affect the milk.
In organic farming, male breeding stock has to be kept in the farm. It is permissible to use conventionally-kept male breeding stock. In organic farming, the animals have to be slaughtered in abattoirs which fulfil the regulations of organic farming and are certified Leu Traditionally, the nomads consumed more milk in their diets than meat. In fact, they often express a dislike for killing and trading animals.
Animals were sold to certified abattoirs or butchers directly either for cash needed for income or for culling unwanted livestock. Meat production was almost exclusively for sale. Home slaughtering for own consumption and sale to neighbours or relatives occurred only occasionally. The proportion of nomads buying animals was very low; the reason was that they usually depend on their existing animals to reproduce and increase their herd size.
The transport of livestock is not clearly defined in organic farming, but a stress-reduced loading, transporting and unloading of livestock without the use of allopathic tranquillizer, electrical shockers or similar tools is preferred. Nomad livestock movements between communal grazing areas in different provinces are gradual, and animals are relocated by migration on foot which may take up to three to five days, depending on the distance covered.
Sometimes, trucks were used to transport livestock between grazing areas in different Provinces. Rangeland is considered the main source of nomad sheep and goat nutrition of southern Iran.
Percentage of nomad farms using different chemicals, sources of feed, type of grazing land and feeding method. In organic farming, it is not permitted to use anything produced using genetically modified organisms GMOs or derivatives.
This includes feed for livestock. There are permissible minerals, vitamins and pro-vitamins for animal feed, and artificially produced vitamins may not be used for ruminants. In focus group discussions, nomad herders frequently emphasized that the diversity of plant species consumed was responsible for the superior taste and healthiness of sheep and goat milk and meat.
Most of these plants also have medicinal value. The local knowledge of the nomad pastoralist communities sees a connection between the dietary composition of livestock feed and the nutritional value of livestock products. Nomadic sheep and goat breeds were social animals in the true sense, living in a and flock, responding to the voice of their keepers. By means of such breeds of livestock that are co-evolved with their eco-system, nomads were in a position to use the dispersed and extremely bio-diverse natural vegetation of drylands and mountainous areas into a range of high-value delicious organic food including meat and milk, as well as a range of other organic products such as fibre, fertilizer and hides.
They did this without leaving any carbon footprint, as their animals forage for themselves and no energy is expended to grow or transport feed to them. On many organic farms, kids and lambs receive only colostrum milk and subsequently powdered milk. The young stock does not suckle and receive natural milk because the organic milk is very valuable and expensive Rahmann Even skimmed powdered cow milk can be used as long as it has an organic label.
In the nomadic system there was no early weaning system, contrary to intensive and organic sheep and goat systems of production in which early weaning of lambs and kids is practised and all the milk and milk products are consumed by humans. When young animals were still nursing, the flock returned to the tent at least once each day to allow the young to nurse.
In the nomadic system, as a preventive practice, newborn and young animals were often kept together at the tent with the nomad women and children until they were old enough to go out to pasture with the flock. Animals that were diseased were likewise kept at the family tent, effectively isolated from the flock so chances that infection will spread throughout the flock are thus reduced.
Robust, adapted and disease-tolerant livestock ensure fit and healthy animals. Nomad breeds were considered to fulfil these targets. These were indigenous breeds typical of a specific region, adapted to the local environmental conditions and retaining the pattern for centuries.
Livestock is commonly defined as domesticated animals raised in an agricultural setting to produce labor and commodities such as meat , eggs , milk , fur , leather , and wool. The term is sometimes used to refer solely to those that are bred for consumption, while other times it refers only to farmed ruminants , such as cattle and goats. Poultry and fish are not included in the category. The breeding, maintenance, and slaughter of livestock, known as animal husbandry , is a component of modern agriculture that has been practiced in many cultures since humanity's transition to farming from hunter-gatherer lifestyles.
The global goat population continues to grow and is now over one billion. The number of goats raised primarily for milk production is also growing, due to expanding demand. Most of the world dairy goat production and consumption is in Asia, but a global view of the dairy goat sector reveals important lessons about building successful modern dairy goat industries. The most organized market for goat milk is found in Europe, especially in France. The European goat sector is specialized for milk production, mostly for industrial cheesemaking, while also supporting traditional on-farm manufacturing.
Extensive farming or extensive agriculture as opposed to intensive farming is an agricultural production system that uses small inputs of labor , fertilizers, and capital , relative to the land area being farmed. Extensive farming most commonly means raising sheep and cattle in areas with low agricultural productivity, but includes large-scale growing of wheat , barley , cooking oils and other grain crops in areas like the Murray-Darling Basin in Australia. Here, owing to the extreme age and poverty of the soils, yields per hectare are very low, but the flat terrain and very large farm sizes mean yields per unit of labour are high. Nomadic herding is an extreme example of extensive farming, where herders move their animals to use feed from occasional sunlight. Extensive farming is found in the mid-latitude sections of most continents, as well as in desert regions where water for cropping is not available. The nature of extensive farming means it requires less rainfall than intensive farming. The farm is usually large in comparison with the numbers working and money spent on it. In , most parts of Western Australia had pastures so poor that only one sheep to the square mile could be supported .
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Agricultural production - livestock and meat
Non-Bovine Milk and Milk Products presents a compiled and renewed vision of the knowledge existing as well as the emerging challenges on animal husbandry and non-cow milk production, technology, chemistry, microbiology, safety, nutrition, and health, including current policies and practices. Non-bovine milk products are an expanding means of addressing nutritional and sustainable food needs around the world. While many populations have integrated non-bovine products into their diets for centuries, as consumer demand and acceptance have grown, additional opportunities for non-bovine products are emerging. Understanding the proper chain of production will provide important insight into the successful growth of this sector. This book is a valuable resource for those involved in the non-cow milk sector, e.
Dairy Goat Production
December , Cite as. The nomadic pastoralist system in Baft district in Kerman province is well known in Iran for producing cashmere from Raeini goats. However, there is little information regarding the organic sheep and goat production systems. Interviews and field observations were carried out with 30 Siahjel nomad families of Raen origin in proximity of Baft city to characterize the organic production system in terms of feeding, animal health and veterinary treatments, husbandry management practices, transport, slaughtering and housing. Unimproved rangeland was found to be the main source of sheep and goat nutrition belonging to nomads in southern Iran. Nomad livestock were not fed in stables or in restricted areas but moved and grazed freely in extensive open grazing areas. As a nomadic traditional feeding management practice, there were no minerals, vitamins, pro-vitamins or GMOs for animal feed.
It is difficult to describe the feeding and management of the sheep and goat industry around the world because of the many interacting factors such as production system, management system within each production system, genetic potential of the breeds, biological constraints etc. The systems of sheep and goat production can be divided into the following categories:. Meat production from sheep and goats as the main product and wool, fibre and skin as byproducts.
Housing of sheep and goats
United States Census of Agriculture: General report, statistics by subjects. United States. Bureau of the Census.
Current status of global dairy goat production: an overview
United States. Bureau of the Census. Introduction WII Chapter.
There are A. Centres in the State which cater quality Breeding Services to the farmers. Breeding of Non-descript low productive Desi Cows is undertaken through high producing exotic breeds like Holstein Friesian and Jersey Bulls. An elaborate breeding policy is in vogue since year in the State with the main emphasis on breeding with H. However, in under developed areas and on small Cow breeds breeding is preferred with Jersey Bulls.
Rural areas in Texas are being rapidly developed and urbanized, especially in the central and southwest parts of the state. Many urban dwellers want to escape to the country to live a quiet, peaceful life or enjoy recreational opportunities on their own land. As a result, large tracts in rural areas are being divided into properties of 5 to acres; many are fewer than 20 acres. New rural landowners almost always want to maintain or obtain an ad valorem tax exemption, which is most often granted for agricultural use of the land. They often decide to start livestock enterprises to meet tax exemption requirements.
Мне казалось - не знаю почему, - что оно по-прежнему обитаемо. И октопауки или новые обитатели следили за каждым моим шагом. - На этот раз расхохотался .