Manufacture ware products from porcelain, faience, semi-porcelain and majolica
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Pottery & Porcelain (D) - Encyclopedia Of Antiques
Tin-glazed Majolica plate from Faenza , Italy. Tin-glazed pottery is pottery covered in glaze containing tin oxide which is white, shiny and opaque. See tin-glazing. The pottery body is usually made of red or buff colored earthenware and the white glaze was often used to imitate Chinese porcelain. Tin-glazed pottery is usually decorated, the decoration applied to the unfired glaze surface by brush as metallic oxides, commonly cobalt oxide , copper oxide , iron oxide , manganese dioxide and antimony oxide.
The makers of Italian tin-glazed pottery from the late Renaissance blended oxides to produce detailed and realistic polychrome paintings.
The earliest tin-glazed pottery appears to have been made in Iraq in the ninth century, the oldest fragments having been excavated during the First World War from the palace of Samarra about fifty miles north of Baghdad. In the 18th century Josiah Wedgwood formulated a white earthenware body from which he could make light and durable tablewares.
As these were almost as white as tin-glazed pottery and better in other ways, they replaced it in the 19th century. There has been a revival in the twentieth century by studio potters. Some twentieth-century artists painted on tin-glazed pottery, for example, Picasso — , who produced much work of this kind in the s and s.
Chinese porcelain white ware bowl left found in Iran , and Iraqi tin-glazed earthenware bowl right found in Iraq , both th century, an example of Chinese influences on Islamic pottery. British Museum. Tin-glazed pottery of different periods and styles is known by different names.
The pottery from Muslim Spain is known as Hispano-Moresque ware. The decorated tin-glaze of Renaissance Italy is called maiolica , sometimes pronounced majolica by English speakers.
When the technique was taken up in the Netherlands it became known as delftware as much of it was made in the town of Delft. Dutch potters brought it to England in around and wares produced there are known as English delftware or galleyware. In France it was known as faience. The word maiolica is thought to have come from the medieval Italian word for Majorca , an island on the route for ships that brought Hispano-Moresque wares to Italy from Valencia in the 15th and 16th centuries, or from the Spanish obra de Mallequa , the term for lustered ware made in Valencia under the influence of Moorish craftsmen from Malaga.
During the Renaissance, the term maiolica was adopted for Italian-made luster pottery copying Spanish examples, and during the 16th century its meaning shifted to include all tin-glazed earthenware. In the late 18th century, old Italian maiolica became popular among the British, who referred to it by the anglicized pronunciation majolica.
The Minton pottery copied it and applied the term majolica ware to their product. At the Great Exhibition of , Minton launched a colorful lead-glazed earthenware which they called Palissy ware.
By the s, the public was calling Palissy ware majolica , and the usage has stuck. A Hispano-Moresque dish, approx 32cm diameter, with Christian monogram "IHS", decorated in cobalt blue and gold luster. Valencia, c. Burrell Collection. The Moors introduced tin-glazed pottery to Spain after the conquest of Hispano-Moresque ware is generally distinguished from the pottery of Christendom by the Islamic character of its decoration,  though as the dish illustrated shows, it was also made for the Christian market.
Hispano-Moresque shapes of the fifteenth century included the albarello a tall jar , luster dishes with coats of arms , made for wealthy Italians and Spaniards, jugs, some on high feet the citra and the grealet , a deep-sided dish the lebrillo de alo and the eared bowl cuenco de oreja.
With the Spanish conquest of Mexico , tin-glazed pottery came to be produced in the Valley of Mexico as early as , at first in imitation of the ceramics imported from Seville. Although the Moors were expelled from Spain in the early seventeenth century, the Hispano-Moresque style survived in the province of Valencia.
Later wares usually have a coarse reddish-buff body, dark blue decoration and luster. An albarello drug jar from Venice or Castel Durante, 16th century. Approx 30cm high. Decorated in cobalt blue, copper green, antimony yellow and yellow ochre.
Refined production of tin-glazed earthenware made for more than local needs was concentrated in central Italy from the later thirteenth century, especially in the contada of Florence. The city itself declined in importance in the second half of the fifteenth century, perhaps because of local deforestation.
Italian cities encouraged the start of a new pottery industry by offering tax relief, citizenship, monopoly rights and protection from outside imports.
Production scattered among small communes  and, after the mid-fifteenth century, at Faenza , Arezzo and Siena. Faenza, which gave its name to faience , was the only fair-sized city in which the ceramic industry became a major economic component.
Orvieto and Deruta both produced maioliche in the fifteenth century. In the sixteenth century, maiolica production was established at Castel Durante , Urbino , Gubbio and Pesaro.
Some maiolica was produced as far north as Padua , Venice and Turin and as far south as Palermo and Caltagirone in Sicily. Some of the principal centers of production e. Deruta and Montelupo still produce maiolica, which is sold in quantity in Italian tourist areas. Delftware was made in the Netherlands and from the sixteenth to the eighteenth centuries. The main period of manufacture was The earliest tin-glazed pottery in the Netherlands was made in Antwerp in The manufacture of painted pottery may have spread from the south to the northern Netherlands in the s.
It was made in Middleburg and Haarlem in the s and in Amsterdam in the s. The Guild of St. Luke , to which painters in all media had to belong, admitted ten master potters in the thirty years between and and twenty in the nine years to In a gunpowder explosion in Delft destroyed many breweries and as the brewing industry was in decline they became available to pottery makers looking for larger premises.
From about , the potters began to coat their pots completely in white tin glaze instead of covering only the painting surface and coating the rest with clear glaze. They then began to cover the tin glaze with a coat of clear glaze which gave depth to the fired surface and smoothness to cobalt blues, ultimately creating a good resemblance to porcelain. Although Dutch potters did not immediately imitate Chinese porcelain, they began to do after the death of the Emperor Wan-Li in , when the supply to Europe was interrupted.
Delftware ranged from simple household items to fancy artwork. Pictorial plates were made in abundance, illustrated with religious motifs, native Dutch scenes with windmills and fishing boats , hunting scenes, landscapes and seascapes.
The Delft potters also made tiles in vast numbers estimated at eight hundred million over a period of two hundred years  ; many Dutch houses still have tiles that were fixed in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. Delftware became popular, was widely exported in Europe and reached China and Japan. Chinese and Japanese potters made porcelain versions of Delftware for export to Europe.
By the late 18th century, Delftware potters had lost their market to British porcelain and the new white earthenware. English delftware was made in the British Isles between about and the late s. The main centers of production were London , Bristol and Liverpool with smaller centers at Wincanton , Glasgow and Dublin.
There were already other Flemish potters in London, two of them in Southwark recorded in as "painters of pottes". English delftware pottery and its painted decoration is similar in many respects to that from Holland, but its peculiarly English quality has been commented upon: ".
The earliest known piece with an English inscription is a dish dated in the London Museum. The rim is decorated with dashes of blue and can be considered the first in series of large decorated dishes so painted and called blue-dash chargers. As they were kept for decoration on walls, dressers and side-tables, many have survived and they are well represented in museum collections.
Smaller and more everyday wares were also made: paving tiles, mugs, drug jars, dishes, wine bottles, posset pots , salt pots, candlesticks, fuddling cups,  puzzle jugs,  barber's bowls, pill slabs, bleeding bowls, porringers , and flower bricks. Towards the end of the 17th century, changing taste led to the replacement of apothecary pots, paving tiles and large dishes by polite tablewares, delicate ornaments, punch bowls , teapots, cocoa pots and coffee-pots.
Apothecary wares, including albarellos , can bear the names of their intended contents, generally in Latin and often so abbreviated to be unrecognizable to the untutored eye. Contemporary tin-glazed pottery: a large plate by Daphne Carnegy, c. William de Morgan — re-discovered the technique of firing luster on tin-glaze "to an extraordinarily high standard". Caiger-Smith trained many potters at his Aldermaston Pottery and his influence can be seen in their work e.
Lawrence McGowan and Mohammed Hamid. Caiger-Smith's book Tin-glaze Pottery is an authoritative history of maiolica, delftware and faience in Europe and the Islamic world.
Explora wikis Comunidad Central Crear un wiki. Crear un wiki. Tin-glazed Majolica plate from Faenza , Italy Tin-glazed pottery is pottery covered in glaze containing tin oxide which is white, shiny and opaque.
Indice [ mostrar ]. Caiger-Smith describes its mood as "ingenuous, direct, sometimes eccentric", and Garner talks of its "quite distinctive character". Cancelar Guardar. La lista de autores la puedes ver en Historial.
Tin-glazed pottery is earthenware covered in lead glaze with added tin oxide  which is white, shiny and opaque see tin-glazing for the chemistry ; usually this provides a background for brightly painted decoration. It has been important in Islamic and European pottery , but very little used in East Asia. The pottery body is usually made of red or buff-colored earthenware and the white glaze imitated Chinese porcelain. The decoration on tin-glazed pottery is usually applied to the unfired glaze surface by brush with metallic oxides, commonly cobalt oxide , copper oxide , iron oxide , manganese dioxide and antimony oxide.
Fine tin-glazed earthenware maiolica in traditional pattern, made in Faenza. The invention seems to have been made in Iran or the Middle East before the ninth century. A kiln capable of producing temperatures exceeding 1. The term is now used for a wide variety of pottery from several parts of the world, including many types of European painted wares, often produced as cheaper versions of porcelain styles. Technically, lead-glazed earthenware, such as the French sixteenth-century Saint-Porchaire ware , does not properly qualify as faience, but the distinction is not usually maintained.
Tin-glazed Majolica plate from Faenza , Italy. Tin-glazed pottery is pottery covered in glaze containing tin oxide which is white, shiny and opaque. See tin-glazing. The pottery body is usually made of red or buff colored earthenware and the white glaze was often used to imitate Chinese porcelain. Tin-glazed pottery is usually decorated, the decoration applied to the unfired glaze surface by brush as metallic oxides, commonly cobalt oxide , copper oxide , iron oxide , manganese dioxide and antimony oxide. The makers of Italian tin-glazed pottery from the late Renaissance blended oxides to produce detailed and realistic polychrome paintings. The earliest tin-glazed pottery appears to have been made in Iraq in the ninth century, the oldest fragments having been excavated during the First World War from the palace of Samarra about fifty miles north of Baghdad. In the 18th century Josiah Wedgwood formulated a white earthenware body from which he could make light and durable tablewares. As these were almost as white as tin-glazed pottery and better in other ways, they replaced it in the 19th century.
ITALIAN CERAMICS FROM MIDDLE AGE TO THE PRESENT
A money-making idea! Herbert Minton thought so. Leon Arnoux is appointed Art Director in a t just the right time to make it all happen. Yes, Bernard Palissy developed our vibrant, exciting majolica in France.
A marbled earthenware made by mixing clays of differing colours. Associated with Thomas Whieldon, but manufactured by many potteries between about and A vitreous stoneware introduced by Josiah Wedgwood in circa
Stoneware and earthenware
Majolica, faience, and delftware are terms that describe glazed earthenware objects. Yet there are distinguishing factors among these products that are often misunderstood; this article provides a brief historical overview in an attempt to create some order out of the confusion. By the first half of the fifteenth century the cities of Brugge and Antwerp in the Southern Netherlands, now Belgium, were importing Italian earthenware through their trade connections with Italy, Spain, and Portugal. Majolica, as the pottery came to be known, is an earthenware product coated with a highly translucent lead glaze on the back, which is rendered an opaque white on the front by the addition of tin oxide.
Defining Attributes A soft-bodied earthenware ceramic with a lead glaze to which has been added tin-oxide, often painted with blue and polychrome designs. Wares commonly found on Chesapeake sites are Dutch or English in origin, although French, Italian, Portuguese, and Spanish tin-glazed wares are sometimes also recovered. Tin-glazed ceramics represent attempts throughout the Middle East and West to copy porcelains produced in China, and were the first white, painted pottery produced in England. Chronology Tin-glazed earthenwares were first produced in northern Europe in the 16th century, although the technology was known elsewhere centuries earlier. In the Chesapeake, tin-glazed earthenware fragments are recovered from archaeological sites dating from the first years of European settlement through the third quarter of the 18th century, when tin-glazed tablewares began to be eclipsed by more durable refined earthenwares.
Majolica, Faience, and Delftware
The history of the iconic Dutch faience produced mainly in the western Dutch city of Delft is drawn up in many publications. Museums and studenst in the Netherlands and around the world are continuously researching certain aspects of a product the played such a pivoting role in the history of arts, of the first encounters between Europe and the Far East and of the comencement of the production of faience and porcelain in other European cities. Both Meissen and Sevres drew on the knowledge built over centuries in Delft. In the first half of the 15th century, mercantile cities such as Brugge Bruges and Antwerp in the southern Netherlands now Belgium became familiar with earthenware from southern Europe through both trade and political contacts with Italy, Spain and Portugal. This earthenware was exported by Spain and Italy to the northwestern European commercial centers often by sea. Dutch Maiolica is an earthenware product coated with a tin glaze on the front or exterior and a highly translucent lead glaze on the back or base. Maiolica dishes were fired face down on three spurs that often left marks which remained visible in the central design.
Great use was made of ground colors for rich decorations, an apple-green being particularly favored. The factory was in operation until and much porcelain with their mark has survived, and fine examples are now much sought after. In a new pottery was built at Dedham where Chinese "crackle" ware and high-fired vases were produced. These vases were self-colored red, green, yellow and slate, all simple and heavy to withstand the strain of high-firing.
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The invention of a white pottery glaze suitable for painted decoration, by the addition of an oxide of tin to the slip of a lead glaze, was a major advance in the history of pottery. The invention seems to have been made in Iran or the Middle East before the ninth century. The term is now used for a wide variety of pottery from several parts of the world, including many types of European painted wares, often produced as cheaper versions of porcelain styles. English generally uses various other terms for well-known sub-types of faience.
Majolica Ware , page Victorian majolica was made between and This piece with its design is probably late 's to early 's although the molds were used until the 's. Checking the box of the Newsletter, I consent to the Maioliche Originali Deruta company sending emails containing advertising material such as news on the products just released and advice on purchases of products similar to those already ordered. We love the unusual colors and pine cones with.
Production of earthenware and stoneware for the cheaper market continued on an ever-increasing scale. Lustre decoration , which had been revived in the preceding century, was used more frequently than before. Ironstone china , a type of opaque stoneware sometimes called opaque porcelain, was introduced early in the 19th century.