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Plant manufactory electronic devices, except integrated circuits and piezoelectric devices

Plant manufactory electronic devices, except integrated circuits and piezoelectric devices

Ceramic materials are used in a wide range of applications from power distribution to smartphones. Ceramic-based components are indispensable in products such as smartphones, computers, televisions, automotive electronics, and medical devices. Although ceramics have traditionally been considered insulating materials, after World War II, research in material science has led to the development of new ceramic formulations that exhibit semiconducting, superconducting, piezoelectric, and magnetic properties. Ceramic products used as electrical insulators include spark plugs, hermetic packaging, ceramic arc tubes, and protective parts e. These products are primarily used in sectors such as automotive, marine transportation, aerospace, and electricity distribution. Among these products, spark plugs represent the oldest and the most popular.

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Inorganic and Organic Solution-Processed Thin Film Devices

Thin films and thin film devices have a ubiquitous presence in numerous conventional and emerging technologies. This is because of the recent advances in nanotechnology, the development of functional and smart materials, conducting polymers, molecular semiconductors, carbon nanotubes, and graphene, and the employment of unique properties of thin films and ultrathin films, such as high surface area, controlled nanostructure for effective charge transfer, and special physical and chemical properties, to develop new thin film devices.

This paper is therefore intended to provide a concise critical review and research directions on most thin film devices, including thin film transistors, data storage memory, solar cells, organic light-emitting diodes, thermoelectric devices, smart materials, sensors, and actuators.

The thin film devices may consist of organic, inorganic, and composite thin layers, and share similar functionality, properties, and fabrication routes. A thin solid film usually refers to a layer of material ranging from few nanometers to several micrometers in thickness. Thin solid films may be divided into two categories of passive and active films. Passive thin films including coatings are used for aesthetic and decoration purposes, or protection of the underlying surfaces, against moisture, oxygen, high temperature, and mechanical forces to avoid corrosion, surface damage, etc.

On the other hand, active thin films can in fact respond to specific triggering effects, such as light, heat, and contact with gases and biological analytes and generate a response for energy conversion, sensing, mechanical actuation, etc. Therefore, the combination of one or more active thin films, and perhaps some passive thin films, can make a thin film device, such as thin film solar cells SCs , transistors, thermoelectric devices, sensors, and actuators, to name a few.

Various types of thin film devices may share similar principles of operation or fabrication processes, and therefore advances in one device may provide new windows of opportunity for the development of other devices. As an example, molecular semiconductors, such as perovskites developed for perovskite SCs, may be used in other devices, such as thin film transistors. Or most of the thin film devices employ graphene and carbon nanotubes in their structures, and advances in one field may be utilized in other fields, as well.

In this paper, the following topics will be considered. First, the methods of materials processing and thin film deposition will be discussed with emphasis on colloidal and solution-processed methods, suitable for scalability and commercialization of thin film devices.

This is because deposition methods will be frequently referred to in the subsequent sections. Then the principles of operation and recent advances in thin film transistors, memory for data storage, inorganic and organic light-emitting diodes OLEDs , organic and inorganic thin film SCs, thermoelectric devices, chemiresistive sensors, mechanical actuators, and shape memory materials SMMs will be reviewed, to provide insight for future interdisciplinary research in thin film devices.

To highlight the relative impact and the trend in each field, the number of scientific publications on various thin film devices found in the Web of Science within the timespan of — is shown in Fig. The y-axis is in the logarithmic scale. It is shown that the research in thin film devices is still dominated by thin film SCs and then in the order of abundance by thin film transistors, sensors, and OLED. The figure however shows that research in thin film SCs is slowing down or saturating, mainly due to a drop in the cost of polysilicon used in high-efficiency silicon SCs, which has challenged the feasibility of inorganic and emerging SCs.

Number of scientific publications found in the Web of Science on topics of thin film transistors, thin film thermoelectric devices, thin film solar cells SCs , thin film sensors, organic light-emitting diodes OLEDs , thin film shape memory materials, and thin film actuators, within the timespan of — Physical and chemical vapor deposition methods, such as sputtering and epitaxy, are some examples of vapor phase deposition methods.

These processes require well-controlled atmosphere and are usually performed in vacuum, using expensive equipment and energy-intensive processes. Therefore, it is not surprising that the resulting thin solid films made using vapor phase methods are usually of high quality in terms of the micro- and nanostructures of the films and the low density of defects. On the other hand, the liquid-phase methods for deposition of thin films from solution or colloidal mixtures, such as printing methods, are cheaper but less controllable and repeatable, which may affect the quality of the resulting thin solid films.

It is noted that some thin films may be deposited from several methods, whereas some other are only compatible with a particular deposition route. The vapor phase film deposition methods are well studied and established. Therefore, the focus of this paper is more on potential for large-scale fabrication of thin film devices that can be processed in solution using wet chemistry and deposited using proper printing or coating techniques.

In chemical vapor deposition route, the deposition process and the chemical reactions to convert the precursors to the desired thin film material occur concurrently. Physical vapor deposition route, in contrast, only involves the deposition of vaporized precursors from the gas phase onto the substrate. In solution-processed deposition methods, a very similar scenario repeats, i. In chemical-based solution-processed methods, the mixed precursors undergo a chemical reaction, such as sol—gel, solvothermal, and pyrolysis, before, during, or after the casting stage.

The chemical reactions and casting may proceed simultaneously, such as that in spray pyrolysis. The main casting methods that can be used to deposit thin films include but are not limited to drop-casting, spin coating, blading knife-over-edge , gravure, slot-die, screen printing, inkjet printing, and spray coating [ 1 — 4 ]. Each method has its advantages and disadvantages and may be more suitable for a particular application.

Solution-processed methods require the application of effective solvents and surfactants to control the solubility, surface tension, viscosity, and other physical and chemical properties of the solution to achieve a desired thin film.

This is quite challenging and requires optimization process and experience to develop a perfect recipe that can generate the desired thin films. As mentioned above, in solution-processed deposition methods, first a thin liquid film is cast, at once such as that in spin coting, or drop by drop such as that in spray coating and inkjet printing, followed by subsequent heating, depletion of solvents and additives, and possible chemical reactions, to finally obtain a thin solid film.

This makes the field of solution-processed thin films and thin film devices a multidisciplinary field that entails in-depth knowledge of wet chemistry, fundamentals of hydrodynamics, thermodynamics, and surface and interface science associated with thin liquid films, nanostructure and physical and chemical properties of thin solid films, and principle of operation of the desired thin film device. Each deposition technique mentioned above is governed by a set of physical laws, specific to that method only.

For instance, in lab-scale and for research and development purposes, most thin film devices are fabricated by spin coating; however, the knowledge and experience gained during device fabrication by spin coating stays in the lab only, because scalable and commercially viable techniques, such as slot-die coating, inkjet printing, and spray coating, are governed by different sets of physical laws.

Spin coating is a controllable technique governed by a rather simple hydrodynamic equation and capable of the fabrication of thin films with any thickness from few nanometers to micrometers by adjusting the solution concentration, angular velocity, and spinning duration [ 5 ]. The wet spun-on films may still dewet due to the growth of perturbations in metastable liquid films, but overall the process is easy to control. Drop-casting is another simple lab-scale deposition method for the fabrication of small-area thin films.

An impinging drop spreads on the substrate because of its momentum and may wet the surface if the surface has high energy or the contact angle is low.

Therefore, the film uniformity and thickness highly depend on the momentum and physical properties of the impinging drop Reynolds and Weber numbers , as well as the substrate wettability and texture. Drop-casting may become more controllable by applying external forces, such as imposing ultrasonic vibration on the substrate [ 6 ]. Slot-die printing is a non-contact method and works based on continuous release of the precursor solution from a moving die above a substrate to form a liquid film, which subsequently dries to form a solid film.

Its principle of operation is simple and the process is controllable; however, the method is not suitable for deposition of ultrathin films, because a very thin liquid film may break up during liquid transfer from the die to the substrate.

Blade coating or knife-over-edge coating is another method which has been used in small scale, as well as larger scale, for making thin film devices [ 4 ]. In blade coating, the blade translates in close proximity or in contact with the substrate. Therefore, the roughness, uniformity, and flatness of the substrate or the underlying film and the gap between the blade and the substrate determine the quality and thickness of the deposited film.

Inkjet printing relies on controlled ejection of many ink droplets from a piezoelectric transducer onto the substrate. Droplet impingement, spreading, and coalescence of such droplets result in the formation of wet lines and films and thin solid films after solvent evaporation. Inkjet printing is much more controllable and reproducible compared to spray coating, although the former is a low-throughout casting method compared to the latter.

Spray coating, although fast and low-cost, is inherently a stochastic and random process in microscale, involving complex droplet inflight and impact dynamic processes [ 7 ]. Obtaining smooth and uniform spray-on thin films of some precursor solutions is therefore challenging. In addition, application of masks may be needed to obtain spray-on thin films with specific dimensions and patterns.

Both inkjet printing [ 8 , 9 ] and spray coating [ 10 — 14 ] have been extensively used for the fabrication of a variety of thin film devices in bench and pilot scale, although the results are difficult to reproduce by others. The conventional approach to tune the nanostructure of solution-processed thin films is via solvent treatment, extensively performed to improve the device performance [ 15 , 16 ].

This is, however, a tedious and expensive process with adverse environmental footprints. A mechanical treatment has been recently developed in which a forced ultrasonic vibration is imposed on the substrate to enhance merging of droplets and mixing of precursors to level the film surface and to improve the film nanostructure [ 17 , 18 ]. The imposed vibration has also worked well on wet films cast by spin coating, resulting in improved functionality of organic thin films [ 19 ].

Therefore, it is deduced that the application of other contact or non-contact external forces may improve the film uniformity and nanostructure. The use of electrosprays or electrostatic sprays, in which a high voltage applied between the nozzle tip and the substrate controls the atomization process, is another means to manipulate the atomization process in sprays and thus control the quality of the deposit [ 20 ].

A limitation of inkjet printing and spray coating is that since the aforementioned methods rely on droplet and spray generation from the emergence of liquid from a small capillary, the precursor solution or ink should have favorable physical and chemical properties to allow successful discharge and breakup of the liquid without precipitation of solute or colloidal particles in the pipelines or nozzle.

Therefore, the development of inks with favorable properties employing very small colloidal nanoparticles and also the development of novel droplet generators and atomizers that can generate a uniform spray may further advance this area.

In most thin film devices, the device comprises several stacked layers of thin films that serve to fulfill various functionalities. This requires deposition of several thin films atop one another, imposing additional challenges. First of all, the solvent used in the precursor solution to prepare and deposit a layer atop an existing layer should be chosen properly to avoid dissolution of the underlying layer. Also, the deposition should be controlled precisely to prevent the formation of voids between the interfaces of the two films.

Existence of voids results in excessive resistance between adjacent layers affecting the device performance. Therefore, much effort is required to engineer the interfaces, as well as each individual layer. In contrast to usually precise vapor phase vacuum-based deposition methods, in which the film forms gradually and even atom by atom, in solution-processed methods, the film is deposited usually at once in the bulk form, limiting precise control over the film nanostructure.

If intermolecular forces, which shape the nanostructure and crystallinity of the film, are small, such as in organic materials, the crystallinity, grain size, and crystal alignment of the resulting thin solid films will be sensitive to the fabrication conditions, such as solvent evaporation rate, solvent type, imposed forces, etc.

Overall, although the application of solution-processed deposition methods has attracted enormous attention in academia and industry to fabricate thin film devices, the lack of sufficient controllability and reproducibility in micro- and nanoscale and low device efficiency or instability are obstacles in the way of commercialization of such technologies, evidenced by bankruptcy of some small and large companies in this field, in particular in organic photovoltaic industry [ 21 ].

Some of the shortcomings will be overcome in the future by performing in-depth fundamental studies in all aspects of solution-processed thin film devices. Currently, at least in the lab scale, the solution-processed method is an important and versatile route for the preparation and deposition of organic thin film devices and some inorganic thin film devices with moderate crystallinity.

It has been shown that quantized energy levels in ultrathin layers of oxides, such as ZnO, processed from solution can form, by tuning the solution concentration and deposition parameters [ 22 ]. It is deduced that the number of documents reporting the application of solution-processed methods in thin films is rapidly increasing with a positive rate of change.

In the following sections, emerging organic and inorganic thin film devices are reviewed, with emphasis on devices that can be fabricated using solution-processed casting methods. A transistor is a device usually used to amplify or switch electronic signals. There are two types of transistors: bipolar and unipolar field-effect transistor, FET. A FET has three terminals: source, drain, and gate. A FET usually operates as a capacitor and its internal body is composed of two plates.

One plate is a semiconducting inorganic or organic conducting channel devised between two ohmic contacts: the source and the drain. The other plate gate controls the charge induced into the channel.

Charge is induced from source to drain, only if the gate voltage is higher than a threshold value. Based on this concept, the FET can have several configurations, including the thin film configuration, the focus of this paper. In thin film transistors TFTs , doped silicon, indium tin oxide ITO , or other conducting materials are used as the gate, a dielectric serves as the gate insulator or capacitor, and a semiconductor, such as conducting polymers or metal oxides, serves as the channel Fig.

Schematic of an organic field-effect transistor OFET. Heavily doped silicon is a traditional substrate, while silicon dioxide or other dielectrics serve as the gate insulator. The currently used and ideal conducting channel in TFTs is microcrystalline silicon with high mobility. However, in recent years interest in organic semiconductors [ 23 ] and solution-processed inorganic semiconductors, such as oxides [ 24 ], has grown, because such materials may be processed and deposited from solution, providing the opportunity to reduce the fabrication cost [ 25 ].

Organic semiconductors may be readily processed in solution. Also, some metal oxides are relatively insensitive to the presence of structural disorder typically associated with solution processing, and therefore high charge carrier mobility is achievable in such inorganic structures [ 26 ]. Issues such as improving the transparency, charge mobility, stability and developing reproducible and scalable solution-processed deposition methods need to be addressed to pave the way for commercialization of the low-cost solution-processed TFTs for application in flat-panel display backplane, flexible displays, sensor arrays, etc.

For instance, the carrier mobility, which is an important figure of merit of transistors, is affected by the film crystallinity and the nanostructure, but the solution-processed materials usually have a low mobility due to the presence of imperfections in the film nanostructure.

To improve the nanostructure and therefore mobility, using an off-center spin coating method to align the polymer chains in one direction, Yuan et al.

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Revision This is a preview of the paper, limited to some initial content.

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Most of the terms listed in Wikipedia glossaries are already defined and explained within Wikipedia itself. However, glossaries like this one are useful for looking up, comparing and reviewing large numbers of terms together. You can help enhance this page by adding new terms or writing definitions for existing ones. This glossary of electrical and electronics engineering pertains specifically to electrical and electronics engineering. For a broad overview of engineering, see glossary of engineering. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. History Outline Glossary Category Portal.

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Thin films and thin film devices have a ubiquitous presence in numerous conventional and emerging technologies. This is because of the recent advances in nanotechnology, the development of functional and smart materials, conducting polymers, molecular semiconductors, carbon nanotubes, and graphene, and the employment of unique properties of thin films and ultrathin films, such as high surface area, controlled nanostructure for effective charge transfer, and special physical and chemical properties, to develop new thin film devices. This paper is therefore intended to provide a concise critical review and research directions on most thin film devices, including thin film transistors, data storage memory, solar cells, organic light-emitting diodes, thermoelectric devices, smart materials, sensors, and actuators. The thin film devices may consist of organic, inorganic, and composite thin layers, and share similar functionality, properties, and fabrication routes. A thin solid film usually refers to a layer of material ranging from few nanometers to several micrometers in thickness.

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Nano-Micro Letters. January , Cite as. Thin films and thin film devices have a ubiquitous presence in numerous conventional and emerging technologies. This is because of the recent advances in nanotechnology, the development of functional and smart materials, conducting polymers, molecular semiconductors, carbon nanotubes, and graphene, and the employment of unique properties of thin films and ultrathin films, such as high surface area, controlled nanostructure for effective charge transfer, and special physical and chemical properties, to develop new thin film devices. This paper is therefore intended to provide a concise critical review and research directions on most thin film devices, including thin film transistors, data storage memory, solar cells, organic light-emitting diodes, thermoelectric devices, smart materials, sensors, and actuators.

Energy Harvesting Report

This report is no longer available. Click here to view our current reports or contact us to discuss a custom report. If you have previously purchased this report then please use the download links on the right to download the files. Energy harvesting is the process by which ambient energy is captured and converted into electricity for small autonomous devices, such as satellites, laptops and nodes in sensor networks making them self-sufficient.

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