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Produce fabrication aggregates, components and parts of bus spare parts

Produce fabrication aggregates, components and parts of bus spare parts

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Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. Workshop Presentations and Discussions. Robert H. As its name indicates, the focus of DMMI is on issues relevant to materials, manufacturing, and the infrastructure that sustains the materials and manufacturing enterprises essential to national defense.

Latiff noted that this workshop had originated in conversations with members of the Reliance 21 Materials and Processing community of interest on issues of parts obsolescence, diminishing sources for manufacturing, certification of spare parts, requalification of materials, counterfeiting, and other quality assurance and maintenance problems for DOD as defense systems are kept for longer and longer service lives. As such the workshop was. No classified, proprietary, or for official use only FOUO information was presented or discussed during it.

This workshop summary recounts the discussions and presents the views of individual participants; there are no conclusions or recommendations that reflect a corporate or consensus position of the DMMI, the NMMB, or any other entity of the NRC. Sloter described how the Reliance 21 Materials and Processes community of interest had worked with the DMMI to develop a workshop agenda covering the broad area of materials sustainability with respect to defense equipment, infrastructure, and recapitalization.

Two weeks before this workshop, the Institute for Defense Analyses IDA held a workshop on issues related to specific materials and approaches to reduce vulnerabilities related to them. Sustaining adequate supplies of materiel, particularly with respect to equipment refurbishment and recapitalization, is currently important to planning for future utilization of the mine-resistant ambush protected MRAP vehicles fielded during Operation Iraqi Freedom.

Normalization and global support for the F Joint Strike Fighter aircraft is another highly topical issue, as is the broad subject of strategic manufacturing and local supply. Materials supply, utilization, certification, and substitution will be important aspects of Pentagon discussions on strategic sourcing, offshoring, and the control and prevention of counterfeit parts in the electronic and mechanical subsystems of critical defense systems.

Sloter said these issues would provide grist for the materials research mill. Sloter sees the twenty-first century as a time when material technologies will see significant advances. He expects rapid manufacturing in small volumes to be important in many areas, including pharmaceuticals, mechanical components, and electronic components.

Sloter was asked for his perspective on how much further improvement can be expected in structural materials, such as materials for hypersonic flight or other cutting-edge applications where material properties are a constraint.

Are DOD. He replied that fundamental, curiosity-driven research, which is long-range and opportunistic with respect to using new discoveries, is very healthy. Near-term sustaining research, broadly speaking, is also very healthy.

It is coming out of a period that focused on multiple-point approaches to addressing solutions for specific operational, maintenance, and sustainability problems by the rapid application of relatively mature materials and processes to systems fielding and sustainment. The defense community is also coming out of a long period of ameliorating the environmental impact of materials processes such as plating and coating processes.

He is concerned about the prospects for near-term maturation of materials and processes in areas such as hypersonics.

Mechanical designs to provide thermal protection are probably ahead of the complementary development of specific materials. In areas like hypersonics, there may be a switch from technology push by innovative material solutions to requirements pull from prototype systems development. Another participant suggested that some of the challenges appear to be in putting the right teams together to address, from a systems perspective, problems that are multidisciplinary.

Is DOD moving toward that team-building approach in any of its programs? Sloter replied that he has seen a positive trend toward teaming during his 14 years in the Pentagon. He cited as an example the close interactions among Joint Staff, requirements developers in the services, acquisition managers, and industrial base policy staff within the Pentagon. There have also been some lessons learned from programs that did not do as well. He agreed that there was still a long way to go before defense engineering and manufacturing achieve the level of integrated planning characteristic of the automobile industry, for instance.

Several other participants gave examples of defense industry companies that have initiated efforts in integrated computational materials engineering ICME in their DOD contract work, without being driven in that direction by DOD program management.

Katherine A. Stevens began by noting that the Air Force Research Laboratory AFRL is concerned about the sustainability of future weapon systems, as well as about technology for keeping the existing legacy systems flying. Some of the required technology is related to materials and processes. The new center is responsible for supporting aircraft weapon systems through their entire life cycle.

Stevens showed a chart of the systems that had been introduced in each decade since the s, with those still in the inventory shown in red, those out of the inventory in black, and systems in development shown in blue Figure 1. The average aircraft has been in service for 23 years, with fighter aircraft averaging 22 years, tankers 35 years, and bombers 47 years. Even though the current fleet is the smallest in numbers of aircraft since the inception of the Air Force, the cost of sustaining the fleet continues to rise Figure 2.

Year of first flight or, as denoted by an asterisk, first appearance of a commercial derivative in the Air Force inventory. A recent example in the first research thrust was technical information provided to support risk-mitigation actions in response to the discovery that nonconforming titanium had been used to fabricate aircraft parts in the inventory.

Currently, using a part, component, or subsystem in a different system aircraft than the one for which it was qualified or certified requires requalifying or recertifying it for the system s of potential use. This pervasive qualification process demonstrates the challenge of ensuring system safety when common materials or components are not properly tracked. With respect to improving fleet health management, Dr.

Stevens said that the ultimate Air Force objective is to move to condition-based maintenance. In the short term, Air Force depots have adopted high-velocity maintenance for rapid turnaround, and they need appropriate evaluation techniques to support knowledge of systems before the systems or components. Techniques for doing this are being developed. Stevens remarked that sustainment is potentially a very rich application area for activities under the Materials Genome Initiative MGI , even though the focus of attention has been on MGI objectives for new materials in new applications.

For example, if a system in the fleet has a sustainment problem, reducing the time to fix the problem and certify a new material or new parts can go a long way to keeping aircraft flying. There was further discussion among the participants on the potential impact of MGI on sustainability.

One participant said that the same tools needed to enable ICME would also enable more rapid qualification or certification of a replacement material or part.

This challenge is not unique to the Air Force. In response to a question, Dr. Stevens said that much of the responsibility for downstream decisions related to materials availability, environmental issues, and so on appear to have been ceded to the OEMs. James Mattice added that responsibility for issues at a life-cycle level formerly resided in the systems engineering function within the cognizant Program Office for acquisition of a system.

Stevens added that a significant issue is that some portion of the data associated with the design of processes, specific configurations, and so on is not owned by the Air Force.

There is growing recognition of the importance of capturing key design and production data for the long-term sustainment of aircraft and other complex defense systems. Referring to the right-hand side of Figure 3 , Dr. Data from all three phases represented in the figure—design, production, and operational maintenance—will be necessary to enable condition-based maintenance and to have a digital representation digital twin of each physical system e.

The Digital Thread Sustainment Focus at AFRL, which is aimed at integrating data, models, and simulations throughout the system life cycle, includes the following objectives:. Digital thread activities include generating, capturing, organizing, and utilizing relevant data and information. In response to a question about the one or two biggest areas where more needs to be done, Dr.

Stevens cited the challenge of transitioning technology from the system development and acquisition world to the sustainment world. Different views on which organization has which responsibilities for preparing technology for implementation into sustainment applications are part of this challenge.

At least as important are funding problems related to how expenditures are categorized for appropriations which costs can be recovered from which pot of money. The business case for a sustainment application not only has to make sense on its own but also has to align with the available resources the pots of money that are not empty. A second question to Dr. Stevens and the workshop generally was this: What can be done to solve the problem of program-specific certification requirements for the same part or component used in different systems?

Stevens replied that part of the problem could be addressed through new approaches to standardization of specifications. Dianne Chong added that the problem also exists for manufacturers who have merged the operations of multiple acquired companies.

The solution there is seen as having a single system for recording and maintaining parts specifications. Corporate- or enterprise-wide initiatives are needed to address the problem of multiple distinct part numbers for what is in reality the same part.

Can the best industry-tested practices be moved into the defense establishment? The discussion of this question revolved around the difficulty of identifying and encouraging best practices across different organizations without becoming caught up in too-rigid specification of standards. Another question was how willing potential competitors might be to share approaches and practices that in some cases they might see as part of their competitive advantage.

On the problem of different OEM part numbers for the same physical part in different systems or in different subsystems or components of the same system, Royce Smith of the Air Force Diminishing Manufacturing Sources and Materiel Shortages DMSMS Program said that while it is important to retain the original OEM part numbers in the system used for sustainment, they need to be linked to.

A given stock number may be identified by five or ten different OEM part numbers. This point led to clarification of the problem in terms of sharing a common set of qualification and certification requirements for the same physical part in essentially similar applications. Scott Fish, Chief Scientist, U. Fish began by emphasizing the commonality of the issues that the Army faces with those identified by Dr.

Both CRAs, in which the Army partners with university investigators, involve fundamental research on applying multidomain modeling to investigate and develop multiscale materials. MEDE is aimed at fundamental research on new materials for armor and blast protection applications. MSME is focused on improved sensors and other electronics applications. The kickoff meetings for both CRAs were at the end of July The other military services have representatives monitoring both CRAs, and there have been routine conversations among representatives from the Army and the other services about the research.

Fish expects there will interesting crosstalk between the CRA teams and the ARL activities because new approaches to modeling and to metrics for measuring materials performance are important for all parties. Fish next gave four examples of recent Army experience with counterfeit parts. In these four cases, each of which involved a counterfeit microprocessor chip, the routine performance tests carried out at several points in the supply chain did not detect any anomalies. Nor have component or system failures so far been attributed to these four counterfeit parts.

Fish described the corrective actions being taken to deal with the parts that were installed in fielded systems. The capability includes increased attention within the government and increased diligence on the part of Army prime contractors and associated intermediate providers in their supply chains to test for part performance compliance. From his understanding of the situation, the current testing requirements are not sufficient to ensure that counterfeit parts like these chips are not getting into fielded systems.

Fish said that evidence of malicious intent had not been found yet in the examples he described, but investigation of the sources of the counterfeit parts is ongoing. Fish stressed again that the parts distributor and the prime contractors affected by these counterfeit chips had been quick to notify their DOD customers of the problem, once it was discovered.

Fish was asked if there were sufficient existing legal sanctions against a supplier that intentionally sells parts that it knows to be counterfeit. He said that he was unsure if sanctions might apply to the ultimate supplier or manufacturer of a counterfeitpart, but there are statutes in place that apply to the prime contractors and their tier 2 and tier 3 subcontractors for properly qualifying their suppliers.

This led to further discussion of issues surrounding the growing reliance on foreign manufacturers and suppliers located outside the United States and the likelihood that counterfeiting is motivated solely by the economic value of supplying demand for an otherwise hard-to-find authentic part. Fish concluded with a list of materials supply and shortage issues that were serious enough to be reported up to Army Headquarters from Army Program Executive Offices PEOs because they were viewed as having a significant impact on acquisition costs and schedules:.

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Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. Workshop Presentations and Discussions. Robert H. As its name indicates, the focus of DMMI is on issues relevant to materials, manufacturing, and the infrastructure that sustains the materials and manufacturing enterprises essential to national defense.

This recipe, while it may seem straightforward, threw me for a loop. I roasted 7 heads of cauliflower until I got it just right.

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Быть может, эта история с игуаной напомнила Никки, какая она беззащитная и насколько ей не хватает отца. За спиной раздавался громкий плач Никки. - Что бы ее ни тревожило, - вздохнула Элли, - надеюсь, она перерастет. Когда она плачет, у меня такое чувство, будто ножом по сердцу. На площади транспорта не оказалось. Арчи и Синий Доктор направились пешком к пирамиде, где октопауки и люди обычно проводили свои совещания. - Сегодня особенный вечер, - проговорил Синий Доктор, - мы должны сообщить вам о многом, прежде чем вы оставите вашу зону.

- А где Джеми. - спросила Николь, когда они вошли в здание. - Я-то думала, что он идет с нами.

Поинтересовалась Элли. Жанна и Алиенора вручили ей лист бумаги с перечнем разных предметов, включая воду, еду и одежду.

Элли с трепетом узнала почерк своего отца. - Ты оставишь эти вещи в указанном здесь месте, - робот Алиенора вручила Элли карту, - не позднее, чем через десять дней.

Поначалу одинаковые имена бабушки и внучки вызвали известную сумятицу: когда звучало имя Николь, оборачивались и бабушка, и внучка. Но Элли и Роберт сразу стали звать девочку Никки, и все прочие быстро последовали их примеру.

Гадала. - Или причиной было нечто другое?" Николь отвела глаза от картины и поглядела на переговаривающихся октопауков. "Или это было откровение, - подумала она, - мгновенное узнавание чего-то выходящего за пределы моего восприятия.

силы и власти, еще не знакомых людям".

Ну что ж, Алиса, мы вернулись с тобой в Страну чудес, - коротко рассмеялся Ричард. - Давай-ка перекусим, пока я введу всю информацию в мой верный компьютер. Пока они ели, вдоль берега канала пробежал биот-многоножка. Он ненадолго остановился, чтобы поглядеть на людей, потом проследовал мимо, направляясь к пандусу, по которому только что спустились Ричард с Николь.

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Сегментированный биот-сверчок поместил изготовленную для людей пищу себе на спину и отправился восвояси. - Черт побери. - воскликнул Макс, глядя в спину исчезавшему в коридоре за хижиной сверчку. - Но прежде чем его спутники сумели еще что-то добавить к этой мысли, новая группа снабженных руками тележек выгрузила на конвейер толстые длинные стержни, и буквально через минуту котел, только что занятый приготовлением пищи, уже приступил к другому делу.

- Фантастическое устройство, - проговорил Ричард.

Когда они добрались до первого из четырех молочно-белых одноэтажных сооружений в конце тупика, октопаук приподнял одно из щупалец с мостовой и пожал руку Николь. - Спокойной ночи, - ответила. На ее бледном лице появилась улыбка. - Ну, и денек выдался.

спасибо за. После того как Синий Доктор вошел в дом, Николь направилась к декоративному фонтану посреди улицы. Она припала к одной из четырех струй, разделявшихся на уровне ее груди.

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Синий Доктор играла вместе с Николь. Они согласились, что будут играть в пять карт - один из шести вариантов, предусмотренных Элли, - и уселись за стол возле двери. Сидения для октопауков были выше, чем для людей, и поэтому партнеры оказались лицом к лицу. Николь никогда не была хорошим игроком в бридж.

Она научилась играть еще в студенческие годы в Турском университете, когда отец, озабоченный отсутствием у нее друзей, посоветовал дочери активнее общаться с товарищами.

Спросила Николь. - Как минимум. Но лучше всего, если октопауки продемонстрируют свою боевую мощь. - Боюсь, что это невозможно, - ответил Арчи, - по крайней мере в нынешней ситуации.

Вероятно, война быстро окончится, и через некоторое время оба уцелевших сообщества смогут достичь равновесного состояния. Однако данные о людях заставляют не без оснований предполагать, что этот вид будет продолжать сопротивление, пока не погибнут все особи. Подобный исход погубит по крайней мере одно из двух сообществ космоплавателей, оставшихся на корабле, и чтобы предотвратить его, рекомендуется перейти ко второй стадии умиротворения.

Николь пробудилась, услышав возню игравших в гостиной детей.

Пожалуйста, скажи Бенджи: пусть он передаст остальным, что я буду к обеду.

Во-первых, нетрудно понять, что цена продолжения жизни резко возрастает, когда биологические подсистемы или органы начинают работать с пониженной эффективностью. Во-вторых, индивид начинает все больше и больше времени тратить на сам процесс поддержания жизни; на это уходит энергия, которую он мог бы отдать на процветание всей колонии.

В-третьих, - оптимизаторы-социологи обосновали эту противоречивую идею много лет назад, хотя накопленная мудрость компенсирует снижение мыслительных способностей с точки зрения блага колонии, в жизни каждого октопаука неизбежно наступает момент, когда одно только бремя прошлого опыта делает обучение чрезвычайно трудным.

Даже здоровый октопаук, мышление которого в связи с возрастом потеряло прежнюю гибкость, уменьшает свой вклад в благо колонии.

- И оптимизаторы определяют, когда наступает время его терминации.

Пятнадцать или двадцать людей теснились к кострам на бетонной платформе, оставшейся от вокзала. Еще трое или четверо лежали или спали, укрываясь картонками и тряпьем.

- Что делают эти люди, мамочка. - спросила Никки. Элли не отвечала. Гарсиа уже обернулась и свирепо глядела на .

Не более чем в километре от нее с неба падали рваные клочья купола. Николь еще не могла отдышаться. Синий Доктор видела напряжение на лице - Нет, я не справляюсь с дорогой, - проговорила Николь, стиснув щупальца октопаучихи изо всех сил.

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    It is a pity, that now I can not express - there is no free time. I will return - I will necessarily express the opinion.