Produce ware linen and hemp-jute bags
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Linen is laborious to manufacture, but the fiber is very strong, absorbent, and dries faster than cotton. Garments made of linen are valued for their exceptional coolness and freshness in hot and humid weather.
This word history has given rise to a number of other terms in English, most notably line , from the use of a linen flax thread to determine a straight line. The collective term " linens " is still often used generically to describe a class of woven or knitted bed, bath, table and kitchen textiles traditionally made of flax-based linen but today made from a variety of fibers.
The term "linens" refers to lightweight undergarments such as shirts, chemises , waist-shirts, lingerie a cognate with linen , and detachable shirt collars and cuffs, all of which were historically made almost exclusively out of linen. The inner layer of fine composite cloth garments as for example dress jackets was traditionally made of linen, hence the word lining.
Textiles in a linen weave texture, even when made of cotton , hemp , or other non-flax fibers, are also loosely referred to as "linen". Such fabrics frequently have their own specific names: for example fine cotton yarn in a linen-style weave may be called madapollam.
Linen textiles appear to be some of the oldest in the world: their history goes back many thousands of years. Dyed flax fibers found in a prehistoric cave in Georgia suggest the use of woven linen fabrics from wild flax may date back even earlier to 36, BP. Linen was sometimes used as a form of currency in ancient Egypt.
Egyptian mummies were wrapped in linen as a symbol of light and purity, and as a display of wealth. Some of these fabrics, woven from hand-spun yarns, were very fine for their day, but are coarse compared to modern linen. It has a long staple individual fiber length relative to cotton and other natural fibers. This word history has given rise to a number of other terms:. The discovery of dyed flax fibers in a cave in Georgia dated to thirty-six thousand years ago suggests that ancient people used wild flax fibers to create linen-like fabrics from an early date.
In ancient Mesopotamia , flax was domesticated and linen was first produced. It was used mainly by the wealthier class of the society, including priests. It opens with briefly listing the steps of preparing linen from flax, in a form of questions and answers between Inanna and her brother Utu.
In ancient Egypt, linen was used for mummification and for burial shrouds. It was also worn as clothing on a daily basis; white linen was worn because of the extreme heat.
The use of linen for priestly vestments was not confined to the Israelites; Plutarch wrote that the priests of Isis also wore linen because of its purity. Linen fabric has been used for table coverings, bed coverings and clothing for centuries. The significant cost of linen derives not only from the difficulty of working with the thread, but also because the flax plant itself requires a great deal of attention. In addition flax thread is not elastic, and therefore it is difficult to weave without breaking threads.
Thus linen is considerably more expensive to manufacture than cotton. There is a long history of the production of linen in Ireland. The Living Linen Project was set up in as an oral archive of the knowledge of the Irish linen industry, which was at that time still available within a nucleus of people who formerly worked in the industry in Ulster.
In December , the General Assembly of the United Nations proclaimed to be the International Year of Natural Fibres in order to raise people's awareness of linen and other natural fibers. When the tomb of the Pharaoh Ramses II , who died in BC, was discovered in , the linen wrappings were in a state of perfect preservation after more than years. In the Ulster Museum , Belfast there is the mummy of ' Takabuti ' the daughter of a priest of Amun , who died 2, years ago.
The Phoenicians , who, with their merchant fleet, opened up new channels of commerce to the peoples of the Mediterranean, and developed the tin mines of Cornwall , introduced flax growing and the making of linen into Ireland before the common era [ citation needed ].
It is not until the twelfth century that we can find records of a definite attempt to systematize flax production. When the Edict of Nantes was revoked, in , many of the Huguenots who fled France settled in the British Isles, and amongst them was Louis Crommelin , who settled in the town of Lisburn , about ten miles from Belfast.
Belfast itself is perhaps the most famous linen producing center throughout history; during the Victorian era the majority of the world's linen was produced in the city which gained it the name Linenopolis. Although the linen industry was already established in Ulster, Louis Crommelin found scope for improvement in weaving, and his efforts were so successful that he was appointed by the Government to develop the industry over a much wider range than the small confines of Lisburn and its surroundings.
The direct result of his good work was the establishment, under statute, of the Board of Trustees of the Linen Manufacturers of Ireland in the year Several grades were produced from the coarsest lockram to the finest sasheen. In Judaism , the only law concerning which fabrics may be interwoven together in clothing concerns the mixture of linen and wool , called shaatnez ; it is restricted in Deuteronomy "Thou shalt not wear a mingled stuff, wool and linen together" and Leviticus , "' And that such commands serve both a practical as well as allegorical purpose, perhaps here preventing a priestly garment that would cause discomfort or excessive sweat in a hot climate.
Linen is also mentioned in the Bible in Proverbs 31, a passage describing a noble wife. Proverbs says, "She makes coverings for her bed; she is clothed in fine linen and purple. Linen is a bast fiber. There are two varieties: shorter tow fibers used for coarser fabrics and longer line fibers used for finer fabrics.
The cross-section of the linen fiber is made up of irregular polygonal shapes which contribute to the coarse texture of the fabric. Linen fabric feels cool to touch, a phenomenon which indicates its higher conductivity the same principle that makes metals feel "cold". It is smooth, making the finished fabric lint-free, and gets softer the more it is washed. However, constant creasing in the same place in sharp folds will tend to break the linen threads.
This wear can show up in collars, hems, and any area that is iron creased during laundering. Linen's poor elasticity means that it easily wrinkles. Mildew, perspiration, and bleach can damage the fabric, but because it is not made from animal fibers keratin it is impervious to clothes moths and carpet beetles.
Linen is relatively easy to take care of, since it resists dirt and stains, has no lint or pilling tendency, and can be dry-cleaned, machine-washed, or steamed. It can withstand high temperatures, and has only moderate initial shrinkage. Linen should not be dried too much by tumble drying, and it is much easier to iron when damp.
Linen wrinkles very easily, and thus some more formal garments require ironing often, in order to maintain perfect smoothness. Nevertheless, the tendency to wrinkle is often considered part of linen's particular "charm", and many modern linen garments are designed to be air-dried on a good clothes hanger and worn without the necessity of ironing. A characteristic often associated with linen yarn is the presence of slubs , or small, soft, irregular lumps, which occur randomly along its length.
In the past, slubs were traditionally considered to be defects, and were associated with low quality linen. However, in the case of many present-day linen fabrics, particularly in the decorative furnishing industry, slubs are considered as part of the aesthetic appeal of an expensive natural product. In addition, slubs do not compromise the integrity of the fabric, and therefore they are not viewed as a defect. However, the very finest linen has very consistent diameter threads, with no slubs at all.
The standard measure of bulk linen yarn is the "lea", which is the number of yards in a pound of linen divided by The fine yarns used in handkerchiefs, etc. This is a specific length therefore an indirect measurement of the fineness of the linen, i.
The symbol is NeL. The quality of the finished linen product is often dependent upon growing conditions and harvesting techniques. To generate the longest possible fibers, flax is either hand-harvested by pulling up the entire plant or stalks are cut very close to the root. The fibers must then be loosened from the stalk. This is achieved through retting. This is a process which uses bacteria to decompose the pectin that binds the fibers together.
Natural retting methods take place in tanks and pools, or directly in the fields. There are also chemical retting methods; these are faster, but are typically more harmful to the environment and to the fibers themselves.
After retting, the stalks are ready for scutching , which takes place between August and December. Scutching removes the woody portion of the stalks by crushing them between two metal rollers, so that the parts of the stalk can be separated. The fibers are removed and the other parts such as linseed , shive , and tow are set aside for other uses.
Next the fibers are heckled : the short fibers are separated with heckling combs by 'combing' them away, to leave behind only the long, soft flax fibers. After the fibers have been separated and processed, they are typically spun into yarns and woven or knit into linen textiles. These textiles can then be bleached, dyed, printed on, or finished with a number of treatments or coatings. The flax stalks are processed using traditional cotton machinery; however, the finished fibers often lose the characteristic linen look.
Flax is grown in many parts of the world, but top quality flax is primarily grown in Western European countries and Ukraine. High quality linen fabrics are now produced in the United States for the upholstery market and in Belgium. Over the past 30 years the end use for linen has changed dramatically. A linen handkerchief , pressed and folded to display the corners, was a standard decoration of a well-dressed man's suit during most of the first part of the 20th century.
Linen fabric is one of the preferred traditional supports for oil painting. In the United States cotton is popularly used instead, as linen is many times more expensive there, restricting its use to professional painters. In Europe, however, linen is usually the only fabric support available in art shops; in the UK both are freely available with cotton being cheaper.
Linen is preferred to cotton for its strength, durability and archival integrity. Linen is also used extensively by artisan bakers. Known as a couche, the flax cloth is used to hold the dough into shape while in the final rise, just before baking.
The couche is heavily dusted with flour which is rubbed into the pores of the fabric. Then the shaped dough is placed on the couche. The floured couche makes a "non stick" surface to hold the dough. Then ridges are formed in the couche to keep the dough from spreading. In the past, linen was also used for books the only surviving example of which is the Liber Linteus. Due to its strength, in the Middle Ages linen was used for shields , gambesons , and bowstrings ; in classical antiquity it was used to make a type of body armour, referred to as a linothorax.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Linen disambiguation. Main article: Flax. See also: hand processing flax.
stripe print jute bags
How possible is it to store produce or even carry your goods from the farmers market without using plastic bags? Well, it is possible. In fact, it is far easier than you think. The world is going greener and in some countries, plastic bags have been banned completely.
Linen is laborious to manufacture, but the fiber is very strong, absorbent, and dries faster than cotton. Garments made of linen are valued for their exceptional coolness and freshness in hot and humid weather. This word history has given rise to a number of other terms in English, most notably line , from the use of a linen flax thread to determine a straight line. The collective term " linens " is still often used generically to describe a class of woven or knitted bed, bath, table and kitchen textiles traditionally made of flax-based linen but today made from a variety of fibers.
Hemp , or industrial hemp , is a strain of the Cannabis sativa plant species that is grown specifically for the industrial uses of its derived products. Although cannabis as a drug and industrial hemp both derive from the species Cannabis sativa and contain the psychoactive component tetrahydrocannabinol THC , they are distinct strains with unique phytochemical compositions and uses. Some governments regulate the concentration of THC and permit only hemp that is bred with an especially low THC content. In those languages "hemp" can refer to either industrial fiber hemp or narcotic cannabis strains. Hemp is used to make a variety of commercial and industrial products, including rope, textiles, clothing, shoes, food, paper, bioplastics, insulation, and biofuel. The inner two fibers of the plant are woodier and typically have industrial applications, such as mulch, animal bedding, and litter. When oxidized often erroneously referred to as "drying" , hemp oil from the seeds becomes solid and can be used in the manufacture of oil-based paints, in creams as a moisturizing agent, for cooking, and in plastics. Hemp seeds have been used in bird feed mix as well.
Reusable produce bags
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Check out. Reusable mesh produce bags replace the single use plastic bags that you use when buying fresh fruit and veggies, bread, bulk food and more. Keep them with your reusable shopping bags and take them with you to the supermarket, farmers market, fruit and veggie store, bakery or bulk food store. Suitable for a range of uses around the kitchen, home and travel, they are lightweight, washable and strong.
Ну, Ричард, это вопрос веры. Откуда ты знаешь, зачем нужны такие завитушки внутри бака с водой. - Я же говорил, что кроме загадок не могу ничего предложить, - Ричард усмехнулся. - Могу сказать только одно: вся эта установка много сложнее, чем требуется для очистки воды.
Давай не будем спорить. Ссоры между собой не помогут. Все взрослые, за исключением Наи и Бенджи, сходили за километр к залу, чтобы собственными глазами увидеть, что сделали пауки. Люди действительно оказались закупоренными внутри логова. Два из трех открытых тоннелей, выходивших в зал, привели их к вертикальной шахте, третий же, как они быстро обнаружили, оканчивался в пустом хранилище, из которого не было - Нужно срочно что-то придумать, - сказал Макс.
- У нас осталось еды только на четыре дня, и я не имею представления, где здесь можно добыть - Извини, Макс, - возразила Николь, - но я все-таки полагаю, что Ричард решил правильно.
У каждого в руках был небольшой горшочек; опуская в него руки, они затем оставляли яркие отметины на полу - красные метки охватили платформу подземки, штабеля с материалами, словом, около половины всего Буквально мгновение спустя, наверное, еще целая дюжина животных с хоботообразными конечностями вывалилась из вагонов; некоторые из них несли на спинах большие и тяжелые изогнутые детали.
За ними следовали два октопаука, по круглым головам которых бежали необычайно яркие полосы. Пауки остановились в центре палаты, осмотрели штабеля с материалами, а потом приказали муравьеподобным созданиям приступить к работе. - Итак, дело проясняется, - проговорил Макс, обращаясь к Патрику.