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Production commercial harsh woolen fabrics

Production commercial harsh woolen fabrics

As with many discoveries of early man, anthropologists believe the use of wool came out of the challenge to survive. In seeking means of protection and warmth, humans in the Neolithic Age wore animal pelts as clothing. Finding the pelts not only warm and comfortable but also durable, they soon began to develop the basic processes and primitive tools for making wool. By B. People soon began to develop and maintain herds of wool-bearing animals.

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Dear readers! Our articles talk about typical ways to resolve Production commercial harsh woolen fabrics, but each case is unique.

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Sustainability and performance in textiles: can you have it all?

Ramie fibre comes under bast fibre category, which can be classified as underutilised fibres. The high potential of ramie fibre is not fully exploited due to various techno-economic reasons. It is one of the strongest natural fibres having rich cellulose content. Apart from textile uses, ramie fibre can be utilised for the production of various diversified products. Still in present scenario, there is much scope for research and development on this valuable fibre. This study briefs the extraction, mechanical processing, fibre properties and value addition of ramie fibre.

Natural fibres are gaining importance day by day in all over the world. They are not only using for making clothing, but also finds other diversified applications.

Among nature fibres, cotton occupied supreme position in both production and consumption. Lignocellulosic fibres like flax and ramie are also getting popularized in the current era.

Ramie fibre is one of the premium and oldest textile vegetable fibres. It was used in mummy cloths in Egypt during the period BC and has been grown in China for many centuries. Ramie was one of the principal plant fibres used in the orient for making cloth before the introduction of cotton, which took place in China about AD 1. Ramie has been used as a textile fibre in China and Southern Asia for centuries and it is said to have been known in ancient Egypt.

It is also known as china grass 2. Ramie fibre is a bast fibre obtained from the inner bark of the ramie stem 3. The total lifespan of the crop ranges from years 4. Generally it grows up to a height of m, the leaves are heart-shaped, cm long and cm broad and white on the underside with dense small hairs. During this period, it can be harvested up to 6 times in a year. China holds the monopoly in both production and exporting of ramie. Earlier so many countries tried to cultivate ramie, some of them withdrawn the cultivation due to some inevitable situations.

Most of the ramie fibre extracted is used in producing countries and only a small percentage reaches international markets. It possesses highest strength and length, good durability and absorbency with excellent lustre. These characteristics make it suitable for use in the manufacture of wide variety of textiles and value added products 5 , 6. Fabrics made from ramie fibre are comfortable to wear and looks like linen. Today some of the fashion designers are showing much interest in ramie fabric due to its unique properties.

Apart from that, ramie also find application in sacks, carpets, reinforced polymers, twine, handicrafts, paper, cordage, gas mantles, fishing nets and marine packaging. In China elsewhere in the far East, ramie is used for a number of purposes such as clothing, table-cloths, handkerchiefs, etc. In Japan, ramie is used for canvas, suit-cloth, mat-edge, cloth and a large number of other purposes 7. China is the biggest producer of ramie fibre followed by Brazil and Philippines Fig. The fibre yield and area of cultivation is shown in the Fig.

Coming to the present condition of cultivation in India, very few areas of states like West Bengal and Assam is showing some interest and the production is very minimal. There may be several reasons behind it, especially, the difficulties associated with decortication, degumming, pest and diseases.

The adaptation of the plant to soil is another retarding factor. However, profitable growing for fibre purpose is based on the principle of as many cutting a year as possible and to produce the best results the plants requires a favourable climate with steady high temperature , a humid atmosphere and a well-distributed annual rainfall of not less than 1. The photograph of ramie plant is shown in Fig.

There are 2 major varieties of ramie plants. White ramie and green ramie as shown in Fig. Harvesting: The stems are green until they are mature, but then they begin to turn brown, starting at the bottom. The right time for harvesting is judged by the colour of the stems and the slowing down of their growth. The plants should be cut when the flower begins to fall and the seed to form. As the plant matures, the number of stalks increases with a corresponding increase in yields up to the fourth year, an average of 4, 7, 10 and 13 t of green stalks may be harvested per acre in each of the first 4 years, respectively and t annually thereafter.

First harvesting can be done after 17 days of planting and followed by days for the succeeding harvests. The highest yield is attained in the third and fourth years and maintained until the plant is about six years old 8. Harvesting is done either by manually or by using mechanical harvesters. It is important that ramie should be harvested at the right time if the best fibre is to be obtained.

If the stems are allowed to become too mature, lignification takes place. After harvesting, if the ribbons are not to be stripped from the stalks right away and the fibre extracted, the cut stems or ribbons should be dried as soon as possible, to prevent bacterial attack.

The fibre is derived from the inner bast tissues of the stem. The bast of ramie cannot be removed from the woody tissue in which it is embedded by a simple retting process such as is used for flax, hemp and jute. Instead, it must first undergo a severe pounding or scraping to remove the outer bark, which is administered by hand or by one of the many types of decorticating machines.

The decorticator and decorticated ramie fibre is shown as in Fig. By decortication, the outer bark, the central woody core and some portion of the gums and waxes of the bast are mechanically removed. In principle, any machine which is used for sisal or kenaf decortications can be adjusted for ramie. The decorticator consists of a beater or breaker plate and a metal drum, which is equipped with steel beater blades or knives that are set at equal intervals on the periphery of the drum.

The quality of decortication and fibre recovery also depend largely on the efficiency of the operator as well as condition of the plants. Stalks becoming dry after harvest cannot be properly decorticated. Decortication should be completed on the day of harvest and if there are some left over, they should be kept moist by sprinkling water till decortications is done on the following day. Decortication is to be done immediately after harvest and therefore, a harvesting schedule is planned in relation to the decortications capacity of the machines used 9.

A number of small machines have been designed in various countries with the objective of extracting bast fibre from the green stems of jute and similar fibre plants and thus eliminating the need of retting. Decorticators developed for ramie include small mobile types suitable for use in the field and larger machines designed for central operation. Use of decorticators in the field saves the cost of transporting unwanted plant material to soil Some have been in use for a long while, but they all have drawbacks for commercial big scale production.

Either the fibre is imperfectly cleaned so that it can only be put to use for limited local purposes, or the output is much too low, or there too much wastage of fibre during the process of decortications The ribbons of partially separated but not yet degummed fibre, are known as "China grass" and it is in this form that ramie is normally exported from China to European and other markets.

The extracted fibrous material, after washing, should be immediately dried or degummed to prevent the development of mildew. As mentioned above, ramie is not retted in the same way as are other stem fibres such as jute, hemp, flax, etc. Due to the presence of gum, the fibre becomes stiff and brittle. It acts as an inhibitor for water and other chemicals to enter inside the fibre.

So, it is always better to remove the gum content of ramie fibre before going for the processing of the fibre. The process of removal of gum from the fibre is known as degumming. Degumming can be done with chemicals like sodium hydroxide 13 , 14 or with enzymes 15 - 19 or with microbial action The tenacity, wet strength, extensibility are increases.

Removal of the gum enables the fibre to take a more crystalline form. On gum removal, the crystallites increase in width but deteriorate with regard to their alignment along the fibre axis The ribbons of ramie, on their arrival at the factory, are greenish yellow to yellowish-white strips.

They may be used in this form for coarse products, but if ramie is to be spun into yarns suitable for fine fabrics, the first process in the mill is to degum the ribbons. Generally caustic soda is used for degumming process. The gums of ramie are composed of araban and xylans which are insoluble in water but easily soluble in alkaline solutions.

A slight mistake in the degumming process can spoil the quality of fibre, since the major component in ramie is cellulose and is sensitive to alkali.

It is essential to remove the excess of alkali by acetic acid treatment after chemical degumming, otherwise the fibre strength will be reduced. After the fibre has been submitted to the degumming action, it is thoroughly washed and dried. The separated cells of ramie, known as "filasse" although white and clean, are still somewhat harsh and dry. In order that the fiber may lend itself more readily to the subsequent manufacturing operations, it is usually treated with an oily preparation composed in most cases of water, glycerine, wax and soap, when it is thoroughly softened, ramie is ready for processing The SEM images showing the effect of combined degumming and bleaching is shown in Fig.

From the figure it is observed that after the chemical treatment, the fibres are found to be clean. In a study the degumming of ramie with sodium metasilicate, alone or in combination with other alkali solutions such as sodium carbonate, trisodium phosphate and sodium metasilicate phosphate, has been reported The most significant factors involved in ramie degumming are the concentration of the chemicals, temperature, time and the methods employed to ensure that the degumming liquor penetrates to all parts of the ribbons.

The decorticated and chemically degummed fibres are as shown in Fig. There is no international grading system is available for grading of ramie fibre and the grading is done as per the standards developed by the ramie producing countries. Ramie fibre will be graded before taken in to processing industry. The existing jute grading system can also be adoptable in the case of ramie.

Generally two methods of grading are adopted. Hand and eye method and instrumental method. During grading, the following parameters are to be checked. Colour, strength, softness, length, fibre separation and defects major, minor. The market prize of ramie fibre is determined by grading system. Ramie is a unicellular cellulosic bast fibre. Among all the bast fibres, major content of cellulose is found in the ramie.

American Woolen Company

Wool is natural, renewable and biodegradable so it should be a great time for the New Zealand economy. Why, then, are farmers, designers and businesses finding it so hard? She and James began Hushaberry last September to produce wool carpets, rugs and wall hangings, buying mainly merino wool.

Making better wool starts with the sheep. Unfortunately, most of the soft Merino wool is obtained from animals who have a piece of their skin cut off without anaesthesia in a process that is called mulesing.

In West Asia and North Africa, poor people began wearing cotton clothing, but in Europe cotton was still a very unusual luxury item, imported from the Islamic Empire. See the article in its original context from September 16, , Page 9 Buy Reprints. Search materials, sample swatches, and source cottons, wools, silks, leathers, and other materials on the premiere online textile tradeshow. Mountains and hills rise all around Llangollen which is a seriously active place for a small community - in July there is the International Eisteddfod, a massive music festival where choirs from some fifty different countries compete; there is an accompanying Fringe festival based in the theatre behind the Corn Mill; hot air balloon festivals. Prices listed are at the half yard price.

A History Of The British Cotton Industry

Natural wool is the fiber obtained from sheep and other animals. For example cashmere and the mohair of goats, Qiviut of muskoxen, angora of rabbits, and Camelid wool. Sheep wool is the most preferred because it has important physical properties distinguish it from camel hair, goat hair, and others. The wool is consists of protein with a low proportion of fat. So it is quite different from cotton which is mainly cellulose. Global raw wool production is approximately 3. There is currently a global interest in reviving the use of organic wool, an initiative that is funded by wool producers from Australia, Britain and New Zealand in an effort to encourage more producers to use wool in the carpet and clothing industry instead of other synthetic fibers. Wool fibers have been important to the primitive human tribes since more than 10, BC.

Natural Wool: Its Characteristics, Manufacturing Process, and Good Washing of Woolen Fabrics

Wool is a type of fabric derived from the hairs of various animals. To make wool, producers harvest the hairs of animals and spin them into yarn. They then weave this yarn into garments or other forms of textiles. Wool is known for its durability and thermally insulating properties; depending on the type of hair that producers use to make wool, this fabric may benefit from the natural insulative effects that keep the animal that produced the hair warm throughout the winter.

At Pascalis Bespoke Tailoring, we can offer you an enormous range of quality international fabrics sourced from our European suppliers who regularly keep us up to date with new products coming onto the market.

The fabrics delivery time normally is about days. Quality, innovation, creativity and individual approach is the slogan of the company Scabal, ever since its foundation in In the fabrics production Scabal uses only the best materials. Only the most precious materials, such as superfine wool ranging from Super 's to brand Super 's, cashmere, silk and mohair, you can get a result and comfort worthy of the name Scabal.

What is Wool Fabric: Properties, How its Made and Where

Over years researching, developing and manufacturing our products in Spain. We are a vertical company that covers the entire value chain in the development of fabrics. Our production follows a strict control process in both of our production plants located in Valencia Spain. At TEJIDOS ROYO we have modern industrial equipment at the service of a professional management team with great expertise and training, which allows us to develop a sophisticated productive and commercial process.

Interlining is the one of the most important and state of the art accessory materials that currently lacks review and exploration. This article comprehensively demonstrates an organizational integration of interlinings which includes their history, classification, manufacture, characteristic, properties, function, fusing technology and application. In addition, the article highlights a new innovation of printable interlining, which could replace the traditional fusible interlinings because of its cost-effectiveness, its simple process and its environmentally-friendly nature. Interlining is a layer of fabric inserted between the shell fabric and the lining of a garment to give clothing a suitable appearance and stability. It has a long history and exists in diverse forms based on its substrate and application.

Ramie Fibre Processing and Value Addition

Wool is the textile fiber obtained from sheep and other animals, including cashmere and mohair from goats , qiviut from muskoxen , from hide and fur clothing from bison , angora from rabbits , and other types of wool from camelids ; [1] additionally, the Highland and the Mangalica breeds of cattle and swine , respectively, possess woolly coats. Wool consists of protein together with a small percentage of lipids. In this regard it is chemically quite distinct from the more dominant textile, cotton , which is mainly cellulose. Wool is produced by follicles which are small cells located in the skin. These follicles are located in the upper layer of the skin called the epidermis and push down into the second skin layer called the dermis as the wool fibers grow. Follicles can be classed as either primary or secondary follicles.

The manufacturing establishments of the North are overthrown by the bring us back to the use of flax, hemp, and wool, and exclude cotton from our consumption. we shall have nothing where withal to purchase the fabric from the English loom, Here have they built for themselves a country, established commercial.

Visit my Yorkshire Lightbox for more images from around the county of Yorkshire. Image: Getty Images. By the middle of the 19th century, Britain was producing half the world's cotton cloth, yet not a scrap of cotton was grown in Britain. How then did Britain come to dominate global production of a cloth made entirely from material imported from the southern United States, India and Egypt? The answer lies in a set of circumstances no less complex than the finely woven, beautifully printed British muslins, calicoes and chintzes that clothed people and furnished homes everywhere.

Our production

Please fill in your details to download the Table of Contents of this report for free. We also do customization of these reports so you can write to us at mi fibre2fashion. Angora rabbit hair fibre is a specialty fibre known for its excellent thermal insulation characteristics.

Consumers are increasingly considering the sustainability of their purchases as they gain access to an array of fabrics that are practically self-cleaning. Broadly speaking, the answer lies in four main factors: raw material extraction, textile production, added chemistry and end-of-life. Raw material extraction for example, addresses the land and water used to grow natural fibers like cotton and wool, or the impacts of extracting fossil fuels for synthetic fibers such as polyester or nylon. Production considerations include the water and energy used for manufacturing, the impact of production waste and a company's social responsibility towards its workers and the communities that surround its production facilities.

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Register Now. Generally, a set number of yarns are used for the formation of fabrics. Also, a number of techniques are used for producing fabrics such as weaving, knitting, and felting. The type of fabrics varies by the fibres, the fabric formation techniques, machinery used for producing them, and finishing techniques. Fabrics can also be made differently based on the end-usage.

Ramie fibre comes under bast fibre category, which can be classified as underutilised fibres. The high potential of ramie fibre is not fully exploited due to various techno-economic reasons. It is one of the strongest natural fibres having rich cellulose content. Apart from textile uses, ramie fibre can be utilised for the production of various diversified products. Still in present scenario, there is much scope for research and development on this valuable fibre. This study briefs the extraction, mechanical processing, fibre properties and value addition of ramie fibre.

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  1. Zuzuru

    I am sorry, that I interrupt you, but it is necessary for me little bit more information.