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Space produce devices peripheral computing complexes and electronic digital machines

Space produce devices peripheral computing complexes and electronic digital machines

A peripheral device is generally defined as any auxiliary device such as a computer mouse or keyboard, that connects to and works with the computer in some way. RAM—random access memory—straddles the line between peripheral and primary component; it is technically a storage peripheral, but is required for every major function of a modern computer and removing the RAM will effectively disable any modern machine. Many new devices such as digital watches, smartphones and tablet computers have interfaces which allow them to be used as a peripheral by a full computer, though they are not host-dependent as other peripheral devices are. According to the most technical definition, the only pieces of a computer not considered to be peripherals are the central processing unit, power supply, motherboard, and computer case.

VIDEO ON THE TOPIC: Input-output organisation // peripheral devices // input-output interface

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History of computing hardware

In fact, calculation underlies many activities that are not normally thought of as mathematical. Walking across a room, for instance, requires many complex, albeit subconscious, calculations. Computers, too, have proved capable of solving a vast array of problems, from balancing a checkbook to even—in the form of guidance systems for robots—walking across a room.

Before the true power of computing could be realized, therefore, the naive view of calculation had to be overcome. The inventors who laboured to bring the computer into the world had to learn that the thing they were inventing was not just a number cruncher, not merely a calculator. For example, they had to learn that it was not necessary to invent a new computer for every new calculation and that a computer could be designed to solve numerous problems, even problems not yet imagined when the computer was built.

They also had to learn how to tell such a general problem-solving computer what problem to solve. In other words, they had to invent programming. They had to solve all the heady problems of developing such a device, of implementing the design, of actually building the thing. The history of the solving of these problems is the history of the computer. That history is covered in this section, and links are provided to entries on many of the individuals and companies mentioned.

In addition, see the articles computer science and supercomputer. The earliest known calculating device is probably the abacus. It dates back at least to bce and is still in use today, particularly in Asia.

Now, as then, it typically consists of a rectangular frame with thin parallel rods strung with beads. Long before any systematic positional notation was adopted for the writing of numbers, the abacus assigned different units, or weights, to each rod. This scheme allowed a wide range of numbers to be represented by just a few beads and, together with the invention of zero in India, may have inspired the invention of the Hindu-Arabic number system.

In any case, abacus beads can be readily manipulated to perform the common arithmetical operations—addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division—that are useful for commercial transactions and in bookkeeping. The abacus is a digital device; that is, it represents values discretely. A bead is either in one predefined position or another, representing unambiguously, say, one or zero.

Calculating devices took a different turn when John Napier , a Scottish mathematician, published his discovery of logarithms in As any person can attest, adding two digit numbers is much simpler than multiplying them together, and the transformation of a multiplication problem into an addition problem is exactly what logarithms enable. This simplification is possible because of the following logarithmic property: the logarithm of the product of two numbers is equal to the sum of the logarithms of the numbers.

By , tables with 14 significant digits were available for the logarithms of numbers from 1 to 20,, and scientists quickly adopted the new labour-saving tool for tedious astronomical calculations. Most significant for the development of computing, the transformation of multiplication into addition greatly simplified the possibility of mechanization. In Edmund Gunter , the English mathematician who coined the terms cosine and cotangent , built a device for performing navigational calculations: the Gunter scale, or, as navigators simply called it, the gunter.

That first slide rule was circular, but Oughtred also built the first rectangular one in The analog devices of Gunter and Oughtred had various advantages and disadvantages compared with digital devices such as the abacus. What is important is that the consequences of these design decisions were being tested in the real world.

In the German astronomer and mathematician Wilhelm Schickard built the first calculator. He described it in a letter to his friend the astronomer Johannes Kepler , and in he wrote again to explain that a machine he had commissioned to be built for Kepler was, apparently along with the prototype , destroyed in a fire. He called it a Calculating Clock , which modern engineers have been able to reproduce from details in his letters. But Schickard may not have been the true inventor of the calculator.

A century earlier, Leonardo da Vinci sketched plans for a calculator that were sufficiently complete and correct for modern engineers to build a calculator on their basis. The first calculator or adding machine to be produced in any quantity and actually used was the Pascaline, or Arithmetic Machine , designed and built by the French mathematician-philosopher Blaise Pascal between and It could only do addition and subtraction, with numbers being entered by manipulating its dials.

Pascal invented the machine for his father, a tax collector, so it was the first business machine too if one does not count the abacus. He built 50 of them over the next 10 years. In the German mathematician-philosopher Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz designed a calculating machine called the Step Reckoner. It was first built in Leibniz was a strong advocate of the binary number system. Binary numbers are ideal for machines because they require only two digits, which can easily be represented by the on and off states of a switch.

When computers became electronic, the binary system was particularly appropriate because an electrical circuit is either on or off. This meant that on could represent true, off could represent false, and the flow of current would directly represent the flow of logic. Leibniz was prescient in seeing the appropriateness of the binary system in calculating machines, but his machine did not use it.

Instead, the Step Reckoner represented numbers in decimal form, as positions on position dials. Even decimal representation was not a given: in Samuel Morland invented an adding machine specialized for British money—a decidedly nondecimal system. With other activities being mechanized, why not calculation? In Charles Xavier Thomas de Colmar of France effectively met this challenge when he built his Arithmometer , the first commercial mass-produced calculating device. It could perform addition, subtraction, multiplication, and, with some more elaborate user involvement, division.

Calculators such as the Arithmometer remained a fascination after , and their potential for commercial use was well understood. Many other mechanical devices built during the 19th century also performed repetitive functions more or less automatically, but few had any application to computing.

There was one major exception: the Jacquard loom , invented in —05 by a French weaver, Joseph-Marie Jacquard. The Jacquard loom was a marvel of the Industrial Revolution. A textile-weaving loom, it could also be called the first practical information-processing device. The loom worked by tugging various-coloured threads into patterns by means of an array of rods.

By inserting a card punched with holes, an operator could control the motion of the rods and thereby alter the pattern of the weave.

Moreover, the loom was equipped with a card-reading device that slipped a new card from a prepunched deck into place every time the shuttle was thrown, so that complex weaving patterns could be automated.

What was extraordinary about the device was that it transferred the design process from a labour-intensive weaving stage to a card-punching stage. Once the cards had been punched and assembled, the design was complete, and the loom implemented the design automatically.

The Jacquard loom, therefore, could be said to be programmed for different patterns by these decks of punched cards. For those intent on mechanizing calculations, the Jacquard loom provided important lessons: the sequence of operations that a machine performs could be controlled to make the machine do something quite different; a punched card could be used as a medium for directing the machine; and, most important, a device could be directed to perform different tasks by feeding it instructions in a sort of language—i.

It is not too great a stretch to say that, in the Jacquard loom, programming was invented before the computer. Article Media. Info Print Print. Table Of Contents. Submit Feedback. Thank you for your feedback. Load Previous Page. Load Next Page. More About. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students.

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That same year in Germany, engineer Konrad Zuse built his Z2 computer, also using telephone company relays. Their first product, the HP A Audio Oscillator, rapidly became a popular piece of test equipment for engineers. In , Bell Telephone Laboratories completes this calculator, designed by scientist George Stibitz.

A computer is a programmable device that can automatically perform a sequence of calculations or other operations on data once programmed for the task. It can store, retrieve, and process data according to internal instructions.

Before a computer can process your data, you need some method to input the data into the machine. The device you use will depend on what form this data takes be it text, sound, artwork, etc. Similarly, after the computer has processed your data, you often need to produce output of the results. This output could be a display on the computer screen, hardcopy on printed pages, or even the audio playback of music you composed on the computer.

Glossary Of Technical Terms

Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. The computer technology that allows us to develop three-dimensional virtual environments VEs consists of both hardware and software. The current popular, technical, and scientific interest in VEs is inspired, in large part, by the advent and availability of increasingly powerful and affordable visually oriented, interactive, graphical display systems and techniques. Graphical image generation and display capabilities that were not previously widely available are now found on the desktops of many professionals and are finding their way into the home. The greater affordability and availability of these systems, coupled with more capable, single-person-oriented viewing and control devices e. Limiting VE technology to primarily visual interactions, however, simply defines the technology as a more personal and affordable variant of classical military and commercial graphical simulation technology. A much more interesting, and potentially useful, way to view VEs is as a significant subset of multimodal user interfaces. Multimodal user interfaces are simply human-machine interfaces that actively or purposefully use interaction and display techniques in multiple sensory modalities e.

U.S. Food and Drug Administration

Last updated: December 25, I t was probably the worst prediction in history. Back in the s, Thomas Watson, boss of the giant IBM Corporation, reputedly forecast that the world would need no more than "about five computers. To be fair to Watson, computers have changed enormously in that time.

A computer is a machine for manipulating data according to a list of instructions.

In fact, calculation underlies many activities that are not normally thought of as mathematical. Walking across a room, for instance, requires many complex, albeit subconscious, calculations. Computers, too, have proved capable of solving a vast array of problems, from balancing a checkbook to even—in the form of guidance systems for robots—walking across a room.

THE INDUSTRIAL WIKI

Perhaps the most visible contribution, however, came in the form of the instrument unit or guidance system for the famed Saturn V rocket that propelled humans to the Moon. Three feet tall, 22 feet in diameter and weighing about pounds kg , the Saturn V Instrument Guide was the guidance system constructed by IBM that helped steer the astronauts of Apollo It held components built by IBM and 60 other companies.

The technology resources recommended for teaching, learning, management, and administrative environments in order to support all school staff and students are outlined in this section of the facilities guide. The articulation of these recommended resources and the functions they will serve should drive the design of the infrastructure needed to support this wide range of diverse functions at both the district and school levels. Emphasis is placed on connectivity for both local and global communication and collaboration, along with flexibility for maximizing potential of existing resources, and open design that will support needs not yet envisioned. Additional information regarding national efforts in the area of energy conservation and effective design strategies can be found at the following Web sites:. These considerations will be noted as they apply to specific environments in this section. Please note that the NJSDA 21st Century Schools Design Manual and accompanying appendices are not prescriptive or required for all school construction projects, but rather guidelines that should prove useful for all participants in this process.

Glossary of Computer Related Terms

As a technician involved with the processes controlled by PLCs, it is important to understand their basic functionalities and capabilities. What is a Programmable Logic Controller? A programmable logic controller PLC is a digital computer used for automation of electromechanical processes, such as control of machinery on factory assembly lines, amusement rides, or lighting fixtures. PLCs are used in many industries and machines. Unlike general-purpose computers, the PLC is designed for multiple inputs and output arrangements, extended temperature ranges, immunity to electrical noise, and resistance to vibration and impact. Programs to control machine operation are typically stored in battery-backed or non-volatile memory. A PLC is an example of a real time system since output results must be produced in response to input conditions within a bounded time, otherwise unintended operation will result. Figure 1 shows a graphical depiction of typical PLCs.

Feb 6, - Early electronic computers were the size of a large room, consuming as much in machines ranging from fighter aircraft to industrial robots, digital Examples of early mechanical computing devices included the These factors allowed computers to be produced on an unprecedented commercial scale.

The history of computing hardware covers the developments from early simple devices to aid calculation to modern day computers. Before the 20th century, most calculations were done by humans. Early mechanical tools to help humans with digital calculations, like the abacus , were called "calculating machines", called by proprietary names, or referred to as calculators. The machine operator was called the computer. The first aids to computation were purely mechanical devices which required the operator to set up the initial values of an elementary arithmetic operation, then manipulate the device to obtain the result.

Embedded system

Your commands, ideas, demands and concepts form the data your system processes and stores. Without user input, a computer simply takes up desktop space and waits for directions, like a lost motorist with a broken-down car. Without input methods and devices, your correspondence, reports, images and numbers remain in your head rather than becoming work in progress.

Chapter 7. Telecommunications, the Internet, and Information System Architecture. The electronic transmission of information over distances, called telecommunications, has become virtually inseparable from computers: Computers and telecommunications create value together. Components of a Telecommunications Network.

GIS implementations in the lates to mids required the use of exotic peripheral devices to encode and display geospatial information. Data encoding was normally performed in one of two modes: automated raster scanning and manual vector coordinate recording.

This document is intended to serve as a glossary of terminology applicable to software development and computerized systems in FDA regulated industries. It will facilitate consistency in describing the requirements of the law and regulations applicable to such products and systems. It is also a resource for investigators who conduct inspections and investigations involving software and computerized systems. The organization of this document is primarily alphabetical. Acronyms are grouped at the beginning of each alphabetical section, and are followed by words, terms and phrases.

Because an embedded system typically controls physical operations of the machine that it is embedded within, it often has real-time computing constraints. Embedded systems control many devices in common use today. Modern embedded systems are often based on microcontrollers i. In either case, the processor s used may be types ranging from general purpose to those specialized in certain class of computations, or even custom designed for the application at hand. A common standard class of dedicated processors is the digital signal processor DSP. Since the embedded system is dedicated to specific tasks, design engineers can optimize it to reduce the size and cost of the product and increase the reliability and performance.

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