Units building products of rabbit breeding, fur farming, hunting
Forage Crops Lorann Stallones. Livestock Confinement Kelley Donham. Animal Husbandry Dean T. Stueland and Paul D. Manure and Waste Handling William Popendorf. Cattle, Sheep and Goats Melvin L.VIDEO ON THE TOPIC: When To Re-Breed Your Rabbits
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Forage Crops Lorann Stallones. Livestock Confinement Kelley Donham. Animal Husbandry Dean T. Stueland and Paul D. Manure and Waste Handling William Popendorf. Cattle, Sheep and Goats Melvin L. Poultry and Egg Production Steven W. Horses and Other Equines Lynn Barroby. Draught Animals in Asia D. Bull Raising David L. Fish Farming and Aquaculture George A. Conway and Ray RaLonde. Myers and Donald Barnard. Livestock uses 2. International livestock production 1, tonnes 3.
Types of human health problems associated with livestock 5. Primary zoonoses by world region 6. Potential arthropod hazards in the workplace 8.
Compounds identified in swine confinement Ambient levels of various gases in swine confinement Respiratory diseases associated with swine production Zoonotic diseases of livestock handlers Physical properties of manure Some important toxicologic benchmarks for hydrogen sulphide Some safety procedures related to manure spreaders Types of ruminants domesticated as livestock Respiratory illnesses from exposures on livestock farms Zoonoses associated with horses Normal draught power of various animals.
Humans depend upon animals for food and related by-products, work and a variety of other uses see table 1. To meet these demands, they have domesticated or held in captivity species of mammals, birds, reptiles, fish and arthropods. These animals have become known as livestock, and rearing them has implications for occupational safety and health.
This general profile of the industry includes its evolution and structure, the economic importance of different commodities of livestock, and regional characteristics of the industry and workforce. The articles in this chapter are organized by occupational processes, livestock sectors and consequences of livestock rearing.
By-products and other uses. Fluid and dried milk, butter, cheese and curd, casein, evaporated milk, cream, yoghurt and other fermented milk, ice cream, whey. Male calves and old cows sold into the cattle commodity market; milk as an industrial feedstock of carbohydrates lactose as a diluent for drugs , proteins used as a surfactant to stabilize food emulsions and fats lipids have potential uses as emulsifiers, surfactants and gels , offal.
Hides and skins leather, collagens for sausage casings, cosmetics, wound dressing, human tissue repair , offal, work traction , wool, hair, dung as fuel and fertilizer , bone meal, religious objects, pet food, tallow and grease fatty acids, varnish, rubber goods, soaps, lamp oil, plastics, lubricants fat, blood meal. Feathers and down, manure as fertilizer , leather, fat, offal, flightless bird oil carrier for dermal path pharmaceuticals , weed control geese in mint fields.
Pets, furs and skins, guard dogs, seeing-eye dogs, hunting dogs, experimentation, sheep herding by the dog , rodent control by the cat. Honey, species grubs, grasshoppers, ants, crickets, termites, locusts, beetle larvae, wasps and bees, moth caterpillars are a regular diet among many non-western societies.
Livestock evolved over the past 12, years through selection by human communities and adaptation to new environments. Historians believe that goat and sheep were the first species of animals domesticated for human use. Then, about 9, years ago, humans domesticated the pig. The cow was the last major food animal that humans domesticated, about 8, years ago in Turkey or Macedonia.
It was probably only after cattle were domesticated that milk was discovered as a useful foodstuff. Goat, sheep, reindeer and camel milk were also used. People of Mexico had domesticated the turkey Tannahill Humans used several other mammalian and avian species for food, as well as amphibian and fish species and various arthropods.
Honey from the honey bee was an early food; smoking bees from their nest to collect honey was known in Egypt as early as 5, years ago. Humans also domesticated many mammals for use for draught, including the horse, donkey, elephant, dog, buffalo, camel and reindeer. The first animal used for draught, perhaps with the exception of the dog, was likely the goat, which could defoliate scrub for land cultivation through its browsing. Historians believe that Asians domesticated the Asian wolf, which was to become the dog, 13, years ago.
The dog proved to be useful to the hunter for its speed, hearing and sense of smell, and the sheepdog aided in the early domestication of sheep Tannahill The people of the steppe lands of Eurasia domesticated the horse about 4, years ago. Its use for work traction was stimulated by the invention of the horseshoe, collar harness and feeding of oats. Although draught is still important in much of the world, farmers displace draught animals with machines as farming and transportation becomes more mechanized.
Some mammals, such as the cat, are used to control rodents Caras The structure of the current livestock industry can be defined by commodities, the animal products that enter the market. Global meat production nearly trebled between and Over this period, per capita consumption increased from 21 to 33 kilograms per annum.
Because of the limitations of available rangeland, beef production levelled off in As a result, animals that are more efficient in converting feed grain into meat, such as pigs and chickens, have gained a competitive advantage. Both pork and poultry have been increasing in dramatic contrast to beef production. Pork overtook beef in worldwide production in the late s.
Poultry may soon exceed beef production. Mutton production remains low and stagnant USDA a. Milk cows worldwide have been slowly decreasing while milk production has been increasing because of increasing production per cow USDA b.
Aquaculture production increased at an annual rate of 9. They also become a vital source of protein during times of famine DeFoliart Separating the workforce engaged in livestock rearing from other agricultural activities is difficult. Pastoral activities, such as those in much of Africa, and heavy commodity-based operations, such as those in the United States, have differentiated more between livestock and crop raising.
However, many agro-pastoral and agronomic enterprises integrate the two. In much of the world, draught animals are still used extensively in crop production. Moreover, livestock and poultry depend upon feed and forage generated from crop operations, and these operations are commonly integrated. The principal aquaculture species in the world is the plant-eating carp. Insect production is also tied directly to crop production.
The silkworm feeds exclusively on mulberry leaves; honeybees depend upon flower nectar; plants depend upon them for pollination work; and humans harvest edible grubs from various crops. Regional characteristics related to livestock rearing follow. Animal husbandry has been practised in sub-Saharan Africa for more than 5, years.
Nomadic husbandry of the early livestock has evolved species that tolerate poor nutrition, infectious diseases and long migrations. Although its importance has grown since the mids, aquaculture has contributed little to the food supply for this region.
Aquaculture in this region is based upon pond farming of tilapias, and export enterprises have attempted to culture marine shrimps. An export aquaculture industry in this region is expected to grow because Asian demand for fish is expected to increase, which will be fuelled by Asian investment and technology drawn to the region by a favourable climate and by African labour.
Livestock rearing operations are mainly small-scale units in this region, but large commercial farms are establishing operations near urban centres. In rural areas, millions of people depend on livestock for meat, milk, eggs, hides and skins, draught power and wool.
China exceeds the rest of the world with million pigs; the remainder of the world has a total of million pigs. Milk production is a part of traditional agriculture in many countries of this region. At 6,, tonnes, China alone produces nearly half of the world production,. Demand for fish is expected to increase rapidly, and aquaculture is expected to meet this demand.
In this region of million people, Increased urbanization and mechanization have led to this decrease. Much of this arable land is in the moist, cool northern climates and is conducive to growing pastures for livestock. As a result, much of the livestock raising is located in the northern part of this region. Europe contributed 8. Aquaculture has concentrated on relatively high-value species of finfish , tonnes and shellfish , tonnes.
The Latin American and Caribbean region differs from other regions in many ways. Large tracts of land remain to be exploited, the region has large populations of domestic animals and much of the agriculture is operated as large operations. Livestock represents about one-third of the agricultural production, which makes up a significant part of the gross domestic product.
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Download as a PDF. We recognise them not as objects, but as complex beings with whom we share the planet, our lives, our homes. We take pleasure from their pleasure, we anguish over their pain, celebrating their intelligence and individuality as welcome them into our families, or revere them in their natural element. So for those who feed, clothe or entertain us, we choose to follow a narrative that minimises or altogether eliminates their suffering.
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Rabbits have been significant pests in Australia since they were released near Geelong, Victoria in Rabbits are one of Australia's most serious pest animals and typically:. Before designing your rabbit control program, it is important to understand rabbit behaviour and characteristics. Following are some points that should to be considered in the design of your program:. Further information on rabbit characteristics and behaviour. Planning can maximise the effectiveness of rabbit control while minimising damage to other animals. Consider rabbit density, distribution and the habitat in which the rabbits are living as this will determine what actions are appropriate. The following steps will help in planning. Work on your property can be undermined by the inactivity of your neighbours. Talk to your neighbours and local Landcare group and work out a plan for coordinated action.
Rabbits (new with animal welfare information)
Rumours associated with wildlife are frequent, although they have received little attention in the scientific literature. Studying rumours is important because of their relevance not only in a broad theoretical sense but also in environmental management. The goal of this study is to explore the complexity of the relationships between humans and wildlife through a thematic analysis of rumours associated with allegedly introduced European rabbits Oryctolagus cuniculus that cause crop damage in Spain. For this purpose, potential rumours were identified using the Google search engine.
Good health in the rabbits comes from keeping the environment clean, dry and well-ventilated and avoiding overcrowding. The big eyes situated at the sides of the head clearly indicate that rabbits are hunted animals, and many big and smaller predator s want rabbit meat. Rabbits are alert, awake or sleeping, and have very good senses, in particular hearing and smelling, but they can see both o around them and in the air, but their eyes are very poor in bright sunlight. Therefore, they forage in early mornings and in twilight.
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This study was conducted to assess the reproductive performance of does and growth performance of their F 1 generation weaned at different ages of 2, 4 and 6 weeks for each of the three mating groups, respectively. Twenty-four mature grasscutters were used comprising of six bucks and eighteen does. A total of sixty-nine pups were obtained from seventeen litters within the experimental period of one year and assessed for growth performance within first six weeks of life. Therefore, pups can be weaned as early as two weeks of age without any adverse effect at early stage of life. The cane rat grasscutter which is a wild hystricomorphic rodent hunted aggressively for its meat Fonweban and Njwe, ; NRC, ; Ntiamo-Baidu, is desirable for domestication.
Rumours about wildlife pest introductions: European rabbits in Spain
Aware, however, that scientific evidence available on the welfare requirements of fur animals is not sufficient for the elaboration of detailed provisions for the implementation of all principles set out in Chapter I of the Convention; Resolved therefore a. Article 1 1. This Recommendation shall apply to all animals kept primarily for their furs, in intensive as well as extensive farming systems. Nothing in this Recommendation shall affect the implementation of other instruments for the protection of animals or for the conservation of threatened wild species. Animals born in the wild shall not be kept in fur farm conditions. No animal shall be kept for its fur if: a.
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Back to top. In cases where these groupings correspond with major groups, the major group heading is also in italics. In this division, establishments which are primarily engaged in farming activities are classified, such as the growing of field crops, the raising of livestock and the production of milk, wool and eggs. Establishments rendering agricultural services such as harvesting, baling, threshing and spraying are also classified under this major division.
Нет, дорогой, - обычно отвечала Николь, понимая, что Ричард не даст ей уснуть, пока не выговорится. - Я спросил ее - сколько черных шариков у нее будет, если она уже имеет три и я дам ей еще два. - Следовала драматическая пауза. - И что же, по-твоему, она ответила.
Биот-многоножка как раз использовал обходную дорожку, чтобы перебраться с одного берега на противоположный. - И куда же, по-твоему, он направляется. - поинтересовалась Николь, пока оба они отошли" в сторону, чтобы пропустить биота.
- Возможно, в Нью-Йорк, - ответил Ричард. - Когда птенцы еще не проклюнулись, во время моих долгих прогулок я иногда видел их вдали. Они остановились перед единственной дверью в стене сооружения, выходившей в сторону канала. - Итак, входим.
Гляди-ка, - крикнул он Николь, посвечивая вперед фонариком, - мы почти дома. Но звук, который в ту же секунду услыхала Николь, заставил ее замереть - Ричард, - закричала она, - выключи свет. Он быстро обернулся, едва не упав, и выключил фонарик.