Units production wood waste
Island Press Amazon. Account Options Sign in. Conseguir libro impreso. Catherine M.
Dear readers! Our articles talk about typical ways to resolve Units production wood waste, but each case is unique.
If you want to know, how to solve your particular problem - contact the online consultant form on the right or call the numbers on the website. It is fast and free!
Biomass for Electricity Generation
A project of fossil fuel to wood waste conversion of boilers used for heating is being developed for the Global Environment Facility GEF. Two categories of potential relations between wood-waste suppliers and wood-waste or heat buyers have been identified and studied from the point of view of a GEF-sponsored demonstration project: 1 Single wood-waste supplier linked by a long term contract with single wood-waste buyer.
In the demonstration project in Krapkowice, a ten-year contract has been signed for wood waste supply to a grammar school, which was previously heated by coal. Before then the school was thermally improved using the low-cost approach developed within a project sponsored by USAID; 2 Many small wood waste suppliers and many scattered wood waste or district heat buyers.
The wood waste will replace hard coal in space heating of residential and public buildings. The Global Environment Facility GEF supports projects to benefit the global environment in the areas of climate change; biodiversity; international waters; and ozone depleting substances. In the Climate Change Focal Area, the global objective is the stabilisation of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere.
The Operational Strategy emphasises projects with the potential for successful future replication. GEF, and also Polish National Fund for Environmental Protection and Water Management and Ecofund, view biomass as an important strategic area for support as it holds tremendous potential as a renewable energy source having no net carbon emissions. Therefore, any further exploitation of forests for dedicated fuel production that would deplete this resource is unacceptable.
Only wood fuel produced in a sustainable way can be considered. This includes wood waste from industrial wood processing or from routine maintenance of the forests, orchards or municipal parks and other municipal green areas. The estimates of the potential and utilisation level of wood residues vary significantly.
Those numbers, however, require an additional comment. The study revealed that the numbers reported by wood processing industries are misleading in terms of the amount of heat that can be produced using their wood residues. Firstly, there exist a substantial resource of wood waste generated, which is either completely wasted as fuel or used very inefficiently. The site visits during the surveys showed that in many cases the main goal of burning wood residues is getting rid of the waste rather than obtaining useful energy.
Consequently, the small efficiency of combustion and heat utilisation is a tolerated or even desired factor. If such saving measures were implemented, the disposable surplus of wood residues would increase correspondingly, without affecting the production process or heating comfort at the facility. In order to increase the economic and environmental benefits of using wood or wood-waste to replace fossil fuels for heat production an integrated approach is needed in Poland, which combines fuel conversion with end-use efficiency and fuel security.
This observation have led to an idea to design a project, the main objective of which was to make an optimal and possibly full use of the existing potential of wood-waste in Poland in order to maximise the environmental and economic benefits of its use for space heating. PDF-A study has distinguished two niches for wood-waste use for heat production, each with a significant replication potential.
They differ in the technological solutions, size of investment, commodity traded wood fuel or heat , organisational structure and importance of barriers to be overcome.
The technology used is single boiler or a set of , typically in the range kW and the commodity traded is wood waste or wood fuel in general. The long and stable contract should be signed between supplier s , which is a small or medium size manufacturer or timber mill, and user. User can be a single facility building or adjacent buildings, with no need to invest in heat distribution grid, except for possibly short pipe connections heated by a single boiler several connected boilers located on site e.
Main problems, which have to be solved, are high transaction costs of project development, choice of technology, choice of back-up option, signing a long-term contract between supplier and user. A particular case is "self supply" where the supplier and user are the same entity. The existing examples are provided by the GEF project in city of Otwock and Gliwice, where park maintenance residues are used for heating the greenhouses.
Other examples are forest administration offices. Good practice examples are very much needed. Technology used in niche 2 is the same as in niche 1 for combustion, and additionally the technology of storing wood waste is needed. The commodity traded is wood waste and possibly fuel wood. In this niche are many scattered small wood waste producers, city parks, forest units. The users are scattered wood waste buyers operating individual boilers boiler houses. It requires the creation of local wood fuel market and a specialised trade company.
Main problems are organisation of the wood waste market; balancing supply and demand, including fuel back-up; business plan for a commercial company trading with wood-waste; contracts with suppliers and buyers; space and technology of storing wood waste the surplus is in mostly summer while demand is in winter.
One of the main component of the PDF-A grant was to demonstrate in real field conditions the feasibility of realisation of the grant idea, by giving a concrete example of an "integrated" efficiency - biomass investment.
For this purpose a survey of potential locations for a small size project was made. The candidate chosen for to the project was the city of Krapkowice in Southern Poland. The object chosen to coal to biomass conversion was the local Elementary School 4. On the fuel supply side the window manufacturer PHU "Golenia" was selected. The company have a big surplus of wood waste, which is used only partly for producing heat, whereas most of it is burned to be disposed off.
The owner has been persuaded to enter into a long term contract with the local government of the city of Krapkowice which administers and finances the school for providing a defined amount of wood waste to the school at an established price which will be corrected for the inflation once a year.
Additionally, the company decided to replace its present low efficiency boiler by a modern high efficiency one, so that the amount of disposable fuel would increase to secure sufficient wood waste supply for the school.
So that its energy demand has been reduced down to kW from the estimated kW before thermal improvements this number is approximate because the school was underheated when outside temperatures were low. The local government, on behalf of the school, has committed itself to buy the contracted amount of wood waste over ten-year period at the defined price.
Figure 2 shows the demand heat curve. Again it is seen that the number of days, where heat demand exceed kW is nearly seven. Therefore, the backup coal boilers will be used only in a small fraction of time, the more that the lowest temperatures occur mostly during the Christmas holidays and winter.
It should be noted that the coldest days also included weekends. Consequently, the risk that the indoor temperature in the school will fall below the admissible level is practically negligible. It should be noted in this connection that underheating of the school was frequent and, still, seldom led to disruption of classes. Since its commissioning it operates smoothly. Niche 2 is typical mostly for southern Poland Subcarpatian Region.
So far, the use of wood waste potential in those regions has been totally chaotic. Small or medium sized wood processing enterprises or workshops are scattered in the region. In summer they have significant surplus of wood waste, the disposal of which poses both environmental and economic problems. To a smaller extent, they usually produce more wood waste than they would need also in wintertime especially if their facilities were made more energy efficient.
At the same time most of the buildings in the area are heated by burning coal, usually in inefficient old boilers. This is the heritage of the cheap coal era of the past decades. In summer the wood processing enterprises or workshops, scattered in the region, have significant surplus of wood residues, the disposal of which poses a serious problem for them. Consequently, a large fraction of this valuable environmentally friendly fuel is disposed off in unauthorised places rivers, road sides or ponds causing serious environmental pollution.
Part of the wood-waste is uselessly burned also in summer only for the sake of getting rid of the production residues, which for the facility owners mean no more than cumbersome waste. The idea behind the LWWM is to make use of the available biomass resource and optimally allocate it among different end users.
The wood waste will replace hard coal, in space heating of residential and public buildings. The total heat capacity of the converted boilers will be ca. At the same time, the recipients of wood waste or heat will be audited and low cost heat saving measures in their buildings will be applied. The cities of Nowy Sacz and Brzozow have also expressed interest and have a potential of organising similar markets covering their respective counties powiat.
One of the main problems will be introduction of appropriate technology of storing wood waste in a safe way and in a way that its quality does not deteriorate before winter.
Segregation at source of different kinds of wood waste is foreseen saw dust, chips, pieces to match the needs of the buyers who have installed different boilers. It is anticipated that wood waste will be collected from the suppliers and delivered to the customers by the company using its own transportation means. Preliminary, rough estimates showed that, although the amounts of wood waste produced by individual wood-processing units were rather limited, the total potential of this biomass could be quite significant in the selected region.
However, before any pilot investment could be planned, viability of such a project should be demonstrated, which required, first of all, a special study to assess the actual available potential of disposable wood waste.
The results of the study exceeded the preliminary assessments and turned out to be even higher than expected. The study objectives were to determine, on one hand, the wood-waste potential in terms of heat energy that can derived from it, and on the other hand, the number of heat energy users who would be able to convert from coal to wood waste, their total demand for heat, the associated costs of such investments, and their impact on the environment.
The investigation was done on the basis of an analysis of data obtained by means of application of a free interview method. Interviews were conducted with owners of timber-mills and wood processing workshops, local authorities and people interested in this subject and cognisant of the local situation in wood industry. Moreover, many commune documents and studies with regard to this subject were also used in the research.
Still, the values presented in this report should be interpreted as approximate. For safety, lower bounds of the estimates are quoted. There are approximately workshops running different types of wood processing activities. The preliminary survey in this study deals with of them. On the basis of conducted interviews the volume of softwood and hardwood waste products at these workshops was preliminary estimated to be at the level of , m3 annually. Only 7.
The majority of workshops use waste to burn in central heating furnaces. However, merely The rest of users have furnaces, which at the same time may be fuelled with coal. Some wood processing workshops use wood waste to heat kitchen stoves or sawdust-fuelled stoves. All in all, workshops sell 85, m3 of waste. The conducted survey shows that the workshops make the annual sale of approximately , m3 of waste.
In order to define an approximate potential of wood waste in this area one should subtract the amount of already sold wood waste from the amount of waste offered to sale, which ultimately gives us the volume of 65, m3 annually. Table 1 shows the potential volume directed to sale the third column , the volume currently sold the fourth column and the fifth column shows the residual volume to be sold in individual villages. According to this data many producers sell or give away their waste to other persons without signing any permanent contracts or do not have recipients.
Interviews conducted with workshops' owners show that owners are so much interested in continuous sales of waste products that they are ready to resign from hitherto existing channels. That is why the volumes presented in the fifth column should be interpreted as minimal volumes offered to sale in individual villages.
It is difficult to determine precisely possibilities given to us by wood waste in a given area on the basis of data from a preliminary survey. The most complex task is to assess calorific value of waste; therefore the next part contains approximate calculations and assumes values that render the lower level of wood waste potential the actual may increase significantly in the course of further research activities.
If we take the upper limit, i.
Sprucing Up Wood Waste
Biomass is used for facility heating, electric power generation, and combined heat and power. The term biomass encompasses a large variety of materials, including wood from various sources, agricultural residues, and animal and human waste. Biomass can be converted into electric power through several methods. The most common is direct combustion of biomass material, such as agricultural waste or woody materials. Other options include gasification, pyrolysis, and anaerobic digestion.
In an ever-changing world, in which innovations are rapidly implemented but soon surpassed, the challenge for masonry, the oldest and most traditional building material, is that it can address the increasingly pressing requirements of quality of living, safety, and sustainability. This abstracts volume and full paper USB device, focusing on challenges, innovations, trends and ideas related to masonry, in both research and building practice, will proof to be a valuable source of information for researchers and practitioners, masonry industries and building management authorities, construction professionals and educators. She is holder of the courses "Aseismic design of building structures" and "Structural analysis and Design 2 and laboratory" at the School of Engineering, and is also vice dean for Buildings and Safety. The main fields of interest are seismic engineering applied to historic and new masonry constructions, mechanical characterization of materials and techniques, numerical modelling and seismic evaluation of buildings structural behaviour. Her main areas of interest are the analysis of conservation problems of historical buildings and construction materials, by means of experimental research, numerical modelling and application of both traditional and innovative techniques; the assessment and mitigation of the seismic vulnerability of existing masonry structures.
Creating Bio-Oil from Wood Chips a Reality at Battelle
George Willacy, John Reilly and Giles Perryman examine the benefits of the modular and flexible Refgas advanced gasification system for converting biological waste — in particular wood waste — into energy. The Refgas advanced gasification system generates renewable energy using waste products as a feedstock. It is able to remain a cost-effective solution due to the low tonnage of feedstock required per unit, its modular design and the easily-controlled processes. In addition, units can be used to target the recovery of specific fractions of waste stream, therefore complementing other waste management options, such as reuse and recycling. Refgas was established nearly three years ago to develop and produce moderate scale renewable energy facilities. Refgas has developed an advanced gasification 'combined heat and power' CHP system to ensure the efficient production of renewable energy. Refgas headquarters and demonstration facility which utilizes a RG unit are based in north Wales, UK, while the Asia office is based in Western Australia. Refgas CHP advanced gasification facilities produce renewable energy from feedstock volumes as low as tonnes per annum.
Waste wood recycling
People have used wood for cooking, heating, and lighting for thousands of years. Wood was the main source of energy for the world until the mids. Wood continues to be an important fuel in many countries, especially for cooking and heating in developing countries. Department of Energy public domain. Industry accounts for the majority of wood and wood-waste fuel consumption in the United States.
To browse Academia. Skip to main content. You're using an out-of-date version of Internet Explorer. Log In Sign Up.
We apologize for the inconvenience...
A project of fossil fuel to wood waste conversion of boilers used for heating is being developed for the Global Environment Facility GEF. Two categories of potential relations between wood-waste suppliers and wood-waste or heat buyers have been identified and studied from the point of view of a GEF-sponsored demonstration project: 1 Single wood-waste supplier linked by a long term contract with single wood-waste buyer. In the demonstration project in Krapkowice, a ten-year contract has been signed for wood waste supply to a grammar school, which was previously heated by coal.SEE VIDEO BY TOPIC: biochar unit
Account Options Sign in. Department of Agriculture , Selected pages Page Page 3. Page 6. Management Implications 1.
U.S. Energy Information Administration - EIA - Independent Statistics and Analysis
The potential use of wood residues for energy generation 6. In mechanical wood processing the greater part of the thermal energy requirements can be met from the available residues, in fact, the sawmilling industry has the potential to produce both a surplus of heat and electricity and therefore could support other energy deficient conversion processes in an integrated complex producing, for example, lumber, plywood and particleboard or, in the rural areas, to supplying energy for the needs of the surrounding community. Over the years many mills have regarded wood waste as a troublesome by-product of the sawmilling operation, resulting in its being disposed of as landfill or incinerated in Wigwam burners or the like. However, both have recently become contentious environmental issues and, combined with the rising costs of energy, mill owners have been forced to seriously consider the merits of using the residues as an alternative fuel source this has also coincided with the increase in demand for the residues as furnish for paper-pulp and panel board manufacture, due to the rising cost and increased competition for solid wood.
Wood waste comes good
Waste wood is a precious resource that is available in large volumes and may be used either for material recycling or energy production, depending on the quality grade. The rising cost of waste material disposal and a growing consciousness for the environment also contribute to the increasing importance of waste wood recycling. We offer you innovative, highly economical single-step shredding concepts for the recovery of your waste wood, upon request also with metal separation.
Sprucing Up Wood Waste
Environmental Systems Research. December , Cite as. Wood is a versatile raw material and the only renewable construction material.
С каждым днем силы вновь возвращаются ко мне, - ответила Николь. - Я хочу быть там, где во мне нуждаются больше. Синий Доктор сказала Пенни, что Николь проведет в Альтернативном Домене почти терт, однако ей придется взять на себя ответственность за возвращение Николь в госпиталь. Пенни согласилась и поблагодарила Николь за предложение.
Его казнили на электрическом стуле вскоре после того, как Накамура и Макмиллан взяли власть в свои руки. Этот суд несколько дней был главной сенсацией в новостях. Они миновали Сентрал-Сити и направились на юг в сторону Бовуа, к поселку, где Николь и Ричард жили со своей семьей до _переворота_ Накамуры. "Все могло сложиться совершенно иначе, - думала Николь, глядя на гору Олимп, возвышавшуюся слева от. - Мы могли создать здесь рай.
Если бы только захотели. " К этой мысли Николь возвращалась, пожалуй, не одну сотню раз, после той ужасной ночи, когда Ричард поспешно бежал из Нового Эдема.
Она вспомнила описание Ричарда. "Отдельные волокна чрезвычайно тонки и заострены. Я даже не ощутил, что они погрузились в мое тело, пока не попытался оторвать одно Николь поглядела на характерный клубок нитей в метре от ее лица. Ганглий медленно полз к ней, остальные элементы в тонкой сети также меняли положение.