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Space plant special equipment for oil refining, gas processing

Space plant special equipment for oil refining, gas processing

Research and development work in many disciplines - biochemistry, chemical and mechanical engineering - and the establishment of plantations, which provided the opportunity for large-scale fully mechanised processing, resulted in the evolution of a sequence of processing steps designed to extract, from a harvested oil palm bunch, a high yield of a product of acceptable quality for the international edible oil trade. The oil winning process, in summary, involves the reception of fresh fruit bunches from the plantations, sterilizing and threshing of the bunches to free the palm fruit, mashing the fruit and pressing out the crude palm oil. The crude oil is further treated to purify and dry it for storage and export. The large installations have mechanical handling systems bucket and screw conveyers, pumps and pipelines and operate continuously, depending on the availability of FFB. Boilers, fuelled by fibre and shell, produce superheated steam, used to generate electricity through turbine generators.

VIDEO ON THE TOPIC: Refinery Crude Oil Distillation Process Complete Full HD

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Industry Overview

How are wells drilled? When you fill up your car with gasoline or pay your natural gas heating bill, you are the final link in a long chain of businesses that make it possible for us to enjoy these clean, convenient and economical forms of energy. The entire chain is known as the petroleum industry. However, the industry is usually divided into three major components: upstream, midstream and downstream. The upstream industry finds and produces crude oil and natural gas.

The midstream industry processes, stores, markets and transports commodities such as crude oil, natural gas, natural gas liquids NGLs, mainly ethane, propane and butane and sulphur. The midstream provides the vital link between the far-flung petroleum producing areas and the population centres where most consumers are located. In Canada, transmission pipeline companies are a major part of the midstream petroleum industry.

Most of these companies are also based in Calgary, although their activities extend across the country, into the United States and sometimes abroad. The downstream industry includes oil refineries, petrochemical plants, petroleum products distributors, retail outlets and natural gas distribution companies.

Although many downstream companies are headquartered in Calgary, the largest centres of activity are near Sarnia, Ontario, and Edmonton, Alberta. The downstream industry touches every province and territory-wherever consumers are located-and provides thousands of products such as gasoline, diesel, jet fuel, heating oil, asphalt, lubricants, synthetic rubber, plastics, fertilizers, antifreeze, pesticides, pharmaceuticals, natural gas and propane.

The upstream petroleum industry in Canada includes more than 1, exploration and production companies as well as hundreds of associated service businesses such as seismic and drilling contractors, service rig operators, engineering firms and various scientific, technical, service and supply companies. The remainder was from sales of natural gas, natural gas liquids and sulphur. The Canadian upstream petroleum industry has attained an international reputation for excellence in many areas including:.

The search for oil and gas begins with aerial surveys and surface observation by geologists and geophysicists to see if an area has the kind of the rock formations that might contain petroleum.

Companies then conduct seismic surveys or purchase seismic data from other companies to get a better picture of the underground rock formations. Then explosions or mechanical vibrations are created on the surface. The geophones record the energy reflected back as seismic waves from rock layers at various depths.

Geophysicists use powerful computers to process the data from digitally recorded seismic surveys. Computer-assisted processing of the data creates a picture of the sedimentary structures below and ideally shows the location and extent of porous layers within these structures.

Geophysicists and geologists examine the seismic data for the presence of suitable traps and for similarities with other petroleum-producing areas. If the results seem promising, they use the seismic data to locate and drill a well.

Because of long-standing and close cooperation among industry, government and academic scientists, Canada is regarded as having the most comprehensive information about its petroleum resources of any country in the world. Early requirements to record accurately all kinds of information from the , wells drilled to date in Canada have given us an extremely valuable and reliable database that can be used quickly and cheaply.

With the introduction of computerized commercial databases, new drilling prospects can be generated, producing fields can be optimized and field operations scrutinized. Access to land, and the minerals beneath it, is required in order to drill a well. Oil company land departments negotiate access with owners and federal or provincial governments. Specialized staff, known as landmen who may be male or female , are responsible for all these negotiations. No exploration or production activity can occur without the necessary permissions.

The actual number can vary considerably, depending on the type of well being drilled. The rigs operate around the clock, seven days a week, and the crews typically work hour shifts for two weeks and then have a week off. The workers sometimes live in a temporary camp on site.

The only way to determine whether a rock formation actually contains oil or gas is to drill a well. There are about active drilling rigs in Canada. Most rigs are owned by contractors who sell their services to exploration and production companies. There are many different types of drilling rigs. The smallest are mounted on trucks, while the largest are installed on ships or offshore platforms.

Some are specially equipped for sour gas exploration, Arctic operations, slanted holes or horizontal drilling. As a general rule, the bigger the rig, the deeper it can drill. Land-based rigs can be quickly assembled and taken apart in sections for moving between locations, although this may require up to 50 semi-trailers for the largest.

Drillers call drilling making hole. The basic process is simple. A revolving steel bit at the bottom of a string of pipe grinds a hole through the rock layers. The bit may be studded with tungsten carbide or industrial diamonds to reduce bit wear and penetrate harder rock formations. A fluid called drilling mud lubricates the bit, removes cuttings, conditions the well bore and stabilizes the pressure in the hole.

The mud, a suspension of chemicals and minerals such as bentonite clay in water or sometimes oil, is pumped down the drill pipe. It circulates back to the surface through the space outside the pipe, known as the annulus. The mud recirculates after cuttings are removed by a vibrating screen called the shale shaker.

Occasionally, wells are drilled without mud to increase penetration rates and to avoid contacting sensitive rock formations with water. In so-called air drilling, compressed air removes the cuttings. Alternatively, drillers can obtain many of the same benefits through underbalanced drilling-using mud lightened by the addition of nitrogen or other gas.

Underbalanced drilling has become increasingly common in western Canada because it minimizes damage to the producing reservoir. This is especially useful in clay formations. Clays can collapse into the well bore or swell up when contacted with fresh-water-based drilling fluids. Underbalanced drilling prevents the invasion of the drilling fluid into the reservoir and allows oil to be produced more effectively.

As the bit penetrates deeper, the crew threads additional pipe onto the top of the string. Sections of pipe are typically 9. Pipe diameters and wall thickness vary, depending on well depth. On most land-based rigs, a rotary table on the rig floor rotates the drill string to rotate the drill bit. However, most offshore units and an increasing number of land rigs use top drives-hydraulic or electric motors suspended above the drill string. In some situations, the bit can be turned by a mud motor, a downhole hydraulic drive which is inserted above the bit at the bottom of the string.

It receives power from the mud flow. This is the technique used in horizontal drilling. Wells are normally drilled in stages, starting with a surface hole drilled to reach a depth anywhere from 60 to metres, depending on final well depth and area conditions. The crew then pulls out the drill string and inserts steel pipe, called surface casing, which is cemented in place to keep the wall from caving in. It controls the return flow of mud and other fluids encountered during drilling and also prevents contamination of groundwater aquifers.

Blowout preventer BOP devices are typically installed on the top of the casing, below the rig floor. BOPs are large valves that help contain the fluid and gas pressure in the well. One type of BOP can seal off the space between the drill pipe and the casing the annulus if the drill pipe is still in the hole. Another can shear off the drill pipe and thus seal off the entire well, while a third can seal off the well if no drill pipe is in the hole.

Blowouts waste valuable resources and often damage the environment. Some blowouts could release foul-smelling sour gas containing toxic hydrogen sulphide, which would be a major hazard for workers, nearby populations and environments. Blowouts can be enormously expensive to bring under control. Crews are trained to use BOPs and drilling fluid to reduce the frequency and severity of blowouts.

Some wells are designated as critical sour gas wells because they have the potential for releases of hydrogen sulphide that might affect nearby residents. Companies and governments require emergency response planning, public consultation, safety equipment and worker training for critical sour gas operations. When the drill bit enters the critical zone in a well where sour gas will likely be encountered, additional precautions may include providing breathing apparatuses for rig personnel and notifying people living nearby.

After setting surface casing and installed the BOPs, the crew resumes drilling. A probe for shallow gas or heavy oil in eastern Alberta or Saskatchewan may require only two or three days to drill metres through soft shale and sandstone to the target depth.

However, a rig may work eight months or more to penetrate 4, metres or more through hard, complex rocks in the foothills of the Rockies. The drill bit column may be several kilometres deep by the time high-pressure gas deposits are reached. The weight of the drilling fluid can be increased by adding heavy minerals such as bentonite clay to the mixture. Drillers try to keep the mud heavy enough to hold back gas from entering the hole, but not so heavy that the mud will penetrate into the reservoir enough to damage it.

If the reservoir pressure is higher than the pressure exerted by the mud column, some gas may enter the well bore. This is known as a kick and must be controlled to prevent a blowout.

Kicks are detected by sensitive instruments which monitor the mud flow and composition and the mud tank levels. Drillers control most kicks simply by managing the mud flow and increasing the weight of the mud. When a well is drilled, small rock chips called cuttings are recovered from the drilling fluid. These are pieces of rock ground up and broken off by the drill bit as it cuts into the earth.

Geologists, geochemists and paleonologists scientists who study pollens and small fossils examine the cuttings to learn more about the age, chemistry, porosity, permeability and other properties of the subsurface rock formations. Larger, more continuous cylindrical rock samples, called cores, can also be cut using a special coring bit. The speed of penetration is another indicator.

The first sign of possible success is usually an increase in the rate of penetration followed by the appearance of oil or gas traces in cuttings. If more information is needed about the rocks, a special cylindrical bit may be used to cut a core sample for analysis by geologists, reservoir engineers, geochemists and paleonologists.

Further information is obtained by lowering a package of instruments, called wireline logging tools, into the well bore. A logging instrument can also be mounted on the string above the bit to send information continuously during drilling. It sends signals to the surface by means of pulses, like sonar signals, in the mud.

Another instrument, called a measurement while drilling MWD tool, can similarly measure the direction and precise location of the bit while drilling horizontal wells.

Refinery & Plant Safety

Natural gas liquids NGL are components of natural gas that are separated from the gas state in the form of liquids. This separation occurs in a field facility or a gas processing plant through absorption, condensation or other methods. Natural gas liquids are classified based on their vapor pressure:. NGLs are valuable as separate products, and it is, therefore, profitable to remove them from the natural gas.

API members are committed to protecting the health and safety of their workers and the community. To this end, the refining industry has made significant investments in programs, training, standards and practices, and equipment that have led to occupational and process safety performance improvements.

This page requires that javascript be enabled for some elements to function correctly. Oil and gas well drilling and servicing activities involve many different types of equipment and materials. Recognizing and controlling hazards is critical to preventing injuries and deaths. Several of these hazards are highlighted below. See Standards and Enforcement for more information on evaluation and control requirements.

Natural Gas Liquids – NGL

Millions of years ago, algae and plants lived in shallow seas. After dying and sinking to the seafloor, the organic material mixed with other sediments and was buried. Over millions of years under high pressure and high temperature, the remains of these organisms transformed into what we know today as fossil fuels. Today, petroleum is found in vast underground reservoirs where ancient seas were located. Petroleum reservoirs can be found beneath land or the ocean floor. Crude oil is usually black or dark brown, but can also be yellowish, reddish, tan, or even greenish. Variations in color indicate the distinct chemical compositions of different supplies of crude oil. Petroleum that has few metals or sulfur, for instance, tends to be lighter sometimes nearly clear. Petroleum is used to make gasoline, an important product in our everyday lives.

Equipment for Plants

How are wells drilled? When you fill up your car with gasoline or pay your natural gas heating bill, you are the final link in a long chain of businesses that make it possible for us to enjoy these clean, convenient and economical forms of energy. The entire chain is known as the petroleum industry. However, the industry is usually divided into three major components: upstream, midstream and downstream. The upstream industry finds and produces crude oil and natural gas.

The individual processing units described above are part of the process-unit side of a refinery complex. They are usually considered the most important features, but the functioning of the off-site facilities are often as critical as the process units themselves.

IHI provides a wide variety of equipment for various plants, including cooling towers for process plant. IHI designs and manufactures towers, drums and heat exchangers for oil refineries and petrochemical, chemical, and gas treatment plants and engages in structural analysis and aseismic design involving such equipment. The manufacturing is conducted by IHI group companies and their partners in Japan and overseas.

Glossary of Terms

With engineering expertise and know-how accumulated within the company over the years, we render our services for such areas as operation upgrade, debottlenecking, and trouble-shooting for the plants in operation, adding value to the Project in the following respects. Since its foundation, Chiyoda has constructed, both within Japan and overseas, a large number of plants relating to the fields of energy sources such as petroleum and natural gas, petrochemicals and chemicals, pharmaceutical products, and general production facilities etc. At the same time, using the abundant expertise and experience cultivated over our many projects, we also offer proposals for improving the efficiency of production in the plants that are of such importance to our customers.

Oil and natural gas together make petroleum. Petroleum, which is Latin for rock oil , is a fossil fuel, meaning it was made naturally from decaying prehistoric plant and animal remains. It is a mixture of hundreds of different hydrocarbons molecules containing hydrogen and carbon that exist sometimes as a liquid crude oil and sometimes as a vapor natural gas. Hundreds of millions of years ago, prehistoric plant and animal remains settled into the seas along with sand, silt and rocks. As the rocks and silt settled, layer upon layer piled up in rivers, along coastlines and on the sea bottom trapping the organic material. Without air, the organic layers could not rot away.

Oil refinery

This helpful OPIS glossary can assist you in better understanding many oil industry terms. Download Glossary. Plus, be sure to check out other free and helpful resources from OPIS. View more free resources. High volume 25, to , bbl contractual agreements between oil companies dictating delivery of petroleum products or crude oil in the near future for an established sales price.

Special opportunities exist for new methods to dispose/recycle treated Investments in purification plants and equipment over the next five years will public utilities, food processors, petroleum refineries, and the natural gas production industry. U.S. Department of Commerce, Room H, Washington, D.C. ; tel.

Collaboration will lead to improvements in Delayed Coking bottoms upgrading processes to improve reliability, efficiency and profitability. Wood has designed and engineered more Delayed Cokers globally than any other technology provider or engineering contractor. Honeywell Connected Plant delivers oil and gas customers higher levels of safety, reliability, efficiency and profitability. This solution is unique in the industry because it applies proprietary process knowledge and deep troubleshooting experience to recommend operational adjustments sooner and more accurately than ever before.

An oil refinery or petroleum refinery is an industrial process plant where crude oil is transformed and refined into more useful products such as petroleum naphtha , gasoline , diesel fuel , asphalt base , heating oil , kerosene , liquefied petroleum gas , jet fuel and fuel oils. Oil refineries are typically large, sprawling industrial complexes with extensive piping running throughout, carrying streams of fluids between large chemical processing units, such as distillation columns. In many ways, oil refineries use much of the technology, and can be thought of, as types of chemical plants. The crude oil feedstock has typically been processed by an oil production plant.

Petroleum refining begins with the distillation, or fractionation, of crude oils into separate hydrocarbon groups. The resultant products are directly related to the characteristics of the crude oil being processed. Most of these products of distillation are further converted into more useable products by changing their physical and molecular structures through cracking, reforming and other conversion processes. These products are subsequently subjected to various treatment and separation processes, such as extraction, hydrotreating and sweetening, in order to produce finished products.

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