Industrial building special equipment for oil refining, gas processing
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- Oil and Gas Refineries
- Control & Monitoring Instrumentation for Oil & Gas
- PROCESS EQUIPMENT
- U.S. Energy Information Administration - EIA - Independent Statistics and Analysis
- Facilities, Equipment & Machinery
- Delivering reliable process plants for maximum capital efficiency
- Kuwait Integrated Petroleum Industries Company To Expand Al-Zour Refinery With Honeywell Technology
- ARCHIVED - Capital Cost Allowance – Equipment Used in Petroleum and Natural Gas Activities
Oil and Gas Refineries
Petroleum refining begins with the distillation, or fractionation, of crude oils into separate hydrocarbon groups. The resultant products are directly related to the characteristics of the crude oil being processed.
Most of these products of distillation are further converted into more useable products by changing their physical and molecular structures through cracking, reforming and other conversion processes. These products are subsequently subjected to various treatment and separation processes, such as extraction, hydrotreating and sweetening, in order to produce finished products.
Whereas the simplest refineries are usually limited to atmospheric and vacuum distillation, integrated refineries incorporate fractionation, conversion, treatment and blending with lubricant, heavy fuels and asphalt manufacturing; they may also include petrochemical processing. The first refinery, which opened in , produced kerosene by simple atmospheric distillation.
Its by-products included tar and naphtha. It was soon discovered that high-quality lubricating oils could be produced by distilling petroleum under vacuum.
However, for the next 30 years, kerosene was the product consumers wanted most. The two most significant events which changed this situation were:. With the advent of mass production and the First World War, the number of gasoline-powered vehicles increased dramatically, and the demand for gasoline grew accordingly. However, only a certain amount of gasoline could be obtained from crude oil through atmospheric and vacuum distillation processes.
The first thermal cracking process was developed in Thermal cracking subjected heavy fuels to both pressure and intense heat, physically breaking their large molecules into smaller ones, producing additional gasoline and distillate fuels.
A sophisticated form of thermal cracking, visbreaking, was developed in the late s to produce more desirable and valuable products. As higher-compression gasoline engines were developed, there was a demand for higher-octane gasoline with better anti-knock characteristics. The introduction of catalytic cracking and poly- merization processes in the mid- to late s met this demand by providing improved gasoline yields and higher octane numbers.
Alkylation, another catalytic process, was developed in the early s to produce more high-octane aviation gasoline and petrochemical feedstocks, the starting materials, for explosives and synthetic rubber. Subsequently, catalytic isomerization was developed to convert hydrocarbons to produce increased quantities of alkylation feedstocks. Following the Second World War, various reforming processes were introduced which improved gasoline quality and yield, and produced higher-quality products.
Improved catalysts, and process methods such as hydrocracking and reforming, were developed throughout the s to increase gasoline yields and improve anti-knock characteristics.
These catalytic processes also produced molecules with a double bond alkenes , forming the basis of the modern petrochemical industry. The numbers and types of different processes used in modern refineries depend primarily on the nature of the crude feedstock and finished product requirements. Processes are also affected by economic factors including crude costs, product values, availability of utilities and transportation.
The chronology of the introduction of various processes is given in table 1. Petroleum refining processes and operations can be classified into the following basic areas: separation, conversion, treatment, formulating and blending, auxiliary refining operations and refining non-process operations. See figure 1 for a simplified flow chart. Since the beginning of refining, various treatment methods have been used to remove non-hydrocarbons, impurities and other constituents that adversely affect the performance properties of finished products or reduce the efficiency of the conversion processes.
Treatment involves both chemical reactions and physical separation, such as dissolving, absorption or precipitation, using a variety and combination of processes. Treatment methods include removing or separating aromatics and naphthenes, as well as removing impurities and undesirable contaminants. Sweetening compounds and acids are used to desulphurize crude oil before processing, and to treat products during and after processing. Other treatment methods include crude desalting, chemical sweetening, acid treating, clay contacting, hydrodesulphurizing, solvent refining, caustic washing, hydrotreating, drying, solvent extraction and solvent dewaxing.
Formulating and blending is the process of mixing and combining hydrocarbon fractions, additives and other components to produce finished products with specific desired performance properties. Auxiliary refining operations. Other refinery operations which are required to support hydrocarbon processing include light ends recovery; sour water stripping; solid waste, waste water and process water treatment and cooling; hydrogen production; sulphur recovery; and acid and tail gas treatment.
Other process functions are providing catalysts, reagents, steam, air, nitrogen, oxygen, hydrogen and fuel gases. Refinery non-process facilities. All refineries have a multitude of facilities, functions, equipment and systems which support the hydrocarbon process operations. Typical support operations are heat and power generation; product movement; tank storage; shipping and handling; flares and relief systems; furnaces and heaters; alarms and sensors; and sampling, testing and inspecting.
Non-process facilities and systems include firefighting, water and protection systems, noise and pollution controls, laboratories, control rooms, warehouses, maintenance and administrative facilities. Petroleum refining has evolved continuously in response to changing consumer demand for better and different products. The original process requirement was to produce kerosene as a cheaper and better source of fuel for lighting than whale oil.
The development of the internal combustion engine led to the production of benzene, gasoline and diesel fuels. The evolution of the airplane created a need for high-octane aviation gasoline and jet fuel, which is a sophisticated form of the original refinery product, kerosene. Present-day refineries produce a variety of products, including many which are used as feedstocks for cracking processes and lubricant manufacturing, and for the petrochemical industry.
These products can be broadly classified as fuels, petrochemical feedstocks, solvents, process oils, lubricants and special products such as wax, asphalt and coke. See table 2. Cooking and industrial gas Motor fuel gas Illuminating gas Ammonia Synthetic fertilizer Alcohols Solvents and acetone Plasticizers Resins and fibres for plastics and textiles Paints and varnish.
Olefins Solvents and diluents Extraction solvents Chemical industry feedstocks. Aviation and motor gasoline Dry-cleaning solvents. Military jet fuel Jet fuel and kerosene Tractor fuel. Cracking stock Heating oil and diesel fuel Metallurgical fuel Absorber oil—benzene and gasoline recovery. Textile oils Medicinal oils and cosmetics White oil—food industry.
Transformer and spindle oils Motor and engine oils Machine and compressor oils Turbine and hydraulic oils Transmission oils Equipment and cable insulation oils Axle, gear and steam engine oils Metal treating, cutting and grinding oils Quenching and rust inhibitor oils Heat transfer oils Lubricating greases and compounds Printing ink oils.
Rubber industry Pharmaceuticals and cosmetics Food and paper industries Candles and matches. Petroleum jelly Cosmetics Rust inhibitors and lubricants Cable coating compounds.
Paving asphalt Roofing materials Asphaltic lubricants Insulating and foundation protection Waterproof paper products. A number of chemicals are used in, or formed as a result of, hydrocarbon processing. A brief description of those which are specific and pertinent to refining follows:.
Flue gas from burning high-sulphur-content fuels usually contains high levels of sulphur dioxide, which usually is removed by water scrubbing.
Caustics are added to desalting water to neutralize acids and reduce corrosion. Caustics are also added to desalted crude in order to reduce the amount of corrosive chlorides in the tower overheads. They are used in refinery treating processes to remove contaminants from hydrocarbon streams.
Flue gas contains up to ppm of nitric oxide, which reacts slowly with oxygen to form nitrogen dioxide. Nitric oxide is not removed by water scrubbing, and nitrogen dioxide can dissolve in water to form nitrous and nitric acid. Flue gas normally contains only a slight amount of carbon monoxide, unless combustion is abnormal. Hydrogen sulphide is found naturally in most crude oils and is also formed during processing by the decomposition of unstable sulphur compounds.
Hydrogen sulphide is an extremely toxic, colourless, flammable gas which is heavier than air and soluble in water. It has a rotten egg odour which is discernible at concentrations well below its very low exposure limit.
This smell cannot be relied upon to provide adequate warning as the senses are almost immediately desensitized upon exposure. Special detectors are required to alert workers to the presence of hydrogen sulphide, and proper respiratory protection should be used in the presence of the gas.
Exposure to low levels of hydrogen sulphide will cause irritation, dizziness and headaches, while exposure to levels in excess of the prescribed limits will cause nervous system depression and eventually death. Sour water is process water which contains hydrogen sulphide, ammonia, phenols, hydrocarbons and low-molecular-weight sulphur compounds. Sour water is produced by steam stripping hydrocarbon fractions during distillation, regenerating catalyst, or steam stripping hydrogen sulphide during hydrotreating and hydrofinishing.
Sour water is also generated by the addition of water to processes to absorb hydrogen sulphide and ammonia. Sulphuric acid and hydrofluoric acid are used as catalysts in alkylation processes. Sulphuric acid is also used in some of the treatment processes. A number of different solid catalysts in many forms and shapes, from pellets to granular beads to dusts, made of various materials and having various compositions, are used in refining processes.
Extruded pellet catalysts are used in moving and fixed bed units, while fluid bed processes use fine, spherical particulate catalysts.
Catalysts used in processes which remove sulphur are impregnated with cobalt, nickel or molybdenum. Cracking units use acid-function catalysts, such as natural clay, silica alumina and synthetic zeolites.
Acid-function catalysts impregnated with platinum or other noble metals are used in isomerization and reforming. Used catalysts require special handling and protection from exposures, as they may contain metals, aromatic oils, carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic compounds or other hazardous materials, and may also be pyrophoric.
The principal fuel products are liquefied petroleum gas, gasoline, kerosene, jet fuel, diesel fuel and heating oil and residual fuel oils.
Liquefied petroleum gas LPG , which consists of mixtures of paraffinic and olefinic hydrocarbons such as propane and butane, is produced for use as a fuel, and is stored and handled as liquids under pressure. The important qualities from an occupational health and safety perspective of LPGs are vapour pressure and control of contaminants. The most important refinery product is motor gasoline, a blend of relatively low-boiling hydrocarbon fractions, including reformate, alkylate, aliphatic naphtha light straight-run naphtha , aromatic naphtha thermal and catalytic cracked naphtha and additives.
The critical qualities for gasoline are octane number anti-knock , volatility starting and vapour lock and vapour pressure environmental control. Additives are used to enhance gasoline performance and provide protection against oxidation and rust formation.
Aviation gasoline is a high-octane product, specially blended to perform well at high altitudes. Tetra ethyl lead TEL and tetra methyl lead TML are gasoline additives which improve octane ratings and anti-knock performance.
In an effort to reduce lead in automotive exhaust emissions, these additives are no longer in common use, except in aviation gasoline. Jet fuel and kerosene. Jet fuel is a middle distillate kerosene product whose critical qualities are freezepoint, flashpoint and smokepoint.
Distillate fuels. Diesel fuels and domestic heating oils are light-coloured mixtures of paraffins, naphthenes and aromatics, and may contain moderate quantities of olefins. Distillate fuels are combustible and when heated may emit vapours which can form ignitable mixtures with air. The desirable qualities required for distillate fuels include controlled flash- and pourpoints, clean burning, no deposit formation in storage tanks, and a proper diesel fuel cetane rating for good starting and combustion.
Control & Monitoring Instrumentation for Oil & Gas
We represent the makers of the fuels that keep Americans moving and the petrochemicals that are the essential building blocks for modern life. Our industries make life better, safer, more productive and — most of all — possible. We advocate for public policies that promote growth and investment in the refining and petrochemical manufacturing industries to help drive our economy, add jobs, increase energy security and remain competitive in a global economy. We offer a portfolio of first-in-class live events that educate our members and other stakeholders on critical technical and advocacy issues, supporting the safety, security and success of the fuel and petrochemical industries.
Plant competitiveness can be improved with our integrated approach to increasing energy efficiency, reducing emissions, and lowering overall maintenance costs. We have a comprehensive portfolio of process chemicals, equipment, and services that can help increase your plant's profitability by increasing feedstock flexibility, maximizing capacity utilization, and maintaining environmental compliance. We combine the power of advanced industrial technology with real-time digital insights that help extend asset life, improve productivity, and protect what matters most. Our corrosion control programs combine chemicals, simulation, and monitoring techniques to minimize the impact of naphthenic acid and overhead corrosion. This improves safety, increases feedstock flexibility, and reduces your total cost of operations.
Refinery, gas processing and petrochemical processes require dedicated, high quality equipment. Rieckermann provides a wide range of technologies for the chemical or thermal treatment of gases or liquids. We offer evaporators, which are an accepted solution for difficult and demanding process challenges in the areas of distillation, concentration, degassing and drying purposes. When a distillation tower is required, we also provide column internals. Sourcing and supplying equipment for the transfer of gaseous or liquefied products with high demands on performance are our core strength. In this field we offer compressors, valves and pumps for high-pressure applications. If nothing is shown here , there is no current event for this industry available. Local Contacts info rieckermann. Upcoming waste streams, gaseous, liquid or solid, are handled by our combustion technology. Previous Next.
U.S. Energy Information Administration - EIA - Independent Statistics and Analysis
Browse terms related to these fuel groups: alternative fuels coal electricity natural gas nuclear petroleum renewable. Examples include butane C 4 H 10 and butylene C 4 H 8. Used in Keene's cement, in pigments, as a paper filler, and as a drying agent. Used in the sulfite process for the manufacture of wood pulp.
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Facilities, Equipment & Machinery
Crude oil and other liquids produced from fossil fuels are refined into petroleum products that people use for many different purposes. Biofuels , such as ethanol and biodiesel, are also used as petroleum products, mainly in mixtures with gasoline and diesel fuel. Petroleum is the largest U.
From: Canada Revenue Agency. What the "Archived Content" notice means for interpretation bulletins. At the Canada Revenue Agency CRA , we issue income tax interpretation bulletins ITs in order to provide technical interpretations and positions regarding certain provisions contained in income tax law. Due to their technical nature, ITs are used primarily by our staff, tax specialists, and other individuals who have an interest in tax matters. For those readers who prefer a less technical explanation of the law, we offer other publications, such as tax guides and pamphlets.
Delivering reliable process plants for maximum capital efficiency
The world is evolving rapidly, with global population expected to rise nearly 30 percent by So are the challenges, harmful emissions chief among them. We partner with oil and gas customers to navigate the new normal, delivering what matters most: safety, efficiency, reliability, sustainability—and ultimately, peace of mind. Harnessing data to enhance asset performance, from design to decommissioning. Optimizing performance offshore through engineering and digital innovations. Improve efficiency, reduce emissions and increase your competitive advantage.
Kuwait Integrated Petroleum Industries Company To Expand Al-Zour Refinery With Honeywell Technology
When completed, the integrated complex in Lekki, near the capital of Lagos in Nigeria, will be the largest single-train refinery in the world. The proprietary specialist equipment includes catalyst regeneration and dryer regeneration control systems, high-performance column trays, and heat exchanger tubes. The Lekki facility will be the largest single-train refinery in the world producing Euro-V quality gasoline and diesel as well as jet fuel meeting international aviation specifications along with world-scale quantities of polypropylene, a primary component used in plastics and packaging. According to the U.
ARCHIVED - Capital Cost Allowance – Equipment Used in Petroleum and Natural Gas Activities
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An oil refinery or petroleum refinery is an industrial process plant where crude oil is transformed and refined into more useful products such as petroleum naphtha , gasoline , diesel fuel , asphalt base , heating oil , kerosene , liquefied petroleum gas , jet fuel and fuel oils. Oil refineries are typically large, sprawling industrial complexes with extensive piping running throughout, carrying streams of fluids between large chemical processing units, such as distillation columns. In many ways, oil refineries use much of the technology, and can be thought of, as types of chemical plants. The crude oil feedstock has typically been processed by an oil production plant.
Process plants. Delivering reliable process plants for maximum capital efficiency. Process plants Linde has been optimising gas processing technologies for years, successfully delivering more than 4, plant engineering projects around the globe. Favouring trusted, lasting business relationships, the company collaborates closely with customers to enhance plant lifecycle productivity and innovate process flows. LNG and natural gas processing plants Spanning the entire natural gas processing chain, we have delivered everything from standardized, modular designs to world-scale, stick-built NGL plants. Hydrogen and synthesis gas plants The only company worldwide with the know-how and experience to design and operate hydrogen and syngas plants based on proprietary technologies. Petrochemical plants Vast, proven experience enabling the delivery of complex, large-scale petrochemical plants to steam-crack gaseous and liquid hydrocarbons.
A summary treatment of crude oil follows. For full treatment, see petroleum , petroleum production , and petroleum refining. Crude oil is a mixture of comparatively volatile liquid hydrocarbons compounds composed mainly of hydrogen and carbon , though it also contains some nitrogen , sulfur , and oxygen.