Industrial dry and modified starch, dextrins, sago
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Acid Modification of Sago Hampas for Industrial Purposes
Sago Palm pp Cite as. Sago pith and sago hampas mainly consist of starch and fiber. In this research, acid modification of starch and fiber was conducted by high-temperature autoclaving and microwave-assisted treatments and slow or mild acid hydrolysis. Autoclaving and microwave-assisted treatments influenced the gelatinization and solubilization of starch granules to produce depolymerized starch and changed the fiber structure to become more amorphous forms.
Heating in dilute acid produced high soluble total sugars with high dextrose equivalent, but the process also released hydroxymethylfurfural as undesired by-products. Slow or mild acid hydrolysis attacked the amorphous regions of starch and fiber. It did not change the starch and fiber crystallinity pattern but increased the degree of crystallinity.
Acid modification techniques for sago starch and its fiber can be used for producing certain products such as starch sugar, fermentable sugars, and filler for biofoam production.
Sago palm is considered an ideal crop for a starch-based sweetener and feedstock, since in Indonesia there is negligible competition between food and ethanol fuel and land resources are underutilized.
Sago starch has been used for a long time, especially in Southeast Asia in the food industry for the production of sago pearl, vermicelli, bread, cake, biscuits, and many other traditional foods Ahmad and Williams Sago palm Metroxylon sp. The pith consists mainly of starch, which has to be separated from cellulosic materials by several stages of processing. Fujii et al. Sago starch is one of the least expensive starches but has low quality. Yatsugi has identified several problems associated with sago starch and manufacture, including whiteness, viscosity, starch particles, and starch content in starch produced by rural factories in the tropics.
The color of the starch, which turns brown in the process of separation, is one of the factors responsible for low quality. When sago palm pith is chopped up and grated into a powder, colored substances are formed and tightly bound to the starch granules. Table Composition of this sago hampas was similar to that reported by Lingga et al.
Previously we have reported that crude fiber was the second most common component in pith Sunarti et al. With significant amounts of starch and fiber remaining in the hampas, it may be used for hydrolysis to make starch syrup, an alternative cheap substrate for fermentable sugar production Lingga et al.
For industrial use, raw sago pith must be fresh and be processed quickly. With the passage of time, the separation yields less of a white product. Some importing countries are dissatisfied because each lot of starch received is variable in quality and in addition most are of inferior quality. Therefore, industrial application of the sago starch is limited. One way to overcome this inferior quality is to utilize the sago starch for glucose syrup production, which is not dependent on the properties of native starch.
Acid hydrolysis of starch to produce sugars has long been a commercial practice. Sago pith flour and hampas which contain mostly starch and lignocellulosic materials are good sources of glucose syrup and substrate for fermentation, either by enzymatic or acid hydrolysis Table Although acid hydrolysis is a rather but not completely random process BeMiller , the hydrolysis produces syrup with a dextrose equivalent DE value range of 34—42, a lower value as compared to enzymatic liquefaction and saccharification hydrolysis DE 71— Sweetness is an important and easily identifiable characteristic of glucose.
When compared to sucrose, the relative sweetness value of 30—42 DE acid-converted syrup is between 30—35 and 45—50 Pancoast and Junk Furthermore, the starch-derived sweetener also provides a highly fermentable substrate suitable as intermediate substrate for many industrial applications such as for making ethanol, lactic acid, and kojic acid Shinghal et al. Starch is hydrolyzed by acid to produce D-glucose, but other products are formed such as oligosaccharides and products of decomposition and dehydration of D-glucose, such as 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, levulinic acid, formic acid starch-derived products, and colored products.
Several reactions can also cause color development in starch because the material contains reducing sugars via the nonenzymatic browning reaction between sugars and primary or secondary amines Maillard reaction. Color development in the absence of nitrogenous compounds with the application of heat or acid is the result of caramelization BeMiller and Whistler Conventional acid hydrolysis of starch is usually conducted under high-pressure and high-temperature treatment for several hours.
Excessive heating of starch-derived products will result in partial caramelization and development of undesirable flavors. Pentose as a fiber-derived product will be converted to furfural, while hexose produces hydroxymethylfurfural HMF , both giving a brown color solution.
Furfural is more toxic than HMF. More browning compounds make the solution have less clarity. The heating process using a microwave represents a different mechanism from that of using a conventional convection or conduction heating process.
Microwave heating is usually called dielectric heating since in the microwave electric field, dipole molecules such as water or other dielectric materials rotate vigorously to orient in the field Gabriel et al. Microwave energy can penetrate into materials, so that it directly and uniformly heats the materials. Microwave heating avoids degradation of product strength and surface properties caused by excessive and long conventional heating.
Previously, Matsumoto et al. Some researchers also reported the microwave-assisted hydrolysis can be applied to the mixture of starch and fiber from industrial waste such as cassava pulp Hermiati et al. A study carried out by Palav and Seetharaman showed that gelatinization of starch during microwave heating did not produce the same phenomenon as using conduction heating.
This can be observed in the loss of birefringent properties and in the swelling of the starch granules. Luo et al. Microwave heating could convert starch directly to glucose in a relatively short time.
Compared with conventional heating, the reaction rate of starch hydrolysis to glucose was accelerated times under microwave irradiation Kunlan et al. Magnification X Sunarti et al. Microwave heating also affects the lignocellulosic materials. The effects of microwave heating on major chemical components of lignocellulosic biomass lignin, cellulose, and hemicellulose have been reported by Tsubaki et al.
Some disruptions in fiber were detected after microwave treatment in water Fig. Source: Sunarti et al. Heating in dilute acid produced high soluble total sugars with high dextrose equivalent; the process also released HMF as an undesired by-product, and a high amount of salt was produced from neutralization of acid. Long exposure to microwave heating increased the formation of brown coloring as detected in low syrup clarity.
Compared to autoclaving treatment, microwave heating treatment produced less furfural compound. As substrate for ethanol production, the presence of HMF and furfural negatively influenced productivity. Nigam found that a furfural concentration of more than 1. Furfural and HMF show different inhibitory effects to yeast growth in bioethanol production Sunarti et al.
Modig et al. For many years, slow and mild acid hydrolyses have been applied to starch by industries to improve its solubility. This process involves suspending starch in an aqueous solution of hydrochloric or sulfuric acid at certain temperatures, since in the presence of strong acid and heat, the glycosidic bonds between the monosaccharides in the starch polymer are cleaved Yiu et al. Prolonged mild acid hydrolysis can be performed to produce lintnerized starches. Odeku et al.
The extent of hydrolysis depends on starch consistency, acidity of the medium, hydrolysis temperature, and duration of hydrolysis. The effects of acid hydrolysis of various starches, such as corn, potato, and rice, have been studied previously Wang and Wang ; Wang et al.
Moreover, acid treatment in alcohol, especially for sago starch, has been conducted by Yiu et al. Acid treatment also can be applied to fiber-rich starch such as sago hampas. Ning et al. It has been shown that sulfuric or trifluoroacetic acid has been used to hydrolyze the hemicellulose in fiber Englyst and Cumming In the present research, sago hampas was modified by the acid-methanol treatment according to the Chung and Lai methods.
Sathaporn et al. Soluble carbohydrate produced from acid hydrolysis can be glucose, maltose or malto-oligosaccharides as products from starch hydrolysis, and soluble hemicellulose or its derived products.
Previously, we reported that the crystalline type of starch and fiber were not markedly changed after acid modification Sunarti et al. Higher diffraction intensities were clearly obtained after acid treatment.
An increase in starch and fiber crystallinity is attributed to preferential hydrolysis of the amorphous domains by acid Gerard et al. Ahmad and Williams and Pukkahuta and Varavinit found that sago hampas has a crystallinity type between cereal A-type and tuber B-type. The profiles also expressed the mixture of starch and fiber crystalline fractions. Changes of molecular structures are also expressed on surface morphology of starch granules and fiber structures. The fiber also degraded into small parts and became transparent which showed the increment of amorphous fraction of fiber Sunarti et al.
Some data in Table Hampas, sago pith residue, a solid waste of sago wet extraction industry, is a potential source for use as fiber reinforcement on starch-based foam production due to its composition that contains starch and fiber which are necessary for producing biofoam.
Utami et al. Compared to styrofoam, biofoam produced from acid modified sago hampas has better mechanical properties but is very sensitive to moisture making biofoam ideal for trays of dry food products Sunarti et al.
Direct hydrolysis of starch and fiber using dilute acid and heat treatment autoclaving or microwave-assisted treatments degraded the starch into glucose and oligosaccharide and increased the amorphous region of fiber.
Slow or mild acid hydrolysis of starch and fiber attacked the amorphous region. Mild acid hydrolysis did not change the crystallinity pattern but increased the degree of crystallinity. Products revealed from acid hydrolysis of starch and fiber in sago samples starch, sago pith, and sago hampas can be applied as sweetener, substrate for fermentation, and raw materials for food and nonfood industries.
The authors thank Ms. Fitri Ana Sari, Mr. Imam Muttaqiem, Mr. Taufiqurrahman, and Mr. Martin Dwiko for their technical assistances in this research. This chapter is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4. The images or other third party material in this book are included in the work's Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in the credit line; if such material is not included in the work's Creative Commons license and the respective action is not permitted by statutory regulation, users will need to obtain permission from the license holder to duplicate, adapt or reproduce the material.
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He has had a long and distinguished academic career having published over academic papers, with a strong focus on starch and carbohydrate chemistry research. Access Online via Elsevier Bolero Ozon. Starch : Chemistry and Technology. James N.
Sago Palm pp Cite as. Sago pith and sago hampas mainly consist of starch and fiber. In this research, acid modification of starch and fiber was conducted by high-temperature autoclaving and microwave-assisted treatments and slow or mild acid hydrolysis. Autoclaving and microwave-assisted treatments influenced the gelatinization and solubilization of starch granules to produce depolymerized starch and changed the fiber structure to become more amorphous forms. Heating in dilute acid produced high soluble total sugars with high dextrose equivalent, but the process also released hydroxymethylfurfural as undesired by-products.
Yearbook of Agriculture. Corrected to March 1 Whats New in Agriculture. Department Publications. Agricultural Statistics. Index to Articles. Index to Statistics. Yearbook of Agriculture United States.
Minimum Order Quantity: Metric Ton. We are offering wide range of Foundry Dextrin. These are used in the foundry as a binder for core washers and moulds. They help in increasing dry strength and are easily soluble in cold water and is converted of treated starches.
Report of the Secretary of Agriculture. United States. Department of Agriculture.
The Indian starch industry has leading players like Mamta Starch that has been catering to the varied market demands since its establishment in the year The company cares for the environment and follows high quality standards while manufacturing its products, ensuring value for the clients as well as the end users. The widespread reach and acceptance of our products across the country speaks volume about the high quality of our products.
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Но какому ребенку лучше: тому, чей наставник все знает и умеет обо всем рассказать, или тому, который находит ответы самостоятельно, руководствуясь намеком учителя?. Не знаю. не знаю. Но Святой Микель производит весьма благоприятное впечатление". - Разве ты не понимаешь, Николь, - Большой Майкл выскочил из своего кресла в очередной.
- Все мы участвуем в великом эксперименте Господа. _Вся_ эта Вселенная - не просто наша Галактика, все звездные системы до конца небес - составляет для Бога одну экспериментальную базу.
Николь едва слушала пояснения Синего Доктора; в контейнерах находились крошечные животные, предназначенные для уничтожения заранее намеченных типов эмбрионов. Таким образом, говорила она, октопауки контролировали точный состав следующего поколения, а именно: число цариц, наполненных, москитоморфов и всех прочих вариаций.
Как мать Николь с трудом, но могла понять, каково было октопаучихе.
Просто в той части "морской звезды" постоянно находится куда больше маленьких кубико-роботов. Наполовину объехав вокруг "морской звезды", они вместе вышли из вагончика. У входа в луч, отведенный людям.
Спросил Ричард, когда они вновь обогнули фонтан. - Не знаю. Похоже, он потрясен.
Николь уже почти теряла силы, но продолжала бежать.
Ну что ж, Алиса, мы вернулись с тобой в Страну чудес, - коротко рассмеялся Ричард. - Давай-ка перекусим, пока я введу всю информацию в мой верный компьютер. Пока они ели, вдоль берега канала пробежал биот-многоножка. Он ненадолго остановился, чтобы поглядеть на людей, потом проследовал мимо, направляясь к пандусу, по которому только что спустились Ричард с Николь.
Когда он вернулся к столу, видео показало две фотографии, приколотые к стене: под изображениями Ричарда и Николь крупными черными буквами было выписано слово "НАГРАДА". Октопауки терпеливо ожидали, пока люди разглядывали экран за экраном. "Как такое могло произойти?" - повторял Ричард, качая головой.
Потом экраны вдруг погасли. - Мы выбрали сорок восемь отрывков, - проговорила Верховный Оптимизатор, - чтобы показать вам, что все они сделаны в Новом Эдеме за последние восемь дней.
Я думал об. Поэтому нам с Арчи придется взять с собой Элли и Никки. Во-первых, если среди нас окажется ребенок, авангард Накамуры едва ли убьет нас на месте. Во-вторых, Элли свободно владеет речью октопауков и сможет помочь мне, если вдруг откажет транслятор.