Industry industrial fabrics made from chemical fibers
Synthetic fibers, which account for about half of all fiber usage, are made from synthesized polymers based on raw materials such as petroleum. The different types of fibers are produced from widely diverse chemical compounds. Each synthetic fiber has unique properties and characteristics that suit it for specific applications. Synthetic fibers and fabrics are used in a broad variety of industries and sectors, including aerospace, apparel, architecture and construction, automotive and transportation, chemical processing, electrical and electronic, filtration, marine, medical and welding. Four synthetic fibers — polyester, polyamide nylon , acrylic and polyolefin — dominate the textile market. Polyester, the most widely used synthetic fiber, is popular for all types of clothing and for reinforcement of items such as tires, belts and hoses.VIDEO ON THE TOPIC: How Its Made Carbon Fibre
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Production of yarn
Production and Ginning of Cotton W. Stanley Anthony. Cotton Yarn Manufacturing Phillip J. Wool Industry D. Silk Industry J. Viscose Rayon M. El Attal. Synthetic Fibres A. Quinn and R. Natural Felt Products Jerzy A.
Dyeing, Printing and Finishing J. Strother and A. Weaving and Knitting Charles Crocker. Hand-woven and Hand-tufted Carpets M. Neil Schachter. Grades of byssinosis. The term textile industry from the Latin texere, to weave was originally applied to the weaving of fabrics from fibres, but now it includes a broad range of other processes such as knitting, tufting, felting and so on.
It has also been extended to include the making of yarn from natural or synthetic fibres as well as the finishing and dyeing of fabrics. In prehistoric eras, animal hair, plants and seeds were used to make fibres. Silk was introduced in China around BC, and in the middle of the 18th century AD, the first synthetic fibres were created.
Silk is the only natural fibre formed in filaments which can be twisted together to make yarn. The other natural fibres must first be straightened, made parallel by combing and then drawn into a continuous yarn by spinning. The spindle is the earliest spinning tool; it was first mechanized in Europe around AD by the invention of the spinning wheel. The late 17th century saw the invention of the spinning jenny, which could operate a number of spindles simultaneously.
The making of fabric had a similar history. Ever since its origins in antiquity, the hand loom has been the basic weaving machine. Mechanical improvements began in ancient times with the development of the heddle, to which alternate warp threads are tied; in the 13th century AD, the foot treadle, which could operate several sets of heddles, was introduced.
Edmund Cartwright developed the steam-powered loom and in , with James Watt, built the first steam-driven textile mill in England. This freed the mills from their dependence on water-driven machinery and allowed them to be constructed anywhere. Another significant development was the punch-card system, developed in France in by Joseph Marie Jacquard; this allowed automated weaving of patterns.
The earlier power looms made of wood were gradually replaced by looms made of steel and other metals. Since then, technological changes have focused on making them larger, faster and more highly automated. Natural dyes were originally used to impart colour to yarns and fabrics, but with the 19th-century discovery of coal-tar dyes and the 20th-century development of synthetic fibres, dyeing processes have become more complicated.
Block printing was originally used to colour fabrics silk-screen printing of fabrics was developed in the mids , but it soon was replaced by roller printing. Engraved copper rollers were first used in England in , followed by rapid improvements that allowed roller printing in six colours all in perfect register. Modern roller printing can produce over m of fabric printed in 16 or more colours in 1 minute.
Early on, fabrics were finished by brushing or shearing the nap of the fabric, filling or sizing the cloth, or passing it through calender rolls to produce a glazed effect. Today, fabrics are pre-shrunk, mercerized cotton yarns and fabrics are treated with caustic solutions to improve their strength and lustre and treated by a variety of finishing processes that, for example, increase crease resistance, crease holding and resistance to water, flame and mildew.
Special treatments produce high-performance fibres, so called because of their extraordinary strength and extremely high temperature resistance. Thus, Aramid, a fibre similar to nylon, is stronger than steel, and Kevlar, a fibre made from Aramid, is used to make bullet-proof fabrics and clothing that is resistant both to heat and chemicals.
Other synthetic fibres combined with carbon, boron, silicon, aluminium and other materials are used to produce the lightweight, superstrong structural materials used in airplanes, spacecraft, chemical resistant filters and membranes, and protective sports gear. Textile manufacture was originally a hand craft practised by cottage spinners and weavers and small groups of skilled artisans.
With the technological developments, large and economically important textile enterprises emerged, primarily in the United Kingdom and the Western European countries. This was accelerated by the commercialization of the sewing machine. In the early 18th century, a number of inventors produced machines that would stitch cloth. In France in , Barthelemy Thimonnier received a patent for his sewing machine; in , when 80 of his machines were busy sewing uniforms for the French army, his factory was destroyed by tailors who saw his machines as a threat to their livelihood.
At about that time in England, Walter Hunt devised an improved machine but abandoned the project because he felt that it would throw poor seamstresses out of work. The invention of the modern sewing machine is credited to Isaac Merritt Singer, who devised the overhanging arm, the presser foot to hold down the cloth, a wheel to feed the fabric to the needle and a foot treadle instead of a hand crank, leaving both hands free to manoeuvre the fabric.
In addition to designing and manufacturing the machine, he created the first large-scale consumer-appliance enterprise, which featured such innovations as an advertising campaign, selling the machines on the installment plan, and providing a service contract. Thus, the technological advances during the 18th century were not only the impetus for the modern textile industry but they can be credited with the creation of the factory system and the profound changes in family and community life that have been labelled the Industrial Revolution.
The changes continue today as large textile establishments move from the old industrialized areas to new regions that promise cheaper labour and sources of energy, while competition fosters continuing technological developments such as computer-controlled automation to reduce labour needs and improve quality.
As machines became larger, speedier and more complicated, they also introduced new potential hazards. As materials and processes became more complex, they infused the workplace with potential health hazards. And as workers had to cope with mechanization and the demand for increasing productivity, work stress, largely unrecognized or ignored, exerted an increasing influence on their well-being.
Perhaps the greatest effect of the Industrial Revolution was on community life, as workers moved from the country to cities, where they had to contend with all of the ills of urbanization. These effects are being seen today as the textile and other industries move to developing countries and regions, except that the changes are more rapid.
The hazards encountered in different segments of the industry are summarized in the other articles in this chapter. Repeated education and training of workers on all levels and effective supervision are recurrent themes. Environmental concerns raised by the textile industry stem from two sources: the processes involved in textile manufacture and hazards associated with the way the products are used.
The chief environmental problems created by textile manufacturing plants are toxic substances released into the atmosphere and into wastewater. In addition to potentially toxic agents, unpleasant odours are often a problem, especially where dyeing and printing plants are located near residential areas.
Ventilation exhausts may contain vapours of solvents, formaldehyde, hydrocarbons, hydrogen sulphide and metallic compounds. Solvents may sometimes be captured and distilled for reuse. Particulates may be removed by filtration. Scrubbing is effective for water-soluble volatile compounds such as methanol, but it does not work in pigment printing, where hydrocarbons make up most of the emissions.
Flammables may be burned off, although this is relatively expensive. The ultimate solution, however, is the use of materials that are as close to being emission-free as possible. This refers not only to the dyes, binders and cross-linking agents used in the printing, but also to the formaldehyde and residual monomer content of fabrics.
Contamination of wastewater by unfixed dyes is a serious environmental problem not only because of the potential health hazards to human and animal life, but also because of the discolouration that makes it highly visible. This means that more than one-third of the reactive dye enters the wastewater during the washing-off of the printed fabric.
Additional amounts of dyes are introduced into the wastewater during the washing of screens, printing blankets and drums.
Limits on wastewater discolouration have been set in a number of countries, but it is often very difficult to heed them without an expensive wastewater purification system.
A solution is found in the use of dyestuffs with a lesser contaminating effect and the development of dyes and synthetic thickening agents that increase the degree of dye fixation, thereby reducing the amounts of the excess to be washed away Grund Residues of formaldehyde and some heavy-metal complexes most of these are inert may be sufficient to cause skin irritation and sensitization in persons wearing the dyed fabrics.
Formaldehyde and residual solvents in carpets and fabrics used for upholstery and curtains will continue to vaporize gradually for some time. In buildings that are sealed, where the air-conditioning system recirculates most of the air rather than exhausting it to the outside environment, these substances may reach levels high enough to produce symptoms in the occupants of the building, as discussed elsewhere in this Encyclopaedia.
Since then, other garment manufacturers, notably Levi Strauss in the United States, have followed suit.
In a number of countries, these limits have been formalized in laws e. Technological developments are continuing to enhance the range of fabrics produced by the textile industry and to increase its productivity. It is most important, however, that these developments be guided also by the imperative of enhancing the health, safety and well-being of the workers.
But even then, there is the problem of implementing these developments in older enterprises that are marginally financially viable and unable to make the necessary investments, as well as in developing areas eager to have new industries even at the expense of the health and safety of the workers.
Even under these circumstances, however, much can be achieved by education and training of the workers to minimize the risks to which they may be exposed. Human beings have relied on clothing and food to survive ever since they appeared on earth. The clothing or textile industry thus began very early in human history. While early people used their hands to weave and knit cotton or wool into fabric or cloth, it was not until the late 18th and early 19th centuries that the Industrial Revolution changed the way of making clothes.
People started to use various kinds of energy to supply power. Nevertheless, cotton, wool and cellulose fibres remained the major raw materials. Since the Second World War, the production of synthetic fibres developed by the petrochemical industry has increased tremendously. The consumption volume of synthetic fibres of world textile products in was Figure 1. Change in fibre supply in the textile industry before and projected through According to the world apparel fibre consumption survey by the Food and Agricultural Organization FAO , the average annual rates of growth for textile consumption during —89, —89 and —89 were 2.
Based on the previous consumption trend, population growth, per capita GDP gross domestic product growth, and the increase of consumption of each textile product with rising income, the demand for textile products in and will be The trend indicates that there is a consistent growing demand for textile products, and that the industry will still employ a large workforce.
Another major change is the progressive automation of weaving and knitting, which, combined with rising labour costs, has shifted the industry from the developed to the developing countries. Although the production of yarn and fabric products, as well as some upstream synthetic fibres, has remained in more developed countries, a large proportion of the labour-intensive downstream apparel industry has already moved to the developing countries. Table 1. Numbers of enterprises and employees in textile and apparel industries of selected countries and territories in the Asia-Pacific area in and Cotton production practices begin after the previous crop is harvested.
Three synthetic fibers: polyester, nylon, acrylic
Industrial Outlook for Industries with Projections for.. Top Trade Events in Architectural and Engineering Services. Wood Products.
Reviewed: June 11th Published: August 28th Textile Manufacturing Processes. Textile fibers provided an integral component in modern society and physical structure known for human comfort and sustainability. Man is a friend of fashion in nature.
Introductory Chapter: Textile Manufacturing Processes
Yarn is a strand composed of fibres, filaments individual fibres of extreme length , or other materials, either natural or man-made, suitable for use in the construction of interlaced fabrics, such as woven or knitted types. The strand may consist of a number of fibres twisted together; a number of filaments grouped together but not twisted; a number of filaments twisted together; a single filament, called a monofilament, either with or without twist; or one or more strips made by dividing a sheet of material, such as paper or metal foil, and either twisted or untwisted. The properties of the yarn employed greatly influence the appearance, texture, and performance of the completed fabric. Fibres are units of matter having length at least times their diameter or width. Fibres suitable for textile use possess adequate length, fineness, strength, and flexibility for yarn formation and fabric construction and for withstanding the intended use of the completed fabric. Other properties affecting textile fibre performance include elasticity, crimp waviness , moisture absorption, reaction to heat and sunlight, reaction to the various chemicals applied during processing and in the dry cleaning or laundering of the completed fabric, and resistance to insects and microorganisms. The wide variation of such properties among textile fibres determines their suitability for various uses. The first fibres available for textile use were obtained from plant and animal sources. Over a long period of experimentation with the many natural fibres available, cotton , wool , jute , flax , and silk became recognized as the most satisfactory.
Eco-fibers in the Textile Industry
Textile fibres or textile fibers see spelling differences can be created from many natural sources animal hair or fur, insect cocoons as with silk worm cocoons , as well as semisynthetic methods that use naturally occurring polymers, and synthetic methods that use polymer-based materials, and even minerals such as metals to make foils and wires. The textile industry requires that fibre content be provided on content labels. These labels are used to test textiles under different conditions to meet safety standards for example, for flame-resistance , and to determine whether or not a textile is machine washable or must be dry-cleaned. Common textile fibres used in global fashion today include:    . From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Handbook of Ecomaterials pp Cite as. One of the biggest threats to living species is environmental damage and consequent global warming. Industrialization in every field is responsible for these issues.
Table of Contents
Может, это странно, но идея не кажется мне привлекательной. Не знаю почему, но я против нее: быть может, потому, что пока не вижу, зачем мне жить. Вот если бы Ричард был со. На мгновение ей вновь представился видеозал, последние моменты жизни Ричарда в замедленной съемке.
Она не вспомнила об этом моменте после пробуждения. - А можно мне задать личный вопрос.
Natural and Man-Made Fibers Overview
Николь попыталась разглядеть какую-нибудь знакомую отметину. - Прости, - сказала она дружелюбным тоном, - что-то не узнаю. - Ты звала меня Молочным, поскольку в то время я выздоравливал после операции на линзе, и в ней было много белой жидкости.
- Ах да, - улыбнулась Николь. - Теперь я вспомнила, Молочный. Кажется, мы однажды беседовали о старости. Как я помню, ты не очень-то верил, что люди живут до старости независимо от того, полезны они или нет, и умирают естественной смертью. - Правильно, - ответил Молочный.
В начале театрального зрелища семеро основных персонажей вышли вперед и кратко представились - двое матрикулирующих пауков каждого пола, по паре приемных родителей и один альтернативный самец. когда он говорил, яркие прекрасные цвета разбегались до самых концов щупалец.
За несколько первых минут спектакля выяснилось, что двое матрикулирующих молодых дружили многие годы и, невзирая на добрый и разумный совет приемных родителей, выбрали раннюю половую зрелость. "Я хочу, - говорила молодая октопаучиха в своем первом монологе, - породить дитя от союза с моим другом".
List of textile fibres
Макс, ты абсолютно точно оцениваешь ситуацию. Макс потряс головой. - Знаешь что, давай сперва все-таки спустимся в эту проклятую дыру и поищем .
Textile and Fibers
По коже побежали мурашки. Ричард замер. Звук донесся до его ушей еще раз, и тележка в полном молчании остановилась. - Я не мог ошибиться, Николь, - настаивал Ричард.
Мгновение спустя появилась Элли, напевая свадебный марш Мендельсона.
Ну довольно, Макс, - проговорила Эпонина. - Ты хочешь, чтобы Николь решила, что и мы тоже замешаны в. Идея в конце концов _твоя_. Мы с Патриком и Наи согласились с тобой лишь в том, что Николь у нас последнее время приуныла.
Она не ожидала, что Ричард вызовется идти. - То есть ты, Арчи, - сказала она, - _одобряешь_ предложение Ричарда в отношении Элли и Никки. - Да, - ответил октопаук. - Но, Ричард, - проговорила Николь, оборачиваясь к мужу, - ты же так ненавидишь все эти политические дрязги. И ты уверен, что все продумал.
На твоем топчане возле правого уха, - проговорил очень тихий голос. - Ричард послал нас, чтобы устроить твой побег. но действовать мы должны .