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Manufacture commercial vegetable oils

Manufacture commercial vegetable oils

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Commercial Uses for Recycled Cooking Oil

Oils of plant origin have been predominantly used for food-based applications. Plant oils not only represent a non-polluting renewable resource but also provide a wide diversity in fatty acids FAs composition with diverse applications.

Besides being edible, they are now increasingly being used in industrial applications such as paints, lubricants, soaps, biofuels etc.

In addition, plants can be engineered to produce fatty acids which are nutritionally beneficial to human health. The biochemical pathways producing storage oils in plants have been extensively characterized, but the factors regulating fatty acid synthesis and controlling total oil content in oilseed crops are still poorly understood.

Thus understanding of plant lipid metabolism is fundamental to its manipulation and increased production. This review on oils discusses fatty acids of nutritional and industrial importance, and approaches for achieving future designer vegetable oil for both edible and non-edible uses.

The review will discuss the success and bottlenecks in efficient production of novel FAs in non-native plants using genetic engineering as a tool. Oils have a variety of uses besides edible applications. There is now an increasing evidence that fatty acids FAs play a crucial role in human nutrition that include therapeutic and prophylactic prevention of diseases, in growth and development of human embryo, brain function and provide protection against many serious diseases such as cardiovascular, inflammation etc.

Many FAs are now known to have anticancer potential. Importance of role of fats and fatty acids in human nutrition is gaining attention as more and more research is being done. Besides an essential component of human diet, FAs also find importance in various industrial applications such as soaps and detergents, cosmetics, lubricants, ink, varnish, paints etc.

Thus an ever expanding market exists for oilseed crops from both nutritional and industrial perspectives. In addition, plants produce a wide variety of fatty acids with different structures that confer unique physico-chemical properties on them and make them useful. With increasing petroleum prices and depleting natural resources, there is a longstanding need to explore and develop new sources of fatty acids of both industrial and nutritional importance.

Designer oils that preferentially produce these fatty acids can be created and will be economically feasible and competitive to petroleum based products. Normally plants produce FAs which may have zero to three double bonds. These commonly found usual FAs include palmitic acid , stearic acid , oleic acid , linoleic acid , and linolenic acid In oilseed plants, these fatty acids are predominantly stored as triacylglycerols TAG which is the major storage form in seed.

These lipids may be stored in cotyledon or endosperm which are used to supply energy during germination. In addition to TAG, fatty acids also exist in the form of wax esters, for example jojoba fruit Simmondsia chinensis. The fatty acids are synthesized in plastids from acetyl-CoA as starting substrate and on acyl carrier protein ACP Fig.

The fatty acids are then removed from ACP by action of enzyme, thioesterase. These later processes occur in endoplasmic reticulum ER of plant cells [ 1 , 2 ]. TAGs are the major storage form found in seeds. It is synthesized in ER, using acyl-CoA and glycerolphosphate as substrates by the Kennedy pathway. The first enzyme is glycerolphosphate acyltransferase GPAT , that acylates sn-1 position of glycerol backbone to form lysophosphatidic acid LPA.

The second enzyme of the pathway is lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase LPAAT that acylates at the sn-2 position to form phosphatidic acid PA , which is then converted into diacylglycerol DAG by the enzyme phosphatidic acid phosphatase PAP. Biosynthesis of commonly found fatty acids in plants. Vegetable oils constitutes an important component of human diet.

Major edible vegetable oils in terms of production include from soybean, canola, sunflower and peanut. They are source of edible FAs saturated, monounsaturated or polyunsaturated , which play an important role in cellular metabolism as a way to store energy and also by providing energy when required. FAs are known to play an important role in cell division and growth.

They are an integral component of cell membranes, hormones, neurotransmitters etc. Intake of different fatty acids has a direct influence on human health. For example, increased intake of saturated fatty acids has been linked to cardiovascular diseases. Thus it is considered desirable to have diets low in saturated fatty acids.

Based on the position of the first double bond, PUFA are of two types: omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids. These fatty acids are synthesized by higher plants. However, human body cannot synthesize these fatty acids de novo. Thus, these are essential fatty acids that need to be supplemented regularly in diet [ 3 , 4 ]. The major source of these fatty acids in human diet is marine fishes.

These fishes feed on other marine organisms such as algae and diatoms which are the primary source of these LC-PUFAs [ 5 ].

In human body, LA and ALA can be further metabolized to form longer chain fatty acids which play crucial role in human growth and development. However, these cannot be efficiently made by human body and need to be regularly supplemented to the diet [ 3 , 9 ]. Pathway leading to the synthesis of DHA also varies in some organisms. This pathway is found in Tetrahymena p yroformis, Pavlova sp. Isochrysis sp. As mentioned earlier, PUFA or more specifically the omega-3 fatty acids find more importance as human dietary supplement.

Omega-3 fatty acids have been shown to decrease the risk of cardiovascular diseases or occurrence of type-2 diabetes 17,18, There is increasing evidence that omega-3 fatty acids also play a helpful role in treating ailments like depression- a widespread problem [ 20 ].

DHA has shown to improve sensitivity of brain tumor cells to anticancer drug, etoposide VP16 and therapy [ 21 ]. The fatty acids are very crucial for retina and neural development, and for overall fetal development [ 19 , 22 ].

Due to their health benefits, it is recommended to take omega-3 FAs as regular dietary supplement. There is therefore a growing demand for these fatty acids. Marine fishes feed on marine microalgae like diatoms that are primary source of PUFA.

The high demand of these FAs is leading to overfishing. Also, there are concerns of environmental pollutants [ 8 ]. Other sources such as aquaculture itself is dependent on fish meal as a source for feed to maintain levels of PUFA in cultured fishes. Thus, fish oil is not able to meet the current demand for omega-3 fatty acids, necessitating development of alternative and sustainable sources.

In addition, linseed oil which is rich in omega-3 FA is also being promoted as a nutritional supplement. In order to gain benefits of PUFA, one has to consider the intake of omega-3 FA in relation to omega-6 fatty acid consumption. A ratio of to of omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids is considered good and recommended, possibly improving cardiovascular health, asthma etc [ 25 , 26 ].

In addition to usual fatty acids discussed earlier, certain plants also synthesize several other FAs which deviate significantly in their physico-chemical properties. There are different types of unusual fatty acids reported that find their use in various applications. Unusual fatty acids have distinct chemical and physical properties which make them useful in industrial applications such as soaps, plastics, nylon, lubricants, paints, coatings and adhesives.

Lauric acid, which is derived from coconut, is used for making soaps and detergents. Calendic acid is another type of UFA produced via desaturation of linoleic acid and is an important component of marigold seed oil.

Besides these, another important industrial application of vegetable oil is as biofuel. A huge market therefore exists for these fatty acids. Normally the raw material for these applications is derived from petroleum-based resources. But due to depleting oil reserves and concerns for environmental pollution, there is an ensuing need of developing an alternative source.

Of all the unusual fatty acids, hydroxy fatty acids HFA are the most important from industrial standpoint. Ricinoleic acid is a kind of hydroxy-fatty acid produced by castor bean plants Ricinus communis of family Euphorbiaceae. It is produced by addition of hydroxyl group to oleic acid by enzyme oleate hydroxylase or fatty acid hydroxylase FAH Ricinoleic acid has various industrial applications such as in nylons, paints, coatings, lubricants etc.

Castor bean plants are the only commercial source for this fatty acid. However, one major drawback with castor plant is the presence of a protein toxin ricin, which is present in the endosperm of castor seed. Ricin has an enzymatic activity that catalyzes removal of an adenine moiety from a conserved specific region of 28S rRNA and thereby inhibiting protein synthesis by ribosomes containing depurinated 28S rRNA [ 27 ]. India is the largest producer of castor oil followed by China and Brazil.

The other HFA is lesquerolic acid OH , produced by lesquerella Physaria fendleri , of Brassicaceae family which also has industrial applications.

Erucic acid is a very long chain fatty acid which finds its use in many industrial applications such as lubricant, plastic films, cosmetics etc. This fatty acid is produced from oleic acid through a series of reactions catalyzed by the enzyme fatty acid elongase, FAE1. It is normally produced in high levels in special cultivars of Brassica napus, also known as high erucic acid rapeseed HEAR.

Recently, there has been an interest to genetically modify plants to produce fatty acids from nutritional standpoint as well. With the advent of genetic engineering technology, it is now possible to produce designer oils with desirable fatty acid composition.

One of the major advantages of using genetic engineering is to produce nutritionally beneficial fatty acids, which are normally produced in non-cultivated plant species or derived from marine sources, in agriculturally amenable crops.

Once these designer plants are created, production of these FAs can become economically viable and can substitute limited and overexploited resources like marine life. Following are some examples where genetic manipulations have been carried out keeping nutrition as a focal point. As discussed earlier, PUFAs have beneficial effect on human health, and are largely derived from marine sources such as fish oil.

There is a huge gap in the current demand and supply of fish oil and there is a need to identify and develop alternative sources to produce these FAs. Cultivation of microalgae directly for production of PUFA has a potential. Production of PUFA have also been detected in various microalgae that include Phaedodactylum tricornutum, Fistulifera species [ 29 ].

However, many of these microalgae are not suitable for large scale production and the technology needs further optimization, so that they become economically viable and cost effective [ 30 ]. Use of iterative metabolic engineering also holds potential in accumulation of omega-3 FAs as seen in diatoms, Phaedodactylum tricornutum by expressing gene from another alga, Ostreococcus tauri [ 31 ].

Metabolic engineering of yeast and Yarrowia lipolytica have been done to obtain sustainable production of EPA reviewed in [ 32 ]. Still the global demand far exceeds the supply from above mentioned sources including marine or aquaculture. Other alternative approach is to identify and develop unconventional sources for production of PUFAs.

Cooking Oil

From this short description it may be concluded that in Brazil there already exist good factories for the extraction of cottonseed oil by the American process, good refineries and factories for vegetable butter and similar products, and that it would be in the interests of American capitalists to study the possibilities of this industry in Brazil. In Brazil exported oleaginous seeds to the value of 71, contos, and contos' worth of vegetable oils. However, as the Government of Brazil is kennly interested in the exploitation of the nuts and seeds, the Secretary of Agriculture has been able to obtain from the Federal Congress the necessary means for the installation of a laboratory for the specialized study of oils and their sub-products.

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Oils of plant origin have been predominantly used for food-based applications. Plant oils not only represent a non-polluting renewable resource but also provide a wide diversity in fatty acids FAs composition with diverse applications. Besides being edible, they are now increasingly being used in industrial applications such as paints, lubricants, soaps, biofuels etc. In addition, plants can be engineered to produce fatty acids which are nutritionally beneficial to human health.

Global Vegetable Oils Industry

Standards to ensure the authenticity of edible oils and fats J. Bell and P. Authenticity of vegetable oils Useful purity criteria Codex standards to combat fraud Future developments Conclusion References Ensuring the authenticity of food has been a problem for millennia. Wherever there is a commodity that commands a premium in the market and has either high value or high-volume sales, some people may be tempted to profit from illegal activity. Food fraud usually involves misleading the purchaser as to the true nature, substance or quality of the goods demanded; thus, food standards and labelling are breached. The offence can take the form of adulteration, which generally involves the dilution of a commodity with less expensive materials. A cheaper food may also be represented as if it were a food of greater value. Food authenticity problems can create enormous harm in the marketplace.

Fats and Oils Industry Overview

Received: 22 June Accepted: 13 July The growing global demand for vegetable oils for food and for replacing fossil fuels leads to increased oilseeds production. The oil palm is cultivated in the tropical zone, in areas formerly occupied by forests, and soybean oil is a by-product of protein meal production. The diversification of raw materials for the vegetable oil market is thus strategic for both food and non-food sectors. Sources for vegetable oil should be economically competitive and provide sustainability indexes higher than that provided by oil palm and soybean.

Fat and oil processing , method by which animal and plant substances are prepared for eating by humans. The oil and fat products used for edible purposes can be divided into two distinct classes: liquid oils, such as olive oil , peanut oil, soybean oil, or sunflower oil; and plastic fats , such as lard , shortening , butter , and margarine.

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Production of vegetable oils in the world and in Egypt: an overview

Bulletin of the National Research Centre. December , Cite as. This article throws a light on the recent situation of oilseed as well as vegetable oil production in the world referring to those in Egypt. Most common oilseed types which are currently available in the world are categorized in this article according to the suitability for their oils for human consumption and whether they are considered as a source of some functional ingredients.

Biofuels have become an attractive alternative fuel because of their possible environmental benefits and the current concern over the depletion of fossil fuel sources. The demand for biofuels will rise in the future due to the rise in the price of fossil fuel , energy security reasons, environmental and economical issues. Vegetable oils are the most common feedstocks and are converted into liquid fuels due to their high energy density, liquid nature and availability as a renewable feedstock. Several types of vegetable oils with a diversified composition in fatty acids can be used. Beside edible vegetable oils, non-edible and used cooking oils have also received considerable attention because they do not compete with food sources and are less costly to procure. Beside vegetable oils, bio-oil obtained from the pyrolysis of biomass has also been upgraded through catalytic cracking process to obtain biofuel.

Vegetable Oil: Nutritional and Industrial Perspective

Increasing vegetable oils application in fuel production, culinary, soaps and perfume formulations is expected to drive the global market over the forecast period. Growing processed foods industry, particularly in emerging markets, is expected to drive vegetable oils consumption over the next seven years. Vegetable oils are major feedstock in bio lubricants production. Tightening regulatory framework regarding disposability and recyclability of petrochemical derived lubricants has been driving bio lubricants demand, thus providing growth opportunities for global vegetable oil market. As a result of their recyclable property, vegetable oils have diverse applications as automotive oil, demolding oil, hydraulic oil, chainsaw oils and industrial oils. On basis of the above applications, several vegetable oil manufacturing companies are converging on producing modified renewable oil and mineral oil based products. This initiative by major companies will help in escalating vegetable oil market additionally favoring its consumption in mature markets that are governed by regulatory policies favoring eco-friendly products.

Dec 12, - In a typical edible oil processing plant oil is extracted from the seed first The commercial edible oil processing system is usually different from.

Over this year period production of these four oils together has increased by This has come from palm oil Figure 1. Palm is generally the cheapest commodity vegetable oil and also the cheapest oil to produce and to refine.

Individual Commodity Oils and Fats

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Vegetable oil production in Brazil

Vegetable oils , or vegetable fats , are oils extracted from seeds, or less often, from other parts of fruits. Like animal fats , vegetable fats are mixtures of triglycerides. Olive oil , palm oil , and rice bran oil are examples of fats from other parts of fruits.

American Vegetable Oils, Inc.

Should I avoid canola oil? And what are the best fats in general for cooking? The top four vegetable oils consumed in the United States are soybean, canola, palm, and corn oil. These are referred to as refined, bleached, deodorized oils — or RBD for short — because this describes the process by which they are manufactured. As with many highly processed food products there are concerns about the safety of canola oil.

Trans Fatty Acids And Hydrogenated Vegetable Oils

There is an ever-expanding market for used cooking oil UCO as manufacturers discover a number of uses for it, from biofuels to cosmetics. There, we filter the oil and remove the tiny bits of food, flecks of spices, sauces, and other unwanted liquids and debris. We then deliver the processed oil to our partners who reuse the oil for a variety of products. Used cooking oil is a key ingredient in making biofuel, specifically biodiesel. It is a renewable fuel produced from vegetable oils soybean, canola, corn, grapeseed, sunflower, and palm and animal fats.

Cooking oil consists of edible vegetable oils derived from olives, peanuts, and safflowers, to name just a few of the many plants that are used. Liquid at room temperature, cooking oils are sometimes added during the preparation of processed foods. They are also used to fry foods and to make salad dressing. People in many regions began to process vegetable oils thousands of years ago, utilizing whatever food stuffs they had on hand to obtain oils for a variety of cooking purposes.

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