Manufacturing manufacture spreads and mixtures melted vegetable-creamy and vegetable-fat
Palsgaard offers a range of oil binders custom designed to alleviate oil separation and fat bloom in confectionery fat systems with a high amount of liquid oils. All these products normally have a high amount of free flowing liquid oil that tends to migrate to the surface — if not controlled. The usual challenge is to find the balance between a stable but waxy product and a smooth but unstable product with oil separation. The typical dosage is 0.VIDEO ON THE TOPIC: Our Favorite Keto Side Dishes - High Fat Veggies!
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Oil binders for confectionery products
These guidelines are intended to provide a broad framework permitting the development of more specific group or individual standards, according to the requirements of individual countries.
Fat spread: A fat spread is a food in the form of an emulsion mainly of the water-in-oil type , comprising principally an aqueous phase and edible fats and oils. Edible fats and oils: Foodstuffs mainly composed of triglycerides of fatty acids. They are of vegetable, animal, milk or marine origin. Tables Restricted zone s may be imposed, with respect to the fat content and to the proportion of milk fat to other types of fat, in accordance with national or other relevant legislation.
Concerning the fat content, the IDF standard states that fat spreads shall be classified into three groups, according to the origin of the fat. The name of the food shall be as specified in national legislation. The products, however, shall comply with the general requirements in Table Table For many years, there were just a few recognized types of cooking fat, viz.
Butter and margarine are the two products that most interest is focused on. Both products are used for spreading on bread as well as for cooking and baking. Butter can also be classified according to salt content: unsalted, salted and extra salted. Until well into the 19th century, butter was still made from cream that had been allowed to sour naturally.
The cream was then skimmed from the top of the milk and poured into a wooden tub. Butter was made by hand in churns. The natural souring process is very sensitive, and infection by foreign microorganisms often spoiled the result. As knowledge of cooling increased, it became possible to skim the cream before it had gone sour, and make butter from the sweet cream.
Butter-making methods gradually improved, and so did the product quality and economic yield. It was eventually found that sweet cream could be soured by the addition of naturally soured milk or acid buttermilk. It then became possible to make ripened cream butter under more controlled conditions. The invention of the separator meant that cream could be skimmed from milk quickly and efficiently. It was also the start of large-scale buttermaking. Contributions to the quality of the product and butter-making economics were also made by the introduction of pasteurization in the s, the use of pure bacteria cultures in the s and the introduction of the butter-making machine at the turn of the century.
Variations in the composition of butter are due to differences in production. As can be seen from Table Butter also naturally contains the Vitamins A and D. As the carotenoid content of milk normally fluctuates between winter and summer, butter produced in the winter period has a brighter colour.
In this context it might be mentioned that butter made of cream from buffalo milk is white, as buffalo milk does not contain carotenoids. Butter should also be dense and taste fresh. The water content should be dispersed in fine droplets so that the butter looks dry. The consistency should be smooth, so that the butter is easy to spread and melts readily in the mouth.
Sour cream butter should smell of diacetyl, while sweet butter should taste of cream. A faint cooked flavour is acceptable in the case of sweet butter. Butter made from sour cream has certain advantages over the sweet cream variety. The aroma is richer, the butter yield higher, and there is less risk of reinfection after temperature treatment, as the bacteria culture suppresses undesirable microorganisms. However, sour cream butter has its drawbacks.
Buttermilk from sour cream butter has a far lower pH than buttermilk from sweet cream butter, which sometimes makes it harder to dispose of than sweet buttermilk. Another disadvantage of cultured cream butter is that it is more sensitive to oxidation defects, which give it a metallic taste.
This tendency is accentuated if the slightest trace of copper or other heavy metals is present, and this reduces the chemical keeping properties of the butter considerably. Zoom Fig. Butter was originally made on the farm for household use. In those days, a manually operated butter churn, Figure Following churning and discharge of buttermilk, the butter grains were collected in a shallow trough and manually worked until acceptable dryness and structure were achieved.
Large-scale butter manufacturing processes generally involve quite a number of stages. Figure Churns are still used, but are rapidly being replaced by continuous butter-making machines. The cream can be supplied by a liquid milk dairy surplus cream or separated from whole milk at the creamery. In the former case, the cream should have been pasteurized by the supplier.
Storage and delivery to the creamery should be undertaken in such a way that reinfection, aeration or foaming do not take place. After reception procedures, weighing-in and analysis, the cream is stored in tanks. The warm cream is routed into an intermediate storage tank before being pumped to the cream pasteurization plant. For gentle treatment of the cream, please see the description of the Scania method in Chapter 8.
The skim milk from the separator is pasteurized and cooled before being pumped to storage. When cultured butter is to be produced, part of the skim milk should be utilized for starter preparation. The high temperature is needed to destroy enzymes and microorganisms that would impair the keeping quality of the butter. The destruction of unwanted microorganisms is also beneficial in the case of sour cream butter, as this creates perfect growth conditions for the bacteria culture.
The heat treatment releases strongly antioxygenic sulphhyd-ryl compounds, which further reduce the risk of oxidation. Vacuum deaeration can also be included in the line if the cream has an undesirable flavour or aroma, e. Any flavouring will be bound in the fat and transmitted to the butter, unless removed.
Vacuum treatment before pasteurization involves pre-heating the cream to the required temperature and then subjecting it to flash cooling to free any entrapped gas and volatile substances. After this, the cream is returned to the pasteurizer for further treatment — heating, holding and cooling — before proceeding to the ripening tank.
In the ripening tank, of a recommended maximum volume of The programme is selected to match factors such as the composition of the butterfat, expressed, for example, in terms of iodine value, which is a measure of the unsaturated fat content. The treatment can also be modified to produce butter with good consistency despite a low iodine value, e. Ripening usually takes 12 — 15 hours.
Where possible, the acid-producing bacteria culture is added before the temperature treatment. The quantity of culture added depends on the treatment programme selected with reference to the iodine value, Table From the ripening tank, the cream is pumped to the continuous buttermaker or the churn; sometimes a passage through a plate heat exchanger is desirable, to bring it to the required temperature. In the churning process, the cream is agitated violently to break down the fat globules, causing the fat to coalesce into butter grains.
The fat content of the remaining liquid, i. The cream is split into two fractions: butter grains and buttermilk. In traditional churning, the machine is stopped when the grains have reached a certain size, and then the buttermilk is drained off.
Buttermilk drainage is continuous in continuous butter-making machines. After drainage, the butter is worked to a continuous fat phase containing a finely dispersed water phase.
It used to be common practice to wash the butter with water after churning, to remove any residual buttermilk and milk solids, but this is rarely done today. If the butter is to be salted, salt is spread over the surface in batch production, or added in slurry form during the working stage in continuous buttermaking. After salting, the butter must be worked further to ensure uniform distribution of the salt.
The working of the butter also affects the characteristics by which the product is judged — aroma, taste, keeping quality, appearance and colour.
The finished butter is discharged into the packaging unit and then to cold storage. Principal temperature programmes adjusted to the iodine value and recommended volumes of culture, when used. The cream must be of good bacteriological quality, without taste or aroma defects. The iodine value is the deciding factor in the selection of manufacturing parameters. Unless corrected, fat with a high iodine value high unsaturated fat content will produce greasy butter.
Butter of acceptable consistency can be obtained from both hard fat iodine value down to 28 and soft fat iodine value up to 42 , by varying the ripening treatment to suit the iodine value. Cream containing antibiotics or disinfectants is unsuitable for the manufacture of acidified butter.
If harmful microorganisms have been given the chance to develop, the cream cannot be used, even if they can be rendered inactive by heat treatment. Therefore, strict hygiene is essential in all stages of the production process. A problem in countries with a refrigerated distribution chain for raw milk is that cold storage causes changes in the microorganic composition.
Where lactic-acid bacteria once dominated, there are now bacteria strains that have a high resistance to cold — the psychrotrophic bacteria. These are normally destroyed during pasteurization and therefore have no effect on the quality of the butter. Some psychrotrophic bacteria strains, however, produce lipolytic enzymes which can break down the fat.
Consequently, it is vital that development of psychrotrophic bacteria is prevented. Pasteurization should take place as soon as possible, and definitely not later than 24 hours after arrival. The heat treatment should be sufficient to result in a negative peroxidase test. This vigorous treatment kills not only pathogenic bacteria but also other bacteria and enzymes that could affect keeping quality.
The heat treatment should not be so intense that there will be defects, such as a cooked flavour. If necessary, any undesirable flavouring substances of a volatile nature can be removed by vacuum treatment.
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Good food requires good ingredients. VFI offers a wide range of oils and fats for all uses in the food industry, and for commercial consumers. The highest product safety and the best quality for raw materials are a given. Our research and development team is permanently working on innovative solutions for particular challenges. So we encounter the latest trends in nutrition early on, and offer suitable products.
Food Industry. Food fat provides taste, consistency, and helps us feel full. Fat is a major source of energy for the body, and aids in the absorption of lipid soluble substances including vitamins A, D, E, and K. Dietary fat is essential for normal growth, development, and maintenance, and serves a number of important functions.
Structuring Fat Foods
These examples represent emulsions, which are stable mixtures of tiny droplets of one immiscible fluid within another, made possible by chemicals called emulsifiers. In both cases, emulsifiers are needed to prevent the suspended droplets from coalescing and breaking the emulsion. Anybody who has made a simple oil-and-vinegar salad dressing knows that, with enough shaking or whisking, one can make a temporary emulsion. However, in the absence of emulsifiers, this unstable emulsion breaks down within minutes, and the oil forms a layer on top of the vinegar. For centuries, cooks have added natural emulsifiers, such as egg yolk, mustard, or honey, to help prevent this separation. Today, a wide variety of nature-based and synthetic emulsifiers are available for the diverse fields that benefit from them, including food, nutraceuticals, home and personal care, biofuel, environmental cleanup, and industrial lubricant applications. Emulsifiers work by forming physical barriers that keep droplets from coalescing. A type of surfactant see Sidebar , emulsifiers contain both a hydrophilic water-loving, or polar head group and a hydrophobic oil-loving, or nonpolar tail.
BUTTER AND DAIRY SPREADS
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Of a variety of fat-and-oil products, a group of solid emulsion fat-and-oil products can be emphasized, including margarines, vegetable-cream and vegetable-fat spreads. These products were initially developed as an alternative to butter, however, their scope of application has significantly expanded at this stage of development of the food industry. It should be noted that the structure of consumption of solid fat-and-oil products has recently changed with a decrease in the proportion of consumed butter, margarines and spreads as edible products. The reason for these changes is due to a more attentive attitude of the population towards health and the fulfillment of the recommendations of the health authorities to reduce the consumption of fats, in particular, saturated fats.
Fats in Spreadable Products
Margarine is a spreadable vegetable fat that has been developed to serve as an alternative for butter. It has a similar taste to the animal product and can replace it in almost any recipe. It is usually found as either a spread with a soft texture or as sticks similar to butter.SEE VIDEO BY TOPIC: Keto Cooking: The Best Low Carb Vegetables
These guidelines are intended to provide a broad framework permitting the development of more specific group or individual standards, according to the requirements of individual countries. Fat spread: A fat spread is a food in the form of an emulsion mainly of the water-in-oil type , comprising principally an aqueous phase and edible fats and oils. Edible fats and oils: Foodstuffs mainly composed of triglycerides of fatty acids. They are of vegetable, animal, milk or marine origin. Tables Restricted zone s may be imposed, with respect to the fat content and to the proportion of milk fat to other types of fat, in accordance with national or other relevant legislation.
Butter and Margarine
In particular the invention provides spreadable creams having a fresh taste, a smooth, creamy mouthfeel and a butter like texture and melting behaviour. There is a continuous desire among consumers for spreadable products that resemble traditional butter in mouthfeel and texture, but on the other hand are spreadable at refrigeration temperature, and have a fresh taste. Besides being not spreadable at refrigeration temperature, butter has a very high fat content. Furthermore butter has a bland taste that may be considered very fatty and heavy in the mouth by modern consumers. There is a clear desire for more fresh tasting products, which are spreadable at refrigeration temperature, but will have a smooth, creamy mouthfeel and a fresh taste. Fresh taste is herein defined as instant delivery of water soluble taste and flavour components, upon consumption. A further desire is that these products show little or no syneresis, which is water loss upon increase of the temperature of the product to room temperature.
Butter is a soft, yellow-hued, edible emulsion of butterfat, water, air, and sometimes salt. It is made from the churning of cream and is used as a spread as well as an important ingredient in cooking and baking. Margarine is an inexpensive alternate to butter, made from oil or a combination of oils through the process of hydrogenation.
WO1999051105A1 - Acidified butter like spread - Google Patents
Fats in Food Products pp Cite as. The fat spreads market shows considerable regional variations on a global basis. Until recently the microstructure of volume market spreads has been that of emulsions mainly of a fat continuous nature with dispersed aqueous drops. The structure of the product is dominated by the crystallisation characteristics of the fat crystal size, shape and intercrystalline bonding.
Butter is made from the butterfat of milk, whereas modern margarine is made mainly of refined vegetable oil and water. In some places in the United States, it is colloquially referred to as oleo , short for oleomargarine. Due to its versatility, margarine can be used as an ingredient in other food products, such as pastries, doughnuts, cakes and cookies.
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