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Sustainability assessment of food supply chains is relevant for global sustainable development. A framework is proposed for analysing fishfood fish products for direct human consumption supply chains with local or international scopes.
It combines a material flow model including an ecosystem dimension of the supply chains, calculation of sustainability indicators environmental, socio-economic, nutritional , and finally multi-criteria comparison of alternative supply chains e. The Peruvian anchoveta fishery is the starting point for various local and global supply chains, especially via reduction of anchoveta into fishmeal and oil, used worldwide as a key input in livestock and fish feeds.
The Peruvian anchoveta supply chains are described, and the proposed methodology is used to model them. Three scenarios were explored: status quo of fish exploitation Scenario 1 , increase in anchoveta landings for food Scenario 2 , and radical decrease in total anchoveta landings to allow other fish stocks to prosper Scenario 3.
It was found that Scenario 2 provided the best balance of sustainability improvements among the three scenarios, but further refinement of the assessment is recommended.
In the long term, the best opportunities for improving the environmental and socio-economic performance of Peruvian fisheries are related to sustainability-improving management and policy changes affecting the reduction industry. Our approach provides the tools and quantitative results to identify these best improvement opportunities.
This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript. Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist. Moreover, sustainability arises from the complex interrelation among these factors, and thus science should focus on the most significant cause-and-effect relationships and driving forces that shape these interrelations so as to inform and provide tools for management and policy .
A recent journal editorial stressed the growing challenges of sustainability in food systems, given the increasing demand for food and the environmental impacts associated with modern food production . The editorial referred to the relevance of trade policy and trade impacts on vulnerable communities, as well as to the need for globally-accepted metrics and policies for sustainability.
This kind of narrative is representative of the general interest of the research community in studying and advancing sustainability tools for policy and decision-making. Agricultural and fishfood systems feed the world. Therefore, it is imperative to apply sustainability principles to the design, operation and assessment of fishfood systems. Resource management science and research have produced a variety of approaches for capturing interactions between natural and socio-economic realms in such systems.
An essential feature of all approaches for understanding complex systems is modelling . In fisheries, ecological processes such as predation, competition, environmental regime shifts, and habitat effects have the potential to impact bio-economic dynamics e. These impacts may manifest themselves at an order of magnitude comparable to that exerted by fisheries pressure.
Whole ecosystem models try to account for all trophic levels in the ecosystems studied. A software implementation of EwE is freely available for evaluating ecosystem impacts of fisheries  , .
EwE modelling is data-intensive, especially regarding biomasses and diets, and its outputs require interpretation to be used for policy-making support, among other limitations . It encompasses all value chains, integrated or not, along the life cycle of the delivered product  , as well as material, information and financial flows circulating among these value chains . Supply chain modelling is performed to understand, analyse and improve the efficiency, effectiveness and sustainability of supply chains.
Supply chain modelling theory has been extensively applied to the study of food supply chains. Goals of supply chain modelling in food systems include cost reduction, safety, quality, flexibility and responsiveness, among other aspects . Supply and value chain analysis, as well as modelling approaches, have been applied to fisheries, aquaculture and whole fishfood supply chains, as extensively reviewed in . Non-modelling studies have focused on reducing costs, increasing efficiency and improving product quality, as well as more recently in developing or re-shaping existing supply chains .
Models oriented toward operations research have diverse objectives, depending on the system under study. In fisheries, aspects such as resource allocation problems, uncertainty management, harvest policy and strategy, harvest timing, quota decisions, experimental management regimes, investment in fleet capacity, and stock switching by fishermen  are studied.
In aquaculture, trade-offs among alternative activities, strategic planning requirements for emerging technologies, planning and management, optimal harvesting time and other optimal control frameworks, feeding regimes, and risk management are studied . Modelling of whole fishfood supply chains is less common; thus, it has been suggested that future research should focus on optimal production planning, costs associated with additional sorting of raw materials due to the batch nature of many landed species and quality aspects .
Past research has focused on handling and preservation practices for extended shelf life . Although supply chain analysis and modelling of agrifood systems is quite common in research, modelling of fishfood supply chains is less common. Few models combine ecosystems and fishfood supply chains. The few social-ecological systems models applied to fisheries as listed in  and fisheries bio-economic models e. Despite these few examples, most fisheries-related modelling research has historically focused on ecological or ecosystem modelling, that is to say, on ecosystem-fisheries interactions which do not explore socio-economic aspects.
Combining a fish supply-chain modelling approach with an EwE trophic model to model policy scenarios for stock recovery was first proposed in . This approach was based on an idea later published in  , in which a social-ecological system model combining ecosystem using EwE trophic models and proprietary value-chain modelling approaches was proposed. The model coupling partial two-way interactions limited to the feedback effect of the producers on the ecosystem proposed in  was eventually implemented as a plug-in for EwE 6.
The coupled model was recently used in a case study . We borrowed the one-way vs. More details on the classification of modelling tools and justification of the models retained is presented in section A in File S1. In this article, a sustainability modelling and assessment methodology is proposed and applied to compare several fishfood and agricultural supply chains that compete for Peruvian anchoveta Engraulis ringens resources.
These chains generate a variety of impacts on Peruvian ecosystems and society, as well as on the global environment and economy. Therefore, we compare relative environmental and socio-economic performance of products from the chains and analyse alternative exploitation and fish fate final fishfood product scenarios.
Ultimately, we track the fate of one t of landed anchoveta channelled through alternative Peruvian supply chains, now and in the future. The system under study encompasses the supply chains from extraction fisheries and their impact on the Northern Humboldt Current ecosystem , through reduction activities for fishmeal and fish oil, aquafeed production taking into account other agricultural inputs to aquafeeds , aquaculture, fishfood industries and, finally, to fishfood products on grocery shelves.
The dynamics of these complex supply chains have never been studied in a holistic, sustainability-imbued way. Understanding these dynamics and impacts to the largest extent possible is the motivation of this research, so that decision makers along the chains are informed and actions are taken to improve sustainability of the anchoveta -based fishfood fisheries and industries.
The research topic connects with the wider topic of sustainability assessment of food systems, and its importance derives from the prevalence of Peruvian fishmeal in international food supply chains, as Peru is by far the largest global exporter of fishmeal and fish oil used to supply aquaculture and animal production supply chains, mainly in Asia and Europe .
Simultaneously, since Peru is a developing country facing nutritional and social challenges, the fact that most fisheries landings are destined for reduction into fishmeal and fish oil is subject to discussion and multi-disciplinary analysis  , .
This article first introduces the Peruvian anchoveta supply chains and the sustainability assessment framework. It then presents the results obtained from applying the framework to the Peruvian case study by assessing and comparing the sustainability of supply chains and alternative exploitation scenarios. Finally, the methodology is discussed in relation to the results obtained, and suggestions for improving both the current and possible future situations are proposed.
The NHCS is considered the most productive fishing ground in the world because it produces more fish per area than any other region. Moreover, the NHCS has several unique characteristics that determine its productivity . The NHCS is an eastern boundary upwelling ecosystem, extremely sensitive to climatic dynamics.
The modern anchoveta fishery started in Peru around , parallel with the decline of the previously profitable guano industry. The —58 ENSO event decimated guano-producing seabird populations and coincided with further development of the anchoveta fishery. During the s the fleet and the fishery grew continuously until , peaking with the largest historical harvest of In , the anchoveta stock collapsed, probably due to combination of high fishing pressure, a regime shift in the ecosystem and a strong ENSO event, followed by a slow recovery of the anchoveta stock and catches as well as changes in fisheries management and legislation  Figure B1 in File S1.
From to , catches were stable compared to historical landings, averaging 7. In , an ENSO event and management measures reduced landings to 3. The fleet is heterogeneous. Additionally, almost Vikingas operating under regime Law No. Small-scale vessels also differ from medium-scale ones in the level of technology and capture systems used; small-scale vessels are characterised by manual labour and basic technology .
In total, the small- and medium-scale SMS fleet includes about wooden vessels that by law target anchoveta among other species only for direct human consumption DHC , but also illegally for reduction fishmeal plants.
The industrial fleet landings for indirect human consumption IHC i. Overcapitalisation is still substantial in Peru; in the fishing fleet was estimated to be 2. More detailed descriptions of the industrial steel, semi-industrial and SMS fleets are presented in  , while discussions on their environmental performance are presented in . Fishmeal plants produce fishmeal as the main product and fish oil as co-product.
Inclusion of fishmeal and fish oil in aquafeeds has decreased  as alternative protein sources have become available and their effectiveness has been demonstrated. Plants can be classified into conventional, high-protein and residual, according to the technology used and product quality obtained  , . Peru had industrial fishmeal plants in , but not a single registered artisanal fishmeal plant, according to .
Fifty percent of plants are concentrated in the northern coastal region, mainly in Chimbote and Chicama . The reduction industry suffers from overcapacity: in the industry was 3—9 times its optimal size . Although the General Fisheries Act prohibited further increase in capacity of reduction plants, the overcapacity issue was worsened by privatisation of the sector in the s and many mergers and acquisitions from — that concentrated the sector .
A shift towards better technology, and thus better and more lucrative products, is noticeable in the increase in high-protein fishmeal processing capacity and production fair average quality fishmeal from Production and export of fishmeal and fish oil is the main driver for the thriving anchoveta industry.
Peruvian fishmeal and oil are exported, among other aquaculture-producing countries, to China, Chile and some European countries. The main users of these imports are farms producing shrimp, salmonids, carp, tilapia and other cultivated species. It has been suggested that Chinese carp cultures may be the largest single consumer of fishmeal, despite low inclusion rates in feeds, due to the enormous volume of production  , .
Conversion ratios below 4. Table 2 compares several reported conversion ratios. Fish oil conversion ratios fluctuate greatly because they depend on the lipid content of anchoveta , which varies over time. The mean yield from — was Consumption is notably higher along the coast seafood and in Amazonian areas river fish , while it is much lower in the highlands industrialised fish products and Andean aquaculture .
It has been suggested that increased DHC of anchoveta could help solve some of the nutritional problems in Peru and the larger region . Peruvian consumption of anchoveta , despite its recent increase, is still relatively small 3. The scarcity of anchoveta for DHC is due to a combination of factors, including regulatory limitations industrial vessels cannot supply the DHC industry , consumer preferences and lack of a cold chain for fish in Peru.
Some believe a key factor is the shelf price of anchoveta DHC products. Moreover, one of the factors that direct or divert for SMS captures most anchoveta landings to reduction is the small difference, if any, in prices paid to fishermen per t of fish landed . Fishmeal plants paid more than DHC plants until recently. These topics are further analysed in . More detailed discussion of Peruvian anchoveta processing for DHC is presented in .
Raw Materials, Commodities & Ingredients
Fish and seafood consumption in Australia has been growing, yet the implications of this trend across the food system, from both a health and sustainability perspective have not been fully explored. We conducted a secondary analysis of publicly available datasets on fish and seafood production and consumption, triangulated and supplemented with peer-reviewed and grey literature on environmental, economic and social sustainability issues throughout the food system. A key challenge for health is the high proportion of fish and seafood consumed as discretionary food, particularly among children.
Shrimp and some crayfish species are exceptions and in well-planned operations may be efficiently and economically raised in indoor recirculating systems. The United States produces two major species of oysters, Crassostrea virginica the Atlantic oyster or Eastern oyster and the non-native Crassostrea gigas Pacific oyster. The Eastern oyster, found primarily in the Gulf of Mexico Gulf Coast region and the Chesapeake Bay region, historically accounts for roughly 75 percent of total U. The Gulf Coast region, principally Louisiana, generally leads the nation in oyster production.
Dried Fish Products
Markets for fish and fishery products are varied in terms of location, ranging from domestic to regional both intraregional and inter-regional to international markets, according to the FAO World Aquaculture report. In the past decade, in line with the increased growth of global aquaculture production, there has been an impressive development of trade in many aquaculture products based on both low- and high-value species, at all levels of market. While the demand for aquaculture products continues to increase, there is a growing recognition of quality and safe products by consumers. In response to such concerns, issues such as food safety, traceability, certification and ecolabelling are becoming increasingly important and are thus considered a high priority by countries engaged in aquaculture. Globally, fish is a valuable traded commodity, representing a significant source of foreign exchange earnings, in addition to its important contributions to employment creation, income generation and food security. In , about 39 per cent live weight equivalent of world fish and fishery products was internationally traded as various food and feed products, compared with 25 per cent in FAO, a. Some of the specific factors that have contributed to this rise are: growing globalisation of the fisheries and aquaculture value chain; outsourcing of processing to countries where comparatively low wages and production costs provide a competitive advantage; increasing consumption of fishery commodities; favourable trade liberalisation policies; and technological innovations, including improvements in processing, packaging, transportation and changes in distribution and marketing that have significantly changed the way fishery products are prepared, marketed and delivered to consumers. Trade in fish and fishery products was affected by the financial crisis that began in late and erupted into a full-blown economic crisis in late September
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Markets And Trade In Aquaculture
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Sustainability assessment of food supply chains is relevant for global sustainable development. A framework is proposed for analysing fishfood fish products for direct human consumption supply chains with local or international scopes. It combines a material flow model including an ecosystem dimension of the supply chains, calculation of sustainability indicators environmental, socio-economic, nutritional , and finally multi-criteria comparison of alternative supply chains e. The Peruvian anchoveta fishery is the starting point for various local and global supply chains, especially via reduction of anchoveta into fishmeal and oil, used worldwide as a key input in livestock and fish feeds. The Peruvian anchoveta supply chains are described, and the proposed methodology is used to model them.
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Account Options Sign in. My library Help Advanced Book Search. Get print book. FAO Amazon. Shop for Books on Google Play Browse the world's largest eBookstore and start reading today on the web, tablet, phone, or ereader. The consultation recommended to: a conduct a background study on the normative framework for fish trade and food security; b organize a consultative process on the normative framework; c prepare the technical guidelines on the Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries CCRF , fish trade and food security; d train and improve capacity of policy makers and technical personnel on international issues dealing with fish trade and food security; e integrate the fish trade and food security issues into the proposed "FAO Technical Cooperation Project - WTO"; f expand the FAO work on the distribution of costs and benefits in the fishing industry; g prepare an analytical framework taking into account conflicting interests with specific illustrative cases studies; h conduct studies on the impact of fish trade on household food security; i develop medium and long-term projections on the impact of fish trade on food security. Selected pages Page
Since , U. For comparison, U. A wide variety of fish and shellfish products are available in the marketplace. It has been estimated that hundreds of different species of fish and shellfish are sold annually. The top seafood products consumed in the U.
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My aversion to canned food started early. Those aluminum cylinders just never seemed appealing, sitting there in the dark corners of our cabinet, far away from my treasured Cinnamon Toast Crunch. They were dull, dusty, and full of mysterious soup mixes. It was rare for my mom to pull one out, but when she did, I knew it was going to be the least exciting meal of the month.
Aquaculture Non-Fish Species
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