Storage industrial vegetable oils
Oils of plant origin have been predominantly used for food-based applications. Plant oils not only represent a non-polluting renewable resource but also provide a wide diversity in fatty acids FAs composition with diverse applications. Besides being edible, they are now increasingly being used in industrial applications such as paints, lubricants, soaps, biofuels etc. In addition, plants can be engineered to produce fatty acids which are nutritionally beneficial to human health. The biochemical pathways producing storage oils in plants have been extensively characterized, but the factors regulating fatty acid synthesis and controlling total oil content in oilseed crops are still poorly understood.
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- Enhancing oxidative stability and shelf life of frying oils with antioxidants
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- Vegetable Oil: Nutritional and Industrial Perspective
- Vegetable oils and animal fats
- You need to update your browser
- Storage and handling of edible oils and fats
- Microencapsulated Vegetable Oil Powder
- Effect of Storage Packaging on Sunflower Oil Oxidative Stability
- Vegetable Oil: Nutritional and Industrial Perspective
- Used Cooking Oil
Enhancing oxidative stability and shelf life of frying oils with antioxidants
Vegetable oils , or vegetable fats , are oils extracted from seeds, or less often, from other parts of fruits. Like animal fats , vegetable fats are mixtures of triglycerides. Olive oil , palm oil , and rice bran oil are examples of fats from other parts of fruits. In common usage, vegetable oil may refer exclusively to vegetable fats which are liquid at room temperature. Oils extracted from plants have been used since ancient times and in many cultures.
As an example, in a 4,year-old kitchen unearthed in Indiana's Charlestown State Park , archaeologist Bob McCullough of Indiana University-Purdue University Fort Wayne found evidence that large slabs of rock were used to crush hickory nuts and the oil was then extracted with boiling water. In addition to use as food, fats and oils both vegetable and mineral have long been used as fuel, typically in lamps which were a principal source of illumination in ancient times.
Oils may have been used for lubrication, but there is no evidence for this. Vegetable oils were probably more valuable as food and lamp-oil; Babylonian mineral oil was known to be used as fuel, but there are no references to lubrication.
Pliny the Elder reported that fats such as lard were used to lubricate the axles of carts. Many vegetable oils are consumed directly, or indirectly as ingredients in food — a role that they share with some animal fats , including butter , ghee , lard , and schmaltz.
The oils serve a number of purposes in this role:. Oils for this purpose must have a high flash point. Such oils include the major cooking oils — soybean , rapeseed , canola , sunflower , safflower , peanut , cottonseed , etc. Tropical oils, such as coconut , palm , and rice bran oils, are particularly valued in Asian cultures for high-temperature cooking, because of their unusually high flash points.
Unsaturated vegetable oils can be transformed through partial or complete " hydrogenation " into oils of higher melting point. The hydrogenation process involves " sparging " the oil at high temperature and pressure with hydrogen in the presence of a catalyst , typically a powdered nickel compound.
As each carbon-carbon double-bond is chemically reduced to a single bond, two hydrogen atoms each form single bonds with the two carbon atoms. The elimination of double bonds by adding hydrogen atoms is called saturation ; as the degree of saturation increases, the oil progresses toward being fully hydrogenated. An oil may be hydrogenated to increase resistance to rancidity oxidation or to change its physical characteristics.
As the degree of saturation increases, the oil's viscosity and melting point increase. The use of hydrogenated oils in foods has never been completely satisfactory. Because the center arm of the triglyceride is shielded somewhat by the end fatty acids, most of the hydrogenation occurs on the end fatty acids, thus making the resulting fat more brittle. Partially hydrogenated oils and their trans fats have been linked to an increased risk of mortality from coronary heart disease ,  among other increased health risks.
In the US, the Standard of Identity for a product labeled as "vegetable oil margarine" specifies only canola, safflower, sunflower, corn, soybean, or peanut oil may be used.
Many vegetable oils are used to make soaps, skin products, candles, perfumes and other personal care and cosmetic products. Some oils are particularly suitable as drying oils , and are used in making paints and other wood treatment products. Dammar oil a mixture of linseed oil and dammar resin , for example, is used almost exclusively in treating the hulls of wooden boats.
Vegetable oils are increasingly being used in the electrical industry as insulators as vegetable oils are not toxic to the environment, biodegradable if spilled and have high flash and fire points. However, vegetable oils are less stable chemically, so they are generally used in systems where they are not exposed to oxygen , and they are more expensive than crude oil distillate.
Synthetic tetraesters, which are similar to vegetable oils but with four fatty acid chains compared to the normal three found in a natural ester, are manufactured by Fischer esterification. Tetraesters generally have high stability to oxidation and have found use as engine lubricants. One limiting factor in industrial uses of vegetable oils is that all such oils are susceptible to becoming rancid. Oils that are more stable, such as ben oil or mineral oil , are thus preferred for industrial uses.
Castor oil has numerous industrial uses, owing to the presence of hydroxyl group on the fatty acid. Castor oil is a precursor to Nylon Vegetable oil is used in the production of some pet foods. AAFCO  defines vegetable oil, in this context, as the product of vegetable origin obtained by extracting the oil from seeds or fruits which are processed for edible purposes.
Vegetable oils are also used to make biodiesel , which can be used like conventional diesel. Some vegetable oil blends are used in unmodified vehicles but straight vegetable oil , also known as pure plant oil, needs specially prepared vehicles which have a method of heating the oil to reduce its viscosity. The use of vegetable oils as alternative energy is growing and the availability of biodiesel around the world is increasing. The production process of vegetable oil involves the removal of oil from plant components, typically seeds.
This can be done via mechanical extraction using an oil mill or chemical extraction using a solvent. The extracted oil can then be purified and, if required, refined or chemically altered. Oils can be removed via mechanical extraction, termed "crushing" or "pressing. Oilseed presses are commonly used in developing countries, among people for whom other extraction methods would be prohibitively expensive; the ghani is primarily used in India.
The processing of vegetable oil in commercial applications is commonly done by chemical extraction, using solvent extracts, which produces higher yields and is quicker and less expensive. The most common solvent is petroleum-derived hexane. This technique is used for most of the "newer" industrial oils such as soybean and corn oils.
Supercritical carbon dioxide can be used as a non-toxic alternative to other solvents. Oils may be partially hydrogenated to produce various ingredient oils. Lightly hydrogenated oils have very similar physical characteristics to regular soy oil, but are more resistant to becoming rancid.
Hardening vegetable oil is done by raising a blend of vegetable oil and a catalyst in near-vacuum to very high temperatures, and introducing hydrogen. This causes the carbon atoms of the oil to break double-bonds with other carbons, each carbon forming a new single-bond with a hydrogen atom.
Adding these hydrogen atoms to the oil makes it more solid, raises the smoke point , and makes the oil more stable. Hydrogenated vegetable oils differ in two major ways from other oils which are equally saturated. During hydrogenation, it is easier for hydrogen to come into contact with the fatty acids on the end of the triglyceride, and less easy for them to come into contact with the center fatty acid.
This makes the resulting fat more brittle than a tropical oil; soy margarines are less "spreadable". Hydrogenated oils, especially partially hydrogenated oils with their higher amounts of trans fatty acids, are increasingly thought to be unhealthy. The water immediately is converted to steam, which bubbles through the oil, carrying with it any chemicals which are water-soluble.
The steam sparging removes impurities that can impart unwanted flavors and odors to the oil. Deodorization is key to the manufacture of vegetable oils. Nearly all soybean, corn, and canola oils found on supermarket shelves go through a deodorization stage that removes trace amounts of odors and flavors, and lightens the color of the oil.
People can breathe in vegetable oil mist in the workplace. The U. Typical productivity of some oil crops, measured in tons t of oil produced per hectare ha of land per year yr. Oil palm is by far the highest yielding crop, capable of producing about 4 tons of palm oil per hectare per year.
The following triglyceride vegetable oils account for almost all worldwide production, by volume. All are used as both cooking oils and as SVO or to make biodiesel. Note that these figures include industrial and animal feed use.
The majority of European rapeseed oil production is used to produce biodiesel, or used directly as fuel in diesel cars which may require modification to heat the oil to reduce its higher viscosity. The suitability of the fuel should come as little surprise, as Rudolf Diesel originally designed his engine to run on peanut oil. Such oils have been part of human culture for millennia. Poppy seed, rapeseed, linseed, almond oil, sesame seed, safflower, and cottonseed were used since at least the bronze age throughout the Middle East and Central Asia.
Ginning mills were happy to have someone haul away the cotton seeds. The extracted oil was refined and partially hydrogenated to give a solid at room temperature and thus mimic natural lard, and can it under nitrogen gas.
Soybeans were an exciting new crop from China in the s. Soy was protein-rich, and the medium viscosity oil was high in polyunsaturates. Henry Ford established a soybean research laboratory, developed soybean plastics and a soy-based synthetic wool, and built a car "almost entirely" out of soybeans.
In the mids, Canadian researchers developed a low-erucic-acid rapeseed cultivar. Because the word "rape" was not considered optimal for marketing, they coined the name "canola" from "Canada Oil low acid". Food and Drug Administration approved use of the canola name in January ,  and U. Canola oil is lower in saturated fats, and higher in monounsaturates. Canola is very thin unlike corn oil and flavorless unlike olive oil , so it largely succeeds by displacing soy oil, just as soy oil largely succeeded by displacing cottonseed oil.
A large quantity of used vegetable oil is produced and recycled, mainly from industrial deep fryers in potato processing plants, snack food factories and fast food restaurants. Recycled oil has numerous uses, including use as a direct fuel , as well as in the production of biodiesel , soap, animal feed , pet food, detergent, and cosmetics.
It is traded as the commodity, yellow grease. Since , an increasing number of European Union countries have prohibited the inclusion of recycled vegetable oil from catering in animal feed. Used cooking oils from food manufacturing, however, as well as fresh or unused cooking oil, continue to be used in animal feed.
Due to their susceptibility to oxidation from the exposure to oxygen, heat and light, resulting in the formation of oxidation products, such as peroxides and hydroperoxides , plant oils rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids have a limited shelf-life.
In Canada, palm oil is one of five vegetable oils, along with palm kernel oil, coconut oil, peanut oil, and cocoa butter, which must be specifically named in the list of ingredients for a food product. From December , all food products produced in the European Union were legally required to indicate the specific vegetable oil used in their manufacture, following the introduction of the Food Information to Consumers Regulation.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Vegetable oil disambiguation. Olive oil. See also: Cooking oil. Main article: Vegetable oil fuel. For a more comprehensive list, see List of vegetable oils. Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry.
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All oils are fats, but not all fats are oils. They are very similar to each other in their chemical makeup, but what makes one an oil and another a fat is the percentage of hydrogen saturation in the fatty acids of which they are composed. For dietary and nutrition purposes fats are generally classified as saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated, which is a further refinement of the amount of saturation of the particular compositions of fatty acids in the fats.
Vegetable oil has been increasingly popular among consumption oils as it provides several health benefits such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antivasoconstrictive, antiarrhythmic, antithrombotic, antimicrobial, antihypertension, antiaging, etc. Several applications of vegetable oils in foods, cosmetics, and pharmaceutical industries have been widely researched as it is made from natural products with a safe and reliable process. However, oxidative deterioration and stabilization of vegetable oil provide short shelf life storage with poor consumer acceptance. Thus, this chapter is aimed to give an overview of stabilization of vegetable oils using microencapsulation techniques mostly focusing on emulsion preparation using multilayer emulsion followed by a spray drying technique to obtain vegetable oil powder.
Vegetable Oil: Nutritional and Industrial Perspective
Vegetable oils , or vegetable fats , are oils extracted from seeds, or less often, from other parts of fruits. Like animal fats , vegetable fats are mixtures of triglycerides. Olive oil , palm oil , and rice bran oil are examples of fats from other parts of fruits. In common usage, vegetable oil may refer exclusively to vegetable fats which are liquid at room temperature. Oils extracted from plants have been used since ancient times and in many cultures. As an example, in a 4,year-old kitchen unearthed in Indiana's Charlestown State Park , archaeologist Bob McCullough of Indiana University-Purdue University Fort Wayne found evidence that large slabs of rock were used to crush hickory nuts and the oil was then extracted with boiling water. In addition to use as food, fats and oils both vegetable and mineral have long been used as fuel, typically in lamps which were a principal source of illumination in ancient times. Oils may have been used for lubrication, but there is no evidence for this. Vegetable oils were probably more valuable as food and lamp-oil; Babylonian mineral oil was known to be used as fuel, but there are no references to lubrication.
Vegetable oils and animal fats
UCOs are oils and fats that have been used for cooking or frying in the food processing industry, restaurants, fast foods and at consumer level, in households. The European Waste Catalogue EWC classifies them as Municipal Wastes household waste and similar commercial, industrial and institutional wastes including separately collected fractions, under the code 20 01 25 edible oils and fats. Extrapolated to the total EU population of around million, this means that 4 Mton of UCO is the annually capacity — seven times more than the current collected amount. An FFA content above 3.
Various types of edible oils are available for use in frying applications. These products range from plant oils, such as soybean, canola, sunflower, safflower, cottonseed, corn, groundnut, peanut, palm, palm kernel, coconut, and olive oils to animal fats, such as lard and tallow. Mid-oleic and high-oleic vegetable oils are exceptionally suitable for frying applications. These specialty oils can be used directly or blended with more readily available and cost-effective conventional vegetable oils.
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Received: 8 October Accepted: 28 November The presence of undesirable compounds in vegetable and animal oils and fats may have many different origins. Although the potential toxicity of most of these undesirable compounds is real, poisoning risks are rather limited due to the efficient elimination during oil-refining steps, careful conditioning, choice of efficient packaging and industrial quality control management. However the research of contaminants is part of multiple controls conducted by fat and oil industry to verify the conformity of products placed on the market in relation to regulations such as the European commission regulation EC No.SEE VIDEO BY TOPIC: Industrial Seed Oils (aka: "vegetable oils")
The sunflower is one of the four most important oilseed crops in the world and the nutritional quality of its edible oil ranks among the best vegetable oils in cultivation. Two samples of sunflower oil were evaluated for physicochemical properties to compare between different types of storage in order to minimize oil deterioration and prolong its shelf-life. One of which is sunflower variety PAN that was recently grown in Gezira Agricultural Research Corporation to be tested for yield productivity. The second sample was commercial oil purchased from the local market. Both seeds of the variety, as a whole and its extracted oil was stored and compared.
Storage and handling of edible oils and fats
March , Cite as. At the present time, vegetable oils are the source of most of the visible fat in the U. They are used as salad and cooking oils, in salad dressing, margarine and shortening. Processing methods include extraction, refining, hydrogenation and interesterification. Processing, storage and use are related to changes in composition, nutritive value and physical characteristics of vegetable oils. Refining removes undesirable minor components present in crude oils.
For the storage, handling and transhipment of animal and vegetable oils and fats, the port of Rotterdam is an important logistics hub in Europe. Palm oil and coconut oil arrive from Asia, soybean oil and sunflower oil from South America and rapeseed oil from Germany and Canada. The edible oils and fats are refined in Rotterdam or go straight to the food and oleochemical industry in Europe.
Microencapsulated Vegetable Oil Powder
Как же вам удается это делать. - спросила Николь. - Передовая технология, - ответил Орел.
Effect of Storage Packaging on Sunflower Oil Oxidative Stability
Пойди, поцелуй папочку. Помедлив минутку, девочка бросилась через комнату к отцу. Роберт поднял ее на руки и прижал к. - Как здорово видеть тебя снова, Никки, - промолвил .
Но сам я никак не могу этого установить.
Легкого успокоительного хватило. Патрик и Кеплер были с ней очень ласковы. Я думаю, что этой выходкой Наи больше всего перепугала. - Итак, она действительно набросилась на Орла. - поинтересовалась Эпонина у Николь.
Vegetable Oil: Nutritional and Industrial Perspective
Как всегда, мягким и ровным голосом спросила Наи. - Да, - ответила Николь. - Однако я не совсем уверена в своей правоте. Оба так тревожатся за своих женщин. Понятно, что им необходимо что-нибудь предпринять, хочется отыскать.
вопреки логике. - Что, по-твоему, их ожидает.
Used Cooking Oil
"Избавившись от заряда, _песчаные доллары_ тускнеют, - подумал он, - но относительно скоро вновь начинают светиться". - Если предположить, что сила свечения характеризует запасенный заряд, - проговорил Ричард, вдруг подумав, не проходит ли он какой-либо тест, - эффективность можно повысить, увеличивая частоту кормления.
- Именно так, - отозвалась главная октопаучиха.