Fabrication commercial emulsifiers
Download the PDF version. Emulsions are used in a wide variety of industrial and pharmaceutical products including ocular, topical, mucosal, intravenous, intramuscular, and oral products. Even with their widespread use, they remain an underutilized drug product format. Emulsions also contain emulsifiers — materials that concentrate at the phase interface to lower the interfacial tension.VIDEO ON THE TOPIC: How Vacuum Homogenizing Emulsifiers Work 3D VIDEO Como emulsionantes vacío homogeneización trabajo
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Emulsifiers in the Dairy Industry
The procedures used in the production of frankfurters are typical for all fine cut emulsion-type sausages. Emulsion-type sausages originated in Europe, where they were mainly produced from hot prerigor meat. Emulsion-type sausages may be subdivided into small diameter and large diameter sausages.
Frankfurters and wieners are examples of small diameter emulsion-type sausages. Originally, wieners were stuffed in sheep casings and frankfurters in pig casings.
Bologna or mortadella are similar products but filled into large casings beef middles. Emulsion-type sausages are basically made from a mixture of finely chopped meat, fatty tissue and water or ice. They are usually smoked. The formulation for this type of sausage not only contains meats of high water binding properties but also includes meats characterized by intermediate binding properties. In the lower grade type sausage, filler meats such as weasands or giblets, or other meats of inferior binding capacity tongues, snouts, lips etc.
Emulsion-type sausages do not normally contain typical variety meats. Meat formulae of these products vary widely and surprising differences are often noticed. The main constituents are beef and pork. Wieners traditionally contain some veal. All beef products are made with a mixture of beef and veal, or only of beef.
Non-fat milk powder, cereals, starch and other nonmeat ingredients may also be used to the extent regulated by local or state standards. Generally speaking, emulsion-type sausages are technologically mainly dependent upon the state of beef proteins and their water binding and emulsifying properties. Although they often contain pork, water binding and emulsifying properties of this type of meat are utilized to a lower extent due to its usual high fat content.
Emulsion-type sausages are ready-to-serve products. Small diameter sausages are usually eaten after immersion in hot water for several minutes; only rarely, they are grilled prior to consumption.
The meat ingredients must be absolutely fresh and derived from veterinary-inspected animals. Both frozen or chilled beef is used successfully.
The lean meat should be well trimmed to a level of less than 10 percent of nontrimmable fat and connective tissue, the trimmed lean meat thus being practically free from sinews and gristle and entirely free from ligament, bone and cartilage particles.
The selection of meat should be such that most meat ingredients are of a good water binding capacity. Except for the binder and filler meats mentioned earlier, pork and veal rinds are also employed by some sausage makers in formulating low cost frankfurter products. Rinds provide an economical source of protein and may be employed in varying proportions depending on the legally permitted amount for that product. Raw rinds may be used but because of their high bacterial count they are normally heat processed in order to arrive at a count suitable for inclusion into comminuted products.
The fresh rinds have to be stored under refrigeration. Precuring of meat in pieces is no longer practised by meat processors. This operation is replaced today by adding curing salts at the time of chopping. The grinding of meat and fat ingredients has largely been practised for many years and is still done today mainly by small processors, particularly in the manufacture of speciality products.
The fist-size chunks of lean meats are first grinded by running them through a 3—6 mm grinder plate while fat trimmings or fatty tissues are reduced through a 6—9 mm grinder plate. The tripe and the filler meats are preferably grinded twice: first, through a 3—4 mm and then through a finer grinder plate. Grinding through a coarser plate increases the capacity of the machine and heats the meat less.
Particularly for bull meat, grinding through a finer plate is considered to give a product with better binding and emulsifying properties. The curing salts are then added and the batch is mixed in a mechanical mixer to ensure that the ingredients are well dispersed. In many emulsion-type sausage procedures, a precomminution in the grinder is followed by chopping because it contributes to a better and more uniform size reduction in the cutter.
In many cases comminution is not too finely done. However, in small-scale sausage manufacture, the meat is still often previously ground and then transferred to the cutter for chopping. During the chopping process the meat is cut to a very fine particle size which encourages protein extraction. Proteins have the function of binding the water surrounding fat droplets and keeping them dispersed.
Preparation of sausage emulsion is basically in two phases. First, the lean meat, either previously ground or not, is placed in the cutter and chopped. Increased salt concentration in the water phase of the mixture will result in a greater extraction of the meat protein and is of paramount importance in forming a stable emulsion.
The extraction of protein is most effective when the meat is near freezing point but the emulsification process is adversely affected by low temperature. Since protein extraction is increased with the time of chopping, the lean meat should be chopped for a sufficient period, normally not less than 6—8 minutes.
After this time, fat trimmings, pork jowls and other fat meats, then sweeteners, spices and the remaining two-thirds of the total water are added. In the course of this time, all water is taken up by the disintegrated and homogenized meats. If sodium ascorbate is used, it is also added toward the very end of the chopping operation. D Biedenkopf-Wallau, W. Preparation procedures which provide for one-phase simultaneous meat and fat cutter treatment are increasingly popular.
The polyphosphate and curing ingredients should be dissolved in a small quantity of warm water before being added early enough to enable the effect of polyphosphate on actomyosin and the action of salt and nitrite on water binding properties and colour of meat. With the higher salt content and the longer cutter process, more salt soluble proteins are extracted and the binding quality of the finished product is improved.
If hot boned meat is used, the addition of phosphates is not necessary. Two types of emulsion-type meat products are generally produced.
One type includes the all-meat products and the other type contains non-meat binders. Frankfurters and other emulsion-type sausages of higher quality are produced with a very low concentration of nonmeat additives. When nonmeat binders are not used, the natural proteins are relied upon to impart a suitable texture to the comminuted product. It should be emphasized that consideration must be given to the amount of lean meat to provide the protein: when the formulation contains a large amount of variety meats and other low bind materials, maximum extraction of skeletal lean meat is necessary.
There are many variables and parameters that influence the formation of meat emulsions. Moisture and fat binding depend chiefly on the condition of the raw materials and on the comminution and mixing process in the cutter, the decisive factor in the success of frankfurter manufacture being the heating of the mixture during grinding in the cutter.
The emulsifying capacity of salt soluble proteins is an important attribute of meats to be used in sausage preparation. This property is not static since several factors, such as pH, protein concentration, ionic strength and nature of neutral salts have been found to have a profound effect on the emulsifying capacity of proteins.
Some of these factors are, in turn, affected by postmortem handling and processing conditions. Rapid postmortem glycolysis results in a reduction in myofibrillar and sarcoplasmic protein extractability. Use of off-condition meats with a high bacterial load also can seriously reduce emulsification. Adequate mechanical comminution of the lean meat is an essential factor in the binding of an emulsion but it can be a disadvantage to comminute too intensively because the comminuted connective tissue could cause structural deterioration of the product.
Furthermore, if the finished sausage mixture is comminuted too finely after adding the fat, this regularly results in faulty products. On the other hand, if the emulsion is overchopped, the fat globules become too small having a very large surface area so that there may not be enough protein to emulsify all the fat. Such emulsion breaks down and yields a poor product. The cutter time is preferably determined by an end-point temperature.
These high temperatures cause coagulation or denaturation of proteins. Frequently, sausage manufacturers experience greater difficulty in emulsion destabilization with all-beef or mutton frankfurters, the main reason being that beef and mutton fats melt at a higher temperature than pork fat.
To form a stable emulsion, these fats must be chopped to a somewhat higher temperature, especially if the raw materials are derived from older buffalo or zebu cattle.
This is because the meats of older animals have less salt soluble proteins but their emulsifying capacity is more efficient. To produce a finer texture, the mixture can be passed through an emulsifying mill. As this operation is accompanied by a rise in temperature of 2. On the contrary, an increased temperature can reduce the stability of the emulsion.
During or following cutter operations, the emulsion may also be vacuumized; the removal of air contributes to the stabilization of cured colour and enables better stuffing. Emulsion destabilization is rare in a routine meat packing operation. Nevertheless, emulsion destabilization still remains one of the concerns in the meat processing industry, especially when new sources of protein and ingredients are incorporated or when inevitable changes in the processing system occur.
Deboning and processing of hot meat largely avoid weight loss from evaporation which occurs in chilled meats. There are, however, possible disadvantages with hot deboning. The sticky nature of hot meat may increase bacterial contamination but this belief has not been fully confirmed.
On the coutrary, there is some evidence that viable counts of prerigor ground meats are similar to those of postrigor meat; their shelf-lives are also comparable both at the time of fabrication and after storage. Nevertheless, it should be emphasized that higher temperatures associated with possible delay in processing may have considerable adverse effects on the product's microbiological quality and this fact requires great attention.
Immediate and well-organized processing operations and a high level of hygiene and cleanliness of machines and tools help to avoid this problem. In any case, if the emulsion is prepared three or more hours after animal slaughter, the original meat phosphates can be exhausted and an actomyosin complex formed. The amount of extracted myosin may then be highly reduced and an imbalance of myosin to water may result. The reduced amount of protein solution cannot bind all the water and coat of the fat globules and the finished product will be shrunken and covered with grease.
Overchopping or a low content of lean meat usually unites in producing this effect. If prerigor meat processing is accepted, chillers no longer have to be able to cool whole beef sides and can be replaced by relatively small purpose-built units which provide quicker and more economical chilling of other meats. Preblending of ground prerigor beef with ice and curing salts 10 to 20 hours before further processing has successfully been practised for many years.
A modification of this method includes the direct addition of pork components and spices in the emulsified meat mass followed by stuffing, with a rest period in the chiller for not more than 8 to 10 hours to cure before smoking. This practice is no longer fully justified since, with the use of ascorbate, the heat of the smokehouse can be relied upon to develop curing.
A sausage emulsion may be considered as an emulsion in which fat is dispersed more or less uniformly in a continuous highly hydrated protein matrix.
The fat droplets do not necessarily remain globular and they may coalesce with each other, but they cannot escape from the matrix to produce a single phase. The desirable properties of emulsion-type sausages are largely determined by the stability of moisture and fat binding in the highly hydrated gelable protein matrix.
Fat is an essential component of formulated meat products because it improves tenderness, juiciness and overall palatability.
Emulsifiers for Explosives
Emulsifier is an organic compound that encompasses in the same molecule two dissimilar structural groups e. It is the ingredient which binds the water and oil in a cream or lotion together permanently. The composition, solubility properties, location and relative sizes of these dissimilar groups in relation to the overall molecular configuration determine the surface activity of a compound. Emulsifiers are classified on the basis of their hydrophilic or solubilizing groups in to four categories anionic, non ionic, cationics and amphoterics. An emulsion is an ideal formulation for the administration.
In , a self-appointed group of experts specialized in commercial explosives, and drilling and blasting processes set up Nitro Sibir, a research and production commercial company. Nitro Nobel, a then well-known world leading producer of emulsion explosives was chosen as a foreign partner. Over the past period Nitro Sibir has gained the extensive practical experience in the development of explosives, equipment for their application, and explosives fabrication facilities, as well as in drilling and blasting processes. For the first time in the history the Russian explosives producer got an access to the European market of explosives after its products having passed the necessary certification procedures and obtained the certificate of compliance with EU standards. In , the total output of the company is expected to exceed , tonnes.
The procedures used in the production of frankfurters are typical for all fine cut emulsion-type sausages. Emulsion-type sausages originated in Europe, where they were mainly produced from hot prerigor meat. Emulsion-type sausages may be subdivided into small diameter and large diameter sausages. Frankfurters and wieners are examples of small diameter emulsion-type sausages. Originally, wieners were stuffed in sheep casings and frankfurters in pig casings. Bologna or mortadella are similar products but filled into large casings beef middles. Emulsion-type sausages are basically made from a mixture of finely chopped meat, fatty tissue and water or ice. They are usually smoked. The formulation for this type of sausage not only contains meats of high water binding properties but also includes meats characterized by intermediate binding properties.
Emulsions and Emulsifications
Blast success requires reliable emulsions with long-term stability against thermal and mechanical stress as well as constant cap sensitivity. You need the power of a global company that can deliver what you need, where you need it and when you need it. Clariant has decades of experience in modern emulsifier technology and an innovative approach to meeting the challenges many face in the blasting industry. We have proven ourselves to be a reliable, forward-thinking partner by producing unique, high quality products and delivering them, on time, around the world.
We develop agents for use in hygienic products such as shampoo, body lotion, bubble bath, and shower gel. We also manufacture heavy duty cleaners that are mild and environmentally responsible. Some examples of our surfactant and specialty products are amines, amine oxides, fatty acid esters, performance concentrates, soaps, betaines, opacifiers, and sunscreen active ingredients.
Emulsions: making oil and water mix
These examples represent emulsions, which are stable mixtures of tiny droplets of one immiscible fluid within another, made possible by chemicals called emulsifiers. In both cases, emulsifiers are needed to prevent the suspended droplets from coalescing and breaking the emulsion. Anybody who has made a simple oil-and-vinegar salad dressing knows that, with enough shaking or whisking, one can make a temporary emulsion. However, in the absence of emulsifiers, this unstable emulsion breaks down within minutes, and the oil forms a layer on top of the vinegar.
Electronic address: dengyihui syphu. Electronic address: mcclements foodsci. The fabrication of concentrated oil-in-water emulsions is useful for reducing storage and transportation costs, as well as for providing desirable textural, optical, stability, and release characteristics in commercial products. The mean droplet diameter and polydispersity decreased with increasing hydrophilic and hydrophobic biosurfactant concentration. Surface potential measurements indicated that interfacial composition depended on the amount of hydrophilic and hydrophobic biosurfactant present. The inclusion of hydrophobic emulsifier in the oil phase and hydrophilic emulsifier in the aqueous phase prior to homogenization, led to the formation of smaller oil droplets than using the hydrophilic emulsifier alone.
Influence of Emulsifiers on Physical Properties of Oil/Water Emulsions Containing Ostrich Oil
Emulsifiers are surface-active ingredients that stabilize non-homogeneous mixes, like water and oil. To stop this, emulsifiers are used as an intermediary for water and oil. Various emulsifiers are used in foods and bakery formulas. Examples of stabilized emulsions include:. Historically, food systems have relied on egg yolks and soy phospholipids as emulsifiers. Commercial emulsifiers were introduced to the food industry in the s in the form of mono- and di-glycerides.
Springer Shop Bolero Ozon. Douglas M. Considine , Glenn D. Advancements in science and engineering have occurred at a surprisingly rapid pace since the release of the seventh edition of this encyclopedia.
Polyglycerol polyricinoleate PGPR , E , is an emulsifier made from glycerol and fatty acids usually from castor bean , but also from soybean oil. In chocolate , compound chocolate and similar coatings, PGPR is mainly used with another substance like lecithin  to reduce viscosity. It is used at low levels below 0. PGPR is a yellowish, viscous liquid, and is strongly lipophilic : it is soluble in fats and oils and insoluble in water and ethanol.
Emulsifiers shall be clean and wholesome and consist of one or more of those Emulsifying agents shall be those permitted by the Food and Drug Administration for the specific pasteurized process cheese product, and shall be free from extraneous material The effect of adding an emulsifier to an artificial diet for pales weevil larvae was studied. The hypothesis was that fat-soluble ingredients would be better dispersed in the aqueous media, possibly leading to improved larval growth.
The effects of emulsifiers on the physical properties of emulsions containing ostrich oil were investigated. The smallest droplet size of 5. In addition, the viscosity of these emulsions increased with increases in the concentrations of both emulsifiers. Request Permissions. Ponphaiboon, S.
Account Options Anmelden. Meine Mediathek Hilfe Erweiterte Buchsuche. CRC Press Amazon. Michael Eskin , David S. Food Shelf Life Stability provides a unique approach to understanding this critical subject by examining physical, chemical, and biochemical factors affecting food quality. The first section emphasizes the effects that water activity, glass transition, and plasticization have on temperature, water content, and time-dependant phenomena affecting the shelf life of low and intermediate moisture foods. The remaining chapters discuss how mechanical handling and temperature, irradiation, and packaging all influence shelf life.
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