Industry heat insulating and sound insulating materials
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- Thermal insulation
- Sound insulation for generators, compressors, and motors
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- 5 Most Common Thermal Insulation Materials
- Thermal Insulation
- Thermal and Acoustic Building Insulations from Agricultural Wastes
- Thermal Acoustic Insulation for Reducing Heat and Sound (Part 1)
The first publication on a post-war house in Brussels in which insulation was used appeared in La Maison. Insulation against heat and sound transfer became a popular theme in the specialized architectural and technical literature in Belgium. Synthetic insulation materials revolutionized the insulation market.
It was put on the market in Following the success of Dow and BASF, Eternit and Isoverbel extended their product range from mineral insulation to synthetic insulation in the late s..
Bouwen en Wonen published an article on the thermal insulation of houses as an important source of cost reductions. Styropor was applied on a very wide scale, with tens of millions of square meter of Styropor applied in The Association for Thermal and Acoustical Insulation was founded.
The BBRI published several technical reports on insulation during the s, for instance on the insulation of flat roofs in First oil crisis The General specifications for private buildings devoted 25 pages to thermal insulation. In , in the very first volume of La Maison , two companies promoted the use of insulation materials they manufactured: Isoverbel and Etablissements Ernest Lenders. Remarkably, at this early date, Isoverbel and Etablissements Ernest Lenders sold products for heat insulation as well as for sound insulation.
Although heat and sound transfer through diverse means and according to different rules, thermal and acoustical insulation indeed were often dealt with together.
They were often manufactured from the same raw materials vegetal, mineral, or synthetic. Insulation, against both heat and sound transfer, became a popular theme in the specialized architectural and technical literature in Belgium in the early s. In the late s and the early s, consulting agencies arose to conduct full thermal studies, which helped increase the use of thermal insulation in everyday building practice.
At the same time that architectural trends resulted in ever lighter and less inert structures, there was a growing awareness of heat losses and associated problems such as waste of fuel; oversized heating installations; and high heating expenses. The different types of insulation materials and products can be classified in various ways, for instance, by their structure e.
The latter characteristic distinguishes among vegetal, mineral, or synthetic insulation materials. The most popular vegetal insulation material was wood whether or not mixed with cement or other products , and after this, cork and flax. The most commonly used mineral insulation materials were glass fibres, rock wool, asbestos, cellular glass, and expanded perlite and vermiculite. Synthetic insulation materials, such as expanded polystyrene PS and polyurethane foam PUR , revolutionized the insulation market after they appeared in the s.
As an insulation material, wood was mostly used to create different types of fibreboards. Vegetal fibres were first used to make construction boards at the beginning of the 20th century in America, after which wood and other vegetal fibres began to be used intensively in construction materials throughout the world.
Most of these boards and panels were available in large dimensions, and between 10 and 30 mm thick. But plain wood-fibre panels had drawbacks: they were sensitive to heat and to moisture; they bent and expanded; and they roted and reacted to chemical agents; and thereby lost their original aspects. They were often used as permanent moulds for in situ concrete walls or floors. Another type of wood panel was produced with small, calibrated wood particles and synthetic resins that were based, for example, on melamine or urea-formaldehyde.
The mixture was formed into panels by pressing it between two plates or by extrusion. These panels were more stable than ordinary wood-fibre panels, but their resistance to moisture and fire was still not ideal. Wood-fibre and wood-particle panels could be sawn, drilled, and nailed like natural wood products.
Cork also was relatively popular for insulating against heat, cold, sound, and vibrations. Natural cork is light, compressible, elastic, impermeable to water and gas, rot-proof, and fire resistant. Its insulating characteristics are due to the fact that cork encloses numerous air bubbles within its cellular structure. Yet, as it is rather heterogeneous, it is difficult to use in its natural state on a wide scale. Therefore, agglomerated cork, a manufactured product, was developed: cork granules were put under pressure in an autoclave, where they expanded and agglomerated at high temperatures.
Agglomerated cork was produced in the form of boards, tiles, blocks, etc. Unlike most vegetal materials, mineral insulation materials typically were fire resistant, non-hygroscopic, and rot-proof. These three characteristics made them well suited for insulation, especially to fill cavities and other places that were difficult to inspect. Glass fibres were a very popular mineral insulation material, which came in the form of sheets, semi- rigid boards, and blankets.
They were fire resistant, non-hygroscopic, and elastic. A particular type of glass insulation, based on molten glass instead of glass fibres, was cellular glass, made exclusively by Foamglas. The molten glass was expanded so that it increased to 15 times its original volume.
Thanks to the thousands of small cavities inside — which did not communicate with each other — cellular glass insulation was impervious to water, damp, acid, and lye. Its thermal conductivity was approximately 0. Also, it was rot-proof: being inorganic and having zero capillarity, it was not affected by fungi. As it was always dry, it retained its original qualities, and it did not weather.
Foamglas was produced in hard blocks. These were approximately 45 cm wide and The blocks were easy to transport, cut, and handle. They would be applied to flat roofs and parking decks directly on concrete slabs or on roof sheathings, in combination with the common bitumen systems and to sloping roofs. It was also used as the inner core of a curtain wall. Because of its high resistance to bending, it was used beneath floors and hollow core slabs, in foundations, and under window sills.
Rock wool had roughly the same physical properties as glass fibres. Rock wool was produced by the Johns Manville Corporation among others. Once very popular for insulation but now no longer used, asbestos is a natural mineral fibre obtained by grinding a crystallized volcanic, silicate rock. During the post-war period, asbestos was praised for its physical properties: good sound dampening, low thermal conductivity of 0. Yet the general acceptance of the health risks related to working with asbestos led to a ban of asbestos in Belgium in Asbestos was formed into prefabricated elements panels, pipes, roofing tiles, etc.
Perlite is an amorphous aggregate of volcanic glass with a relatively high water content. In the factory, the aggregate was crushed and put into an oven: the water vaporised, causing an important expansion 12 to 20 times its initial volume and creating closed cells.
It was very light, fire resistant, resistant to acid, chemically inert, rot-proof, non-hygroscopic, and resistant to very high and very low temperatures. Expanded perlite was used for thermal and acoustical insulation; to fill voids and cavities with small, medium, or large calibres ; and as an additive in concrete, mortars, screeds, and plasters to enhance thermal capacity.
Both companies promoted perlite as an aggregate for insulating concrete and insulating renders. For renderings, Slaets recommended applying at least two layers of approximately 7 mm, composed of one part cement or plaster to four parts of perlite. Vermiculite is a silicate mineral or mica with aluminium and magnesium elements , which is similar to perlite.
In addition to its high insulating capacity, expanded vermiculite was fireproof, insensible to acid, and non-hygroscopic. Like perlite, it could be used both in bulk and in combination with a binding agent concrete, cement, chalk.
Mixed with plaster, expanded vermiculite could also be used for insulating coatings or stucco. Compared to vegetal and mineral products, synthetic insulation products are relatively young. Many vegetal and mineral materials were used already before the Second World War: asbestos was already used during the Industrial Revolution, mineral wool insulation was commercialized in the 19th century, and in the s, the European market for wood fibre board flourished.
Not until shortly before and after the Second World War did synthetic insulation materials emerge, and they quickly gained acceptance. They originated in developments in the modern chemical and petroleum industries, mainly in Germany, the U. In , 50, tons of plastics and synthetic materials were produced worldwide, a quantity that rapidly increased to 1,, tons in Bakelite , urea-formaldehyde, and polyester foam.
In addition, they were generally inert, and resistant to chemical and biological substances. They were highly flammable. Usually they were covered or used in cavities. Thereafter, the French company Saint-Gobain and the American Dow Chemical Company developed new ways to process expanded polystyrene, leading to similar products, each with a specific trademark. Expanded polystyrene was manufactured as a white, cellular foam.
It was inert and did not absorb or react to water, cement, plaster, or bitumen, for example, but certain types of oils and solvents made the material unstable. It was placed in cavities or behind fire-resistant materials, because of its highly flammable nature. Polyurethane foam, the second main type of synthetic insulation, was developed in Germany in It was manufactured as soft, semi-soft, and rigid foam, and was used mainly in furniture, the automobile industry, and construction, respectively.
It resisted chemicals and biological substances, but did absorb water. Polyurethane foam was produced in prefabricated blocks and plates between 2 and 6 cm thick , but could also be projected or injected on site. Like expanded polystyrene, polyurethane foam was highly flammable. The plates were therefore covered with sheets of, for example, kraft paper, bitumen, plaster board, or aluminium foil, or placed inside a cavity wall. Other main applications were as insulation in flat roofs, beneath the waterproofing, and because of its resistance to compression as floor insulation, beneath wooden joists or on top of the joists, under a cement covering layer.
The dimensions for commonly used polyurethane-plaster panels were 1. These panels could be glued or mechanically fixed to the walls. Given the diverse kinds and forms of insulation, many brands were available in the Belgian market. A number of these were Belgian produced in Belgium by a Belgian company , while others were imported by large international companies, or produced in Belgium by local divisions of big multinationals.
The synthetic insulation materials, in particular, were produced by international companies. Sparked by the introduction of synthetics, a number of Belgian companies that already produced mineral and vegetal insulation materials expanded their activities.
One of the main Belgian insulation companies was Isoverbel. Short for Isolation de verre belge, Isoverbel produced thermal and acoustical insulation materials made from glass glass wool, glass silk, and glass fibres. It formed in from the insulation department of the glass company Saint-Gobain. Their insulation products were rot-proof, fire resistant, and unaffected by moisture and micro-organisms, and they retained their insulating properties permanently.
Sound insulation for generators, compressors, and motors
SGM Techno recommends a range of materials and manufactures for isolation and sound absorption, used for the isolation of generators, compressors, motors, airblowers, turbines, and other equipment. Suggested materials reduce the noise from the operation of motors and other equipment. These materials are suited for equipment of any size and purpose, and include different combinations of insulation and absorbing materials. The suggested materials are also heat sealing and hydroisolating materials. Special isolators and absorbers for the bonnets and insulating covers of the equipment are used.
Handbook of Ecomaterials pp Cite as. Global population growth and economic growth increase the demand for more buildings and thus more construction materials. Increases in production of construction materials lead also to greenhouse gas emission rise and depletion of natural resources. One of these materials is insulation, which increasingly plays a vital role in the energy performance of buildings and in the process reducing negative environmental impacts of the built environment. A number of studies have focused on finding substitutions for petrochemicals as a source for manufacturing building insulation.
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To browse Academia. Skip to main content. You're using an out-of-date version of Internet Explorer. Log In Sign Up. Insulation materials for the building sector: a review and comparative analysis Francesco D'Alessandro. Francesco Asdrubali. Samuele Schiavoni.
5 Most Common Thermal Insulation Materials
There are plenty of cheap and common insulation materials available on the market today. Many of these have been around for quite some time. Each of these insulation materials have their own ups and downs. As a result, when deciding which insulation material you should use, you should be sure to be aware of which material would work the best in your situation.
Manufactured in-house to meet your quality and production requirements fast and cost-effectively. Commercial insulation types are compared in regard to thermal performance, acoustic control, fire protection, health impact, moisture, mold, and sustainability. Re ective aluminum foil on each side of a 5mm closed-cell.
Refine your search. Manufactured by thermo-bonded layers of high tenacity polyester fibers, it offers the ultimate Find out about this company. Our fields of expertise include a broad package of comprehensive
The first publication on a post-war house in Brussels in which insulation was used appeared in La Maison. Insulation against heat and sound transfer became a popular theme in the specialized architectural and technical literature in Belgium. Synthetic insulation materials revolutionized the insulation market. It was put on the market in Following the success of Dow and BASF, Eternit and Isoverbel extended their product range from mineral insulation to synthetic insulation in the late s..
Thermal and Acoustic Building Insulations from Agricultural Wastes
It is important to know how heat is transferred in fish holds. Heat is transferred by conduction, convection or radiation, or by a combination of all three. Heat always moves from warmer to colder areas; it seeks a balance. If the interior of an insulated fish hold is colder than the outside air, the fish hold draws heat from the outside. The greater the temperature difference, the faster the heat flows to the colder area. By this mode, heat energy is passed through a solid, liquid or gas from molecule to molecule in a material. In order for the heat to be conducted, there should be physical contact between particles and some temperature difference. Therefore, thermal conductivity is the measure of the speed of heat flow passed from particle to particle.
Thermal Insulation requirement is felt where-ever comfort conditions are desired and energy to be optimally utilized. Broadly speaking, where the insulation is used to prevent heat loss from the process the term hot insulation is used. Where the insulation is used to prevent heat gain to the process the term cold insulation is used. However, in recent times radiant heating or cooling has gained a lot of popularity.
Thermal Acoustic Insulation for Reducing Heat and Sound (Part 1)
ASTM's thermal insulation standards are instrumental in specifying and evaluating the materials and methods used to reduce the rate of heat transfer. Such materials include cements, fiber boards, glass blocks, coatings, and blankets, to name a few. These thermal insulation standards help laboratories, device and equipment manufacturers, construction companies, and industrial firms, and other groups of people that deal with thermal insulating materials and procedures in examining these respective materials for efficiency. Additive Manufacturing Standards.
Thermal insulation is the reduction of heat transfer i. Thermal insulation can be achieved with specially engineered methods or processes, as well as with suitable object shapes and materials. Heat flow is an inevitable consequence of contact between objects of different temperature. Thermal insulation provides a region of insulation in which thermal conduction is reduced or thermal radiation is reflected rather than absorbed by the lower-temperature body.
Get Latest Price. Thermal insulation is meant to obstruct any kind of heat loss Hot insulation or heat gain cold insulation from the surroundings. Lower cost for foam based insulation installations compared to the rising energy expenses, make our products useful for thermal insulation based applications. We pride ourselves in being solution providers and can provide with any technical support in this area for foam based products. View Complete Details.
Всех граждан Нового Эдема известят о подробностях. Элли оставалась на своем, месте, пока аудитория почти опустела. Она ожидала, что полиция задержит ее при выходе, однако никто не подумал остановить. Но оказавшись снаружи, она едва сдерживала восторг. "Мама, мама, - думала Элли и слезы наполняли ее .
Все определения в нем даются количественно, чтобы свести к минимуму возможность непонимания. Здесь нет места тонкостям и нюансам. Поглядите, как мы используем местоимения "мы", "вы" и "они". У них же понятия всегда обозначены численными идентификаторами, включая и диапазоны, в которых они теряют смысл.