Manufactory aggregates of aircraft and their engines
On March 15th Boeing revealed that the new engines, the largest ever made, for its new X wide-body airliner had completed their first test flight. GE is not the only engine-maker with problems. The latest, a fault with knife-edge seals on some of them, forced American and EU safety regulators to limit their use. Worse still are errors made by Rolls-Royce. Repairs could take four years or more. Engines are complicated pieces of machinery, so teething troubles are not new, points out Richard Aboulafia of the Teal Group, a research firm.VIDEO ON THE TOPIC: Rolls-Royce - How we assemble the Trent XWB; the world's most efficient aero engine
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- Aviation market braced for Rolls-Royce manufacturer’s liability loss
- How Rolls-Royce Maintains Jet Engines With the IoT
- Innovative Engineering
- GE Aviation: Soaring Apart From Competition with Data Analytics
- Aircraft Systems
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- Aviation 4.0: More Safety through Automation and Digitization
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Aviation market braced for Rolls-Royce manufacturer’s liability loss
Help us improve our products. Sign up to take part. A Nature Research Journal. Aircraft emissions contribute to local and global air pollution. Health effects of particulate matter PM from aircraft engines are largely unknown, since controlled cell exposures at relevant conditions are challenging.
We combined direct turbine-exhaust sampling under realistic engine operating conditions and the Nano-Aerosol Chamber for In vitro Toxicity to deposit particles onto air—liquid-interface cultures of human bronchial epithelial cells BEAS-2B at physiological conditions. We evaluated acute cellular responses after 1-h exposures to diluted exhaust from conventional or alternative fuel combustion.
We show that single, short-term exposures to nvPM impair bronchial epithelial cells, and PM from conventional fuel at ground-idle conditions is the most hazardous. Electron microscopy of soot reveals varying reactivity matching the observed cellular responses.
Stronger responses at lower mass concentrations suggest that additional metrics are necessary to evaluate health risks of this increasingly important emission source.
Emissions from commercial aircraft engines have a substantial impact on both local and global air pollution and are of particular concern for individuals working at airports, as well as local residents reviewed in ref. The steadily increasing demand for commercial air travel and related growth in air traffic indicates an even greater role for aircraft emissions in future global air pollution.
At the same time, the number of airport workers will expectedly increase in parallel with the size of nearby residential areas 2. As of yet, few studies have been conducted on the health effects of particulate matter PM from aircraft turbine engines and most of them address self-reported respiratory symptoms in airport workers rather than direct cellular effects from aircraft exhaust exposure 3 , 4 , 5 , 6. Conversely, there is a large body of literature on combustion-generated aerosol from automobile engines consistently concluding that road traffic exhaust has deleterious consequences for human health, for example, increased incidence of cardiovascular disease, asthma exacerbation, and cancer 7 , 8 , 9 , 10 , 11 , Studies of road traffic PM have shown that both morphological and chemical properties of soot, the main constituent of PM emitted by internal combustion engines, closely relate to particle reactivity 13 , 14 , 15 and depend on engine operating conditions as well as on fuel type 16 , 17 , Such small particles deposit with high efficiency in the entire respiratory tract 23 , 24 and are supposedly more toxic than larger ones 25 , 26 , 27 , 28 , and therefore require special consideration.
While substantial information regarding the respiratory toxicology of combustion PM can be obtained from studies on road traffic, particles emitted by aircraft engines have been inadequately investigated.
Moreover, although the new international aircraft PM emission standard will use non-volatile PM nvPM mass and number as its regulatory metric 29 , a link between health effects and these metrics has not been clearly established. Any adverse health effects caused by combustion-generated particles, primarily soot, are likely associated with physicochemical particle properties, including morphology. However, so far, no clear cause—effect relationship between particle properties and adverse health effects has been documented, although various studies have addressed this issue 30 , 31 , This applies not only to PM from aircraft turbine engines but also to particles from other combustion sources, for example, diesel, gasoline, and compressed natural gas engines 33 , Thus, there is an urgent need for studies linking PM from aircraft turbine engines operating under realistic conditions to health effects.
Moreover, as various alternative aviation fuels become more common, it is also important to examine the toxicity of their combustion products, since previous research has not clearly proven the benefits of alternative fuels 35 , 36 , Furthermore, we studied the morphological characteristics of soot by transmission electron microscopy TEM in an effort to reveal any relationship between these characteristics and observed cellular effects. TEM analysis of soot reveals varying reactivity corresponding to the observed cellular responses.
Stronger responses at lower mass concentrations suggest the inclusion of additional metrics for health risks assessment of this increasingly important emission source.
The resulting emissions followed commonly observed behavior for turbofans that employ rich quench lean combustors In contrast to mass, particle number concentrations were substantially higher than ambient ones at ground-idle thrust, that is, 1. The resulting particle size distributions Fig. This is consistent with previous studies 39 , 40 , Combustion aerosol sampling from a jet turbine engine and characterization of collected particles.
Volatile components of the exhaust were removed from the sampling line before entering the NACIVT chamber by a custom-made low-flow thermodenuder The use of a thermodenuder does not substantially alter the particle size distributions Supplementary Fig.
This is in line with previous observations from aerosol mass spectrometers that studied the emissions of the same engine model 21 , 42 , Furthermore, comparable electrometer voltages around zero between fuel types during exposures to filtered exhaust confirmed the successful removal of particles for particle-free control exposures. At ground-idle, the estimated deposition was considerably lower with 6.
Aerosol exposure setup and particle deposition. Electrometer data collected within the deposition chamber show distinct precipitation voltage patterns for varying engine thrust levels and fuel types. The flowchart in Fig. Particles were deposited on the apical cell surface under physiological conditions in the NACIVT deposition chamber To discern effects from deposited particles, we exposed cell cultures to particle-free exhaust by mounting a filter between the PM sample line and the thermodenuder, prior to aerosol entry into the deposition chamber.
Incubator control cells were handled the same as all other cell cultures with the exception of any exposure treatment in the NACIVT chamber. Graphical summary of experimental layout detailing exposure conditions, sampling times, methods, and eventual output. To evaluate acute cytotoxicity, we both assessed the epithelial layer by light microscopy LM and quantified the release of lactate dehydrogenase LDH by damaged cells into the apical compartment. LM evaluation, shown in Fig. Measurements of LDH release, shown in Fig.
Data are presented as box plots, where whiskers represent the 2. Interestingly, there was no statistically significant up-regulation of this gene in response to HEFA blend exposure for both thrust levels. As shown in Fig. The particles examined here by TEM were primarily soot, which is the dominant nvPM besides minor amounts of ash originating from lubrication oil or fuel additives.
Rarely, we observed a few, nanometer-sized ash particles attached to or enclosed in soot. Sulfur particle cores were not detected. These observations are consistent with previous studies describing primary soot particle sizes at taxiing and take-off conditions High-resolution TEM HRTEM imaging of primary soot particles from both thrust conditions and fuel types showed that they are composed of discontinuous carbon layers fringes; Fig.
It is widely accepted that the carbon lamellae of soot particles consist of more or less strongly deformed graphene sheets.
The length of the carbon lamellae, as well as their orientation and the resulting degree of structural order relate to soot reactivity 34 , Shorter carbon lamellae and a more disordered structure imply that more edge atoms are available for reaction and indicate higher instability, that is, higher reactivity. Transmission electron microscopy TEM images depicting morphological differences of particles with respect to size and internal structure, reflecting different reactivity.
Images are representative for both fuel types. The unique combination of the aircraft turbine emission sampling system and cell exposure experiments provides the most realistic laboratory depiction of real-life situations at the airport. The electrometer data collected within the NACIVT chamber revealed successful deposition of particles onto cell cultures, and the resulting voltages were clearly discernible between the two thrust levels sampled and particle-free, that is, filtered, emissions.
Moreover, changes in particle size, induced by different engine thrusts and fuels, could be observed in online measurements with a scanning mobility particle sizer SMPS , as well as in particles evaluated by TEM analysis. This indicates that no particle aggregation occurred prior to deposition within the NACIVT chamber, which is consistent with our previous findings for nm polystyrene and nm silver nanoparticles Thus, the applied techniques and methodology provide a solid basis for future studies to evaluate human health hazards from exposure to aircraft turbine engine emissions.
In this study, we evaluated the adverse effects after exposure to nvPM in BEAS-2B cells, an immortalized human bronchial epithelial cell line often used in PM exposure studies 45 , 46 , 47 , 48 , 49 , Studying adverse effects of inhaled air pollutants to this lung compartment is important, since most lung diseases are diseases of the conducting airways, with recurrent and sustained airway inflammation being a hallmark of chronic pulmonary diseases [e.
Furthermore, persons with pre-existing lung disease are especially vulnerable to exposure to air pollution The highest cytotoxicity and oxidative stress responses were observed after exposure to nvPM from Jet A-1 at ground-idle. This correlates with the number of deposited particles, which was 3. Although small size and disorganized soot structure in ground-idle samples can be observed for both fuel types, Jet A-1 causes higher cytotoxicity than HEFA blend, which implies that the fuel type plays an additional role to morphology.
Further experimental studies are needed to elucidate which chemical components of nvPM contribute most to the observed adverse effects.
While increases in cytotoxicity and oxidative stress after exposure to Jet A-1 indicate a more local effect on the epithelium, the increased release of pro- inflammatory cytokines after HEFA blend exposure suggests that nvPM from the latter primarily elicits a systemic effect by recruiting immune cells, that is, neutrophilic granulocytes and monocytes to the site of deposited particles in the airways.
The composition of combustion-derived nano particles from different sources and conditions is highly variable 55 , 56 , 57 , but previous exposure experiments conducted with primary and atmospherically aged particles from gasoline and diesel engines, using a similar experimental setup and comparable deposited particle doses 8 , 58 , allow comparison of the toxicity of combustion-derived PM from different sources to bronchial epithelial cells Fig. A similar pattern is observed for the secretion of IL-6 and IL-8 into basal media after exposure to gasoline and aviation fuel PM.
Comparison of cell responses upon exposure to gasoline, diesel, and aircraft combustion particles. This study establishes, for the first time, a relationship between cellular response effect and morphological characteristics likely cause of nvPM from aircraft turbine engines. We hypothesize a primary causative link between cellular response, nvPM morphology, and fuel composition, while deposited number and mass, although critical, do not seem to be the primary factors driving the cellular responses assessed in the present study.
Further research is necessary to elucidate the impact of aviation PM on human health. Moreover, Cassee and colleagues 59 published a comprehensive review in , discussing the importance of non-mass-related metrics, further strengthening our findings.
Well-controlled laboratory studies mimicking the in vivo situation to the greatest extent possible are warranted to better constrain adverse health effects and protect the people working at or living close to airports, especially in view of the projected growth of air traffic and the concomitant increased exposure to PM from aircraft turbine engines.
Thus, we can expect nvPM from aircraft turbine exhaust to not only affect respiratory health but also render airway epithelia more vulnerable to secondary exposure to air pollutants and pathogens. Therefore, it is of extreme importance to characterize the exact effects of nvPM from aircraft on human health in order to protect at-risk populations.
To further benefit from the unique experimental setup used in the present study, primary human airway cells should be included in any future work, as they bear functional similarity to the respiratory epithelium in vivo, most prominently mucus secretion and ciliary beating. Aerosol was generated by a CFMB26 turbofan engine and sampled with a standardized sampling system. This approach is ordinarily used for the environmental certification of aircraft engines and in scientific studies 29 , Engine exhaust was collected using a state-of-the-art sampling system Fig.
The particle data reported here correspond to conditions at the inlet of the exposure chamber. Particle size integrated loss correction factors from the NACIVT inlet to the engine exit plane were in the range of 1. All PM data was plotted using Igor Pro 7.
A fixed exposure duration was chosen for all thrust levels to have the same particle retention and clearance conditions in all cell cultures. The chamber has been described in detail previously Briefly, the airstream passes a low-flow thermodenuder upstream of the NACIVT removing gaseous organic species 64 , and a unipolar diffusion charger applying 1—4 positive net charges depending on the mobility diameter.
Thereafter, the aerosol flow is split into two fractions. One fraction is drawn to an internal aerosol electrometer to measure the particle concentration for the deposited particle-dose estimates on cells.
How Rolls-Royce Maintains Jet Engines With the IoT
Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. Consideration of aircraft operations, including inspection, maintenance, and repair procedures is crucial in the development and application of new materials and structures. This part of the committee's report focuses on the operation and monitoring of materials and structures in a service environment. Chapter 7 , "Aircraft Maintenance and Repair," describes the issues related to maintenance of commercial transport aircraft.
The world is talking about the Industry 4. It includes cyber-physical systems, Internet of Things and cloud computing among other technological assets. This new era has the potential to improve air transport key performance areas. Particularly, in an industry where safety levels are so high and the margins for improvement are extremely tight, this upcoming era might imply a shift in safety improvement. In an attempt to define Aviation 4. It illustrates the current and future cases of application of Aviation 4. Aircraft Technology. The manufacturing industry is going through remarkable changes.
GE Aviation: Soaring Apart From Competition with Data Analytics
Rolls-Royce is using Microsoft Azure IoT to target use cases in predictive maintenance and fuel efficiency. Maintaining the aircraft on the ground can add hundreds of dollars per hour. Although fuel costs have been falling, airlines are still pursuing ways to reduce running expenses. Some areas being pursued include increasing fuel efficiency of jet engines, optimizing flight paths, and improving maintenance.
An engine is the heart of a vehicle's operating system and ultimately what makes the vehicle a successful form of transportation. Without the engine, a vehicle is just another big piece of stamped out metal appearing in various shapes and sizes. In addition to being manufactured for vehicles, engines are also built for aircraft and large machinery equipment, such as Caterpillar excavators and dozers.
Over the past decade, aero engine manufacturing processes have increased in complexity to meet advanced design requirements and evolving customer demands. Engine configurations today must reach peak performance standards while maintaining controlled maintenance costs. Low noise and emissions coupled with high fuel efficiency, are the key parameters to meet aero engine design requirements.SEE VIDEO BY TOPIC: Rolls Royce Trent XWB Aircraft Engine Production - Timelapse - Mega Factories
The main task of the CIAM institution is providing the scientific support for innovative development of the aircraft engine industry. The Institute's activity is aimed at scientific support provision for the development of future aircraft and helicopters' engines, auxiliary power units and gas turbine engines for the power, shipbuilding and transport industries. The theory of air-breathing engines was developed in CIAM with the participation of such great scientists as B. Stechkin, A. Lyulka, V.
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Adjust text size A A A. Vigilance Awareness Week Make In India. Aircraft Manufacturing Division Nasik.
Aviation 4.0: More Safety through Automation and Digitization
GAMA's nine month industry update showed aggregate business jet and piston airplane deliveries continued experiencing increases in compared to last year, whereas the number of turboprops and rotorcraft deliveries declined. Aircraft owners need to make informed decisions about how to comply with emerging and existing regulatory mandates. Read more about worldwide modernization activities by clicking above.
For airliners and cargo aircraft , the in-service fleet in is 60, engines and should grow to , in with 86, deliveries according to Flight Global. A majority will be medium-thrust engines for narrow-body aircraft with 54, deliveries, for a fleet growing from 28, to 61, GE Aviation , part of the General Electric conglomerate, currently has the largest share of the turbofan engine market. On the military side, GE engines power many U.
Based in Baltimore, Maryland, USA with approximately employees, MRAS has two principal business lines: 1 design, development, production and sale of nacelles, thrust reversers and aerostructures, and 2 spare parts sales. ST Engineering has been looking to invest in new growth areas, including businesses that offer competitive products through the ownership of intellectual properties and that are synergistic to its core businesses. MRAS is a strong fit given its expertise and proprietary designs to manufacture nacelles using advanced composites. The Proposed Acquisition will allow ST Engineering to scale up its aerospace capabilities by moving the company into the OEM business of high-value nacelle components and replacement parts. MRAS has a good combination of mature and next-generation nacelle programmes, all of which are single-source contracts.
Predictive maintenance is still in its infancy for commercial airlines, but in the future will evolve into intelligent maintenance for large-fleet commercial operators. Predictive maintenance is still in its infancy for commercial airlines, but in the future, predictive will evolve into intelligent maintenance for large-fleet commercial operators. The use of artificial intelligence AI is expanding as a decision-making tool for airline maintenance teams at large fleet commercial airlines. Airlines based in the U. The use of AI within airline maintenance strategies is evolving into an advanced and expanded use of predictive data analytics.
Господь одарил меня удивительной жизнью и невероятными богатствами. Молча они смотрели на играющих детей. Захария уселся на белую лошадь и начал демонстрировать свое мастерство.
- Я с грустью услышал о смерти Ричарда, - проговорил Майкл.