Manufacture harsh cotton fabrics and piece goods
Technology is improving their texture, luster, and drape, and some of these synthetic fabrics offer qualities such as stretch. Does it feel thin, brittle, and rough? Then look for those qualities in your next purchase. The more tightly spun they appear, the better. For knits in particular, there is another way to test them.
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A History Of The British Cotton Industry
The cover image was created by the transcriber and is placed in the public domain. Obvious typographical errors and punctuation errors have been corrected after careful comparison with other occurrences within the text and consultation of external sources.
More detail can be found at the end of the book. The following pages represent an attempt to compile, primarily for the benefit of members of the Chinese Maritime Customs Service, descriptions of cotton, woollen, and other fabrics, their weaves and finishes, etc. This manual does not embrace all textiles known to the trade, but it does cover all those enumerated in the "Revised Import Tariff for the Trade of China," as well as many others. As far as possible the commonly accepted trade name has been used.
It should, however, be borne in mind that many fabrics are known in the trade by a variety of names, so that one branch of the trade may not recognise a name applied to the same fabric by another branch. The descriptions have been built up from information obtained first hand from practical weavers, manufacturers, wholesale and retail merchants, buyers, etc.
To Mr. Shaw, of Botham Hall, Huddersfield, I am indebted for introductions to the principal manufacturers in that district, enabling me to go through such mills as those of Mr.
Whitwam and Messrs. Godfrey Sykes, where every phase of manufacture from raw material to finished goods was shown and explained with characteristic Yorkshire thoroughness. I am indebted for either information or actual samples, or both, to:—.
The following works have been consulted, and their contents have materially assisted me. I take the opportunity of acknowledging my indebtedness to their authors, as well as to those of any other works consulted but which may have been omitted from this list:—. House of Representatives Document No. I wish specially to acknowledge my indebtedness to Mr. Sutton, Piece Goods Expert to the Board of Trade, London, for having perused the manuscript of the "Piece Goods Manual" and for the painstaking manner in which he pointed out where modifications were advisable.
His suggestions have enabled me to revise definitions so as to make them agree with accepted trade interpretations. Plain Weave Figure 1. Three-end Twill Weave " 2. Four-end Twill Weave " 3. Four-end Weft Twill Weave " 4. Two-and-two Twill Weave " 5. Irregular Twill Weave " 6. Five-end Warp Sateen Weave " 7. Five-end Weft Sateen Weave " 8. Simple Plain Gauze Weave " 9. Weft-pile Weave " Figure 1. Weft threads. Warp threads. Figure 1 shows the simplest manner of interlacing warp and weft threads.
This style of weave is called plain, calico, or "one-over and one-under" weave. Figure 2. This figure illustrates the interlacing of warp shaded and weft white threads, so as to produce a regular "three-end twill" weave. It also shows the direction of twill. In this figure the warp threads are shown interlaced with the weft threads in three distinct positions. There is a distinct predominance of warp threads thrown to the surface by this style of interlacing, and a fabric woven on this system would be "warp-faced.
Figure 3. This figure illustrates a four-end, three-warp and one-weft, regular twill, also known as a Florentine twill, or a "three-up and one-down twill. The warp shaded predominates, and for this reason a cloth woven on this system of interlacing would be termed "warp-faced," or warp twill. Figure 4. This figure, in which the weft threads predominate on the surface, illustrates a four-end, one-warp and three-weft, regular weft twill, in which three-quarters of the weft threads are thrown to the surface and the remaining quarter is warp.
It is the reverse of Figure 3. Figure 5. This figure illustrates a four-end, two-warp and two-weft, regular twill. Neither warp nor weft predominates on the surface. This style of twill is known as Harvard twill. Figure 6. This figure illustrates a broken or irregular twill, also known as a broken Harvard or Stockinette weave.
Figure 7. This figure illustrates the method of interlacing warp shaded and weft threads so as to produce a five-end warp sateen, or satin twill. This weave, in which the warp predominates on the surface, is reversed in Figure 8. Figure 8. This figure illustrates a five-end weft sateen. Sateen weaves are virtually a form of broken or rearranged twill. The weft sateen weave, represented by this figure, shows weft predominating on the face: it is practically the reverse of the weave shown by Figure 7.
Figure 9. In this figure A are threads known as crossing threads and are typical of gauze weave; they are binding threads holding B weft threads and C warp threads firmly together.
It will be noticed that B and C do not interlace to form a plain weave. If crossing threads A were removed, no fabric would remain. These crossing threads in this figure are shown as always passing over the weft threads B and always under the warp threads C. This style of weave, when combined with a few "plain-weave" picks, produces Leno.
Figure In this figure A is a weft-pile pick or flushing thread; B is a backing or ground cloth pick; the dots show cross section of warp threads.
It will be seen that the ground picks B, together with the warp threads shown cut through , form the foundation fabric. Pile thread A is shown bound into the fabric by the second, eighth, and fourteenth warp thread. Pile threads are cut after leaving the loom at a point indicated by the arrows; the pile produced is then sheared level and suitably finished. When the name is applied to a cotton fabric it is used to designate a plain-woven all-cotton fabric, soft, fine, and free from ornamentations, made in imitation of the worsted fabric of the same name.
It has a fleecy surface, is generally sold in white, black, or solid colours, being used instead of Bunting for flags. Not often used for printing, for which purpose it is not well adapted.
Alhambra Quilt. A loosely woven coloured warp yarn is used for the figuring and a grey "sticking" warp for securing the weft in position. The fabric is classed as a lustre fabric, this being due to the predominance of the lustrous weft. Generally plain woven with a simple one-over and one-under weave, Alpaca is, when solid coloured, a cross-dyed fabric, i. Alpaca Wool is the fleece of the Peruvian sheep, which is a species of llama. The staple is of good length and soft, but is not quite as lustrous as mohair.
The natural colours are white, black, brown, and fawn. The name, however, appears in the Revised Import Tariff for the trade of China, from which it would appear to be an all-cotton fabric, piece-dyed after leaving the loom, probably averaging between 28 and 31 inches in width and about 25 yards in length.
The name is probably of South American origin. American Sheetings. Another name for this material is Cabot. Average width, 36 inches; length, 40 yards per piece. Weight varies. The use of the name Sheeting, as applied to this class of material, is now firmly established but incorrect, Sheetings originally being a two-and-two twill fabric having a width of as much as inches.
The proportion of wool to cotton varies. This scribbled wool and cotton yarn, or Angola Wool as it is called, generally contains about 20 per cent.
Angola Yarn or Wool. It enters into the manufacture of very high-grade fabrics in combination with silk. More lustrous than wool, it has not, however, the warmth-retaining properties of the latter. Angora Goat. From the long silky hair of this goat was made Turkish Yarn or Camel Yarn. The name Camel Yarn has led to mistakes; it has no reference to the camel, but is derived from the Arabic word chamal , fine.
Animalised Cotton. Artificial Silk. Artificial silk is often used in the ornamentation of figured fabrics. It bears a very deceptive resemblance to true silk, but the individual fibres are coarser and burn very quickly, without the typical smell of true silk and without the hard bubble of ash. Its value is about a third of that of the best silk, but as an offset to this must be taken its higher specific gravity.
French Terrain Fabrics
This guide provides an outline to the basic labelling requirements for consumer textile articles subject to the Textile Labelling Act and the Textile Labelling and Advertising Regulations. The full text of the Act and Regulations should be consulted for a more detailed understanding of these provisions. The misleading advertising and deceptive marketing practices sections of the Competition Act may also apply. Generally speaking these provisions prohibit making a materially false or misleading representation for the purpose of promoting a product or business interest.
See, which brands obtain and sell their products. Imagine you could identify manufacturers based on their proven specialization and their former customers. Learn how to find your most suitable manufacturers for fabric within minutes! This list is based on verified inside information about suppliers worldwide and can not be falsified. The largest one is Abrasive powder or grain; natural or artificial, on a base of woven textile fabric only, whether or not cut to shape or sewn or otherwise made up Hove over the chart to see the other ones:. Top Fabric Manufacturing Companies [List]. Find reliable fabric manufacturers based on verified information. Top Products.
Pro-tips for buying clothes that will last years, not weeks
Register Now. Fabric selection is a crucial step in designing a project because fabrics are designed for specific applications, a fabric manufactured for one purpose, may not be adaptable for another use. Therefore selecting the appropriate fabric is only the first step in providing serviceable fabrics for apparel manufacturing. Designers specify the fabric as part of their design concept.
Sustainability continues to be at the forefront of product decisions, brand initiatives, and strategic planning in the textile industry. The use of recycled materials, including recycled cotton, is a growing topic of interest within the sustainability umbrella. Recycled cotton is not a new concept to the textile and apparel market, but as manufacturers, brands and retailers continue to evaluate their supply chain footprint, the interest in recycled cotton has grown. Recycled cotton can be generally defined as converting cotton fabric into cotton fiber that can be reused in textile products.
Textile, Textile Product, and Apparel Manufacturing Industries
The textile, textile product, and apparel manufacturing industries include establishments that process fiber into fabric and fabric into clothing and other textile products. While most apparel manufacturers worldwide rely on people to cut and sew pieces of fabric together, U. Because the apparel industry has moved mainly to other countries with cheaper labor costs, that which remains in the United States must be extremely labor efficient to compete effectively with foreign manufacturers. Goods and services.SEE VIDEO BY TOPIC: Journey of Cotton from Farm to Fabric
Visit my Yorkshire Lightbox for more images from around the county of Yorkshire. Image: Getty Images. By the middle of the 19th century, Britain was producing half the world's cotton cloth, yet not a scrap of cotton was grown in Britain. How then did Britain come to dominate global production of a cloth made entirely from material imported from the southern United States, India and Egypt? The answer lies in a set of circumstances no less complex than the finely woven, beautifully printed British muslins, calicoes and chintzes that clothed people and furnished homes everywhere.
PIECE GOODS MANUAL.
The shirt you're wearing right now: what's it made from? In its rawest form, was it once growing in a field, on a sheep's back or sloshing at the bottom of an oil well? We wear clothes literally every day, but few of us spend much time reflecting on what goes into manufacturing various textiles and their environmental impacts. This is interesting considering how much we think about the food we eat or the skin care products we use. Most of us don't realise how environmentally intensive it is to make a single article of clothing, says fashion sustainability expert Clara Vuletich, whose PhD research focuses on sustainable textiles. First comes the fibre, which, whether it comes from a plant, animal or crude oil, is almost always an energy and pollutant-intensive process. The fibre is processed until it can be spun into a yarn, which, in turn, is woven or knitted into a fabric.
The textile industry is primarily concerned with the design, production and distribution of yarn , cloth and clothing. The raw material may be natural, or synthetic using products of the chemical industry. It's outputs are- Denim ,cotton cloth etc. Cotton is the world's most important natural fibre.
Cotton fibre surrounds the seeds of the cotton plant. The natural properties of the cotton fibre make it easy to spin into a strong thread. Each seed is surrounded by many single cotton fibres, which look like very fine hairs. Beneath these lies a second layer of short, fuzzy fibres.
T-shirts are durable, versatile garments with mass appeal that may be worn as outerwear or underwear. Since their creation in , T-shirts have evolved into a two-billion dollar market. T-shirts are available in a variety of colors, patterns, and styles, such as the standard crew neck and V-neck, as well as tank tops and scoop necks.
Thank you Your Enquiry has been sent successfully. We are readily engaged in delivering a superior range of Plain Shirtings. These plain shirtings offered by us are made utilizing modern machinery and premium grade fabrics in strict compliance with the fashion industry laid norms and standards. In addition to this, the offered range is available in variegated designs, colors and styles to cater to the diverse requirements of esteemed clients.
India held world monopoly in the manufacturing of cotton textiles for about 3, years from about B. In the middle ages, Indian cotton textile products were in great demand in the Eastern and European markets. The muslins of Dhaka, chintzes of Masulipatnam, calicos of Calicut, baftas of Cambay and gold-wrought cotton piece goods of Burhanpur, Surat and Vadodara acquired a worldwide celebrity by virtue of their quality and design. This industry could not survive in the face of strong competition from the modern mill industry of Britain which provided cheap and better goods as a result of Industrial Revolution in that country. Moreover, the British textile industry enjoyed political advantage at that time. The first modem cotton textile mill was set up in at Fort Glaster near Kolkata. But this mill could not survive and had to be closed down.
Register Now. Generally, a set number of yarns are used for the formation of fabrics. Also, a number of techniques are used for producing fabrics such as weaving, knitting, and felting.