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The purpose of this chapter is to review the history of plastics, describe the different kinds of plastics, their applications and their benefits, giving several examples of plastics found in our daily lives. The current chapter also provides deep insight into the qualitative characteristics of plastics, while describing their chemical nature in simple terms. Both terms refer to the material's malleability or plasticity during manufacture, that allows it to be cast, pressed, or extruded into a variety of shapes; such as films, fibres, plates, tubes, bottles, boxes and much more.
In addition, the wide range of possibilities to change their chemical structure or formulations and therefore their final properties allow them to be used in numerous and various applications. We can find them packaging the food that we eat, in the houses we live in, the cars we drive, clothes we wear, the toys we play with and in the televisions we watch.
Plastics contribute to our convenience, as well as providing several solutions in our everyday lives, and help to improve the environmental impact of products in many applications. When it comes to their chemical nature, plastics are synthetic or semi-synthetic materials; they are organic materials, such as wood, paper or wool. Mostly derived from crude oil, they can also be produced from renewable raw materials. In scientific terms, there are two main categories of plastic materials: thermoplastics and thermoset plastics.
Thermoplastics can be heated up to form products, if these end products are re-heated the plastic will soften and melt again. Plastic bottles, films, cups, and fibres are some examples of thermoplastic products. At the end of their useful life, plastic products can either be recycled back into new products or chemical raw materials or, where this is not possible or sustainable, used for energy recovery as a substitute for virgin fossil fuels. For more than a century, plastics have been providing significant solutions for humans.
The development of plastic materials started with the use of natural materials with plastic properties e. Finally, the wide range of completely synthetic materials that we would recognise as modern plastics started to be developed around years ago.
The first was discovered by Alexander Parkes in and is commonly known as celluloid today. The development of plastic materials passed through various historical phases, becoming today the most widely used material globally.
In particular, global plastics production ramped up from 1. These materials have a similar structure to manufactured plastics and they were often used to replace glass amber in the 18th century. The original breakthrough for the first semisynthetic plastics material — cellulose nitrate — occurred in the late s and involved the modification of cellulose fibres with nitric acid. However, the failure of this product, due to its high manufacturing costs, led to the creation of Xylonite by Daniel Spill.
This new material started finding success in the production of objects such as ornaments, knife handles, boxes and more flexible products such as cuffs and collars. It was in that an American, John W.
Hyatt, made a revolutionary discovery, a process to produce celluloid, a product that could be used as a substitute for natural substances such as tortoiseshell, horn, linen, and ivory.
This product entered mass production in Up until the early s, it was impossible to use cellulose nitrate at very high temperatures, because it was flammable. In the meantime, casein formaldehyde was developed, based on fat-free milk and rennin, and used for shaping buttons, buckles and knitting needles. The next years saw a revolution in plastics, making them an integral part of our daily lives.
In , Belgian Leo Baekeland who coined the term plastic later on , discovered Bakelite, which was largely used in the expanding automobile and radio industries at that time. The following year, Jacques E. Brandenbergen, a Swiss engineer, invented Cellophane, a clear, flexible and waterproof packaging material. Staudinger provided enough evidence for his macromolecular concept and promoted it, despite the strong opposition of several chemists.
Staudinger provided the theoretical basis for polymer chemistry and significantly contributed to the rapid development of the polymer and plastic industry — which are the reasons why he was awarded with Nobel Prize for chemistry in Another important scientific breakthrough occurred in , when Waldo Semon, an American researcher, found a way to plasticise PVC, which had been discovered more than a decade before.
PVC was thus converted into a flexible material that could be used for flooring, electrical insulations and roofing membranes. Thanks to this, its real development could start. In , the commercial production of polystyrene started. The first commercial PVC products were introduced onto the market in and , these were flooring and pipes, respectively.
Three years later, a Swiss researcher, Pierre Castan, patented the synthesis of epoxide resins, which were initially used in dentistry for dental fixtures and castings , as well as medicine. Their properties were also useful as a constituent of glue. World War II meant a boost for the production and further development of plastics, which took on a key role in the military supply chain.
A wide variety of pioneering materials, which are still used today, were invented during the wartime period, such as polyethylene, polystyrene, polyester, polyethylene terephthalate, silicones and many more.
The s saw the growth of plastics for domestic use. In the same period, plastics also became a major force in the clothing industry. In , an American chemist named Daniel Fox discovered polycarbonate, a new type of thermoplastic that was very durable and almost bulletproof. Today, it can be found in several modern products, such as smartphones. The s are known as a decade of mass distribution of stylish, innovative and impressive plastic products in the fashion world, such as soft and hard foams with a protective skin, wet-look polyurethane, transparent acrylic and artificial leather.
Home decoration was also enriched, where unconventional designer furniture such as inflatable chairs and acrylic lights became important for fashion-conscious consumers. Moreover, plastic materials played an important role in the production of spacecraft components, its lightness and versatility made it irreplaceable for the success of space exploration.
The technological advances during this period would have been impossible without plastics. In engineering and in the computer industry, the new polymers started to replace the use of metals. In healthcare, the hygienic nature of plastics meant that they became extremely important.
The rise of global communications had a direct impact on the production and use of plastics, which provided raw material for the production of personal computers, fibre optic cables and portable telephones.
In transport, the demand for plastics in cars also increased. In the s, the first flight tests of an all-plastic-aircraft took place. Moreover, plastic packaging became very important in shopping, because it helped in the distribution and preserving the quality of the products we buy from supermarkets.
Consumer demands for longer product shelf lives and freshness retention led to the development of plastic packaging that has superior barrier properties. Raised awareness in society of the necessity to save fossil fuels increased the need for plastic products, enabling improvement in the energy efficiency of buildings and a reduction in fuel consumption in transportation.
In the s, plastics became key components for meeting challenging societal demands. Used in several applications, plastics are currently essential in the design of structural elements such as insulation, life support systems, space-suit fabric, food packaging, guidance and communication systems, solar panels, and so forth. Derived from organic materials, plastics today are mainly made from fossil raw materials.
The production of plastic from crude oil begins in the distillation process of an oil refinery, involving the separation of heavy crude oil into lighter fractions. Each fraction is a mixture of hydrocarbon chains chemical compounds made up of carbon and hydrogen , which differ in terms of the size and structure of their molecules.
One of these fractions, naphtha, is the crucial raw material for the production of plastics. Naphtha is used to generate, through cracking, the different monomers needed ethylene, propylene, styrene, etc. These monomers are the building blocks to produce plastics, through the so-called polymerisation process.
The two major polymerisation processes are called polyaddition and polycondensation, and they both require specific catalysts. In a polyaddition process, monomers like ethylene or propylene simply join to form long polymer chains. Polycondensation is the process through which the polymer originates from successive bonds between monomers, with the elimination of a small molecule water, ammonia, etc. Each plastic has its own properties that depend on the various types of basic monomers used, its structure and formulation.
Research and innovation is ongoing to diversify the raw material base to produce plastics. In particular, biomass can be used for the production of so-called bio-based plastics. There are two possible categories of plastics that can be derived from renewable resources. The first one includes similar polymers to those produced from crude oil, but with their monomers being produced from biomass: for instance, sugar cane can serve for the production of ethylene and consequently, polyethylene.
The second category includes new polymers derived from new monomers. For example, starch can be used to produce lactic acid and consequently polylactic acid PLA. In , the global production of bio-based plastics was around 2 million tonnes. There are different types of plastics that can be grouped into two main polymer families, thermoplastics and thermosets.
Thermoplastics are a family of plastics that can be melted when heated and hardened when cooled. These characteristics, which lend the material its name, are reversible.
That is, it can be reheated, reshaped, and hardened repeatedly. This quality also makes them mechanically recyclable. Thermosets: Thermoset, or thermosetting, plastics are synthetic materials that undergo a chemical change when they are treated, creating a three-dimensional network. After they are heated and formed, these molecules cannot be re-molten and reformed. Thermoplastics can be categorised according to their chemical structural organization and the level of their properties and performances Figure 1.
They are produced mainly from oil and natural gas by a process of polymerisation of ethylene PE and propylene PP respectively.
Thanks to their versatility, polyolefins are used in a very wide range of applications ranging from packaging, automotive, building and construction, medical, sports to consumer goods. LDPE: is used in cling film, carrier bags, agricultural films, milk carton coatings, electrical cable coatings, and heavy duty industrial bags.
LLDPE: is used in stretch film, industrial packaging film, thin walled containers, and heavy-duty, medium- and small bags. HDPE: is used in crates and boxes, bottles for food products, detergents and cosmetics , food containers, toys, petrol tanks, industrial wrapping and film, pipes and houseware.
PP: is used in food packaging, including yoghurt and margarine pots, sweets and snack wrappers, microwave-proof containers, carpet fibres, garden furniture, medical packaging and appliances, luggage, kitchen appliances, and pipes. Polyvinyl chloride: PVC is the third largest thermoplastic and one of the earliest plastics. It can be either in rigid form, used mainly for the production of pipes and fittings or window-frames, or in soft form such as in flooring or cable applications.
Polystyrene: Polystyrene PS is a thermoplastic polymer which can be solid or foamed. It is made from the monomer styrene. It is widely used in packaging, cosmetic packs, toys and refrigerator trays, as well as in many other applications. Expanded polystyrene: Expanded polystyrene EPS is a solid foam with a unique combination of characteristics, such as lightness, insulating properties, durability and an excellent processability. EPS is used in thermal insulation board in buildings, in packaging, cushioning of valuable goods, and in food packaging.
Polyethylene terephthalate : Polyethylene terephthalate PET consists of polymerised units of ethylene terephthalate monomers.
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There are several kinds of glues that are suitable for gluing plastic. What is the best glue for plastic? The type you need depends on what you want to glue. One of the most popular and effective types are weld-on glues for plastics.
The purpose of this chapter is to review the history of plastics, describe the different kinds of plastics, their applications and their benefits, giving several examples of plastics found in our daily lives. The current chapter also provides deep insight into the qualitative characteristics of plastics, while describing their chemical nature in simple terms. Both terms refer to the material's malleability or plasticity during manufacture, that allows it to be cast, pressed, or extruded into a variety of shapes; such as films, fibres, plates, tubes, bottles, boxes and much more. In addition, the wide range of possibilities to change their chemical structure or formulations and therefore their final properties allow them to be used in numerous and various applications. We can find them packaging the food that we eat, in the houses we live in, the cars we drive, clothes we wear, the toys we play with and in the televisions we watch.
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Packaging is among the high growth industries in India. A high degree of potential exists for almost all user segments which are expanding appreciably-Processessed foods, hard and soft drinks, fruit and marine products, cosmetics and personalcare, office stationary and accessories, fabrics and garments, white goods and other durables, electrical appliances and equipments, entertainment and other electronics, shoes and leather ware, gems and jewellery, toys and sports goods, chemicals and fertilizers. Due to lower manufacturing costs, India is fast becoming a preferred hub for packaging production. The Indian packaging industry has made a mark with its exports that comprise flattened cans, printed sheets and components, crown cork, lug caps, plastic film laminates, craft paper, paper board and packaging machinery, while the imports include tinplate, coating and lining compounds and others. In India, the fastest growing packaging segments are laminates and flexible packaging, especially PET and woven sacks. Upgradation, both of functionality and aesthetics, characterizes the recent trends in the industry. Elaborate and more expensive packaging is penetrating deeper into marketing of industrial products and even agro-based products, like food and personalcare products, drugs and pharmaceuticals, consumer durables and electronic products, especially entertainment products. Packaging market size in India is about Rs 65, crore is growing at the rate of 15 per cent per annum.
Corrugated fiberboard is a material consisting of a fluted corrugated sheet and one or two flat linerboards. The corrugated medium sheet and the linerboard s are made of kraft containerboard , a paperboard material usually over 0. Corrugated fiberboard is sometimes called corrugated cardboard , although cardboard might be any heavy paper-pulp based board. Corrugated also called pleated paper was patented in England in , and used as a liner for tall hats , but corrugated boxboard was not patented and used as a shipping material until 20 December
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The Nature of Plastics and Their Societal Usage
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We manufacture products that are technologically sustainable, based on two premises: light and green, thereby contributing to lower CO2 emissions. This is our way of making a commitment to the environment and to our clients. Grupo Antolin is present in 9 of the top 10 best selling cars in the world. It is present on the inside of the world's best-selling cars, providing the interior equipment for more than different models. We dominate the complete product cycle : conception, validation, industrial process, assembly and sequenced delivery of the product. We are the largest worldwide supplier of headliner substrates. We have a large market share, which means that 1 of every 4 cars in the world sports one of our headliners. We provide out clients with global solutions and local support in order to satisfy our client's needs as regards sustainability, weight reduction, customization, improved safety, design and comfort.
In the production of synthetic leather, the raw materials acquired from the earth are heavily processed to make polyvinyl chloride or polyurethane and excess chemicals during processing are recycled. Product durability seems to be a good solution for waste management by inhibiting the speed of the product life cycle with better raw materials Blackburn, However, lowering the product consumption is the best solution. Instead of creating more product life cycles with recycled material, it would be ideal to have a lower demand for the product and thus a lower amount of extracted resources, used energy, and harmful emissions. Polyvinyl Chloride, or PVC, is a type of plastic coating used on fabric to make synthetic leather.
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The Scheme aims at facilitating technology upgradation by providing upfront capital subsidy to SSI units, including tiny, khadi, village and coir industrial units, on institutional finance credit availed of by them for modernisation of their production equipment plant and machinery and techniques. The eligible amount of subsidy calculated under the pre-revised scheme was based on the actual loan amount not exceeding Rs. It is in this background that the Finance Minister made an announcement in the Budget Speech of to raise the ceiling for loans under the Scheme from Rs. Further, in the light of the experience gathered in implementing the Scheme, certain other modifications were also required to make it more useful to the SSI units, including tiny, khadi, village and coir industrial units, in taking up technology upgradation on a larger scale.
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PVC is no stranger to the clothing industry. Employed for its waterproof qualities and aesthetic versatility, it is commonly used in footwear, coats, sporting gear and accessories. When manufacturers are in need of hard wearing leatherette that is supple and doesn't lose its shape easily, they rely on the qualities of PVC.
Consumers may see packaging as an attractive and informative container for fresh and processed meat and poultry. However, because it touches the food, packaging is considered an indirect additive. That's because chemicals in packaging can migrate into the food. The following information explains various types and uses of meat packaging materials and how their safety is regulated by government agencies. Who approves packaging materials for meat and poultry products?
We provide footwear adhesive products for any part of the shoe which requires a hot melt adhesive glue or film to stick a component into place or to bond various layers together. Variations include thin laminating films, dry granules or touch sensitive adhesives. It is necessary to identify the different processes in a shoemaking where adhesives are involved and the different adhesive joints produced, as well as their technical requirements. So we offer chemical products for various parts of footwear. You can easily find the best one for your products on this page. Excellent glue for bonding leather, resin rubber, fiberglass, chpboard, wood, rigid PVC, melamine, formica, rgidi laminated plastic, metal, rubber sheet to each other pr hand board, textiles etc. It can be used single or double component.
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Fibers are elongate cells with tapering ends and very thick, heavily lignified cell walls. Fiber cells are dead at maturity and function as support tissue in plant stems and roots. The lumen or cavity inside mature, dead fiber cells is very small when viewed in cross section. Fibers are one of the components of sclerenchyma tissue, along with shorter, thick-walled sclereids stone cells which produce the hard tissue of peach pits and the gritty texture in pears.