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Plant manufacturing linen products

Plant manufacturing linen products

We produce any size bedding, small pillows and duvets for children, as well as oversized bedding according to the specific requirements. According to the wishes of our customers, we can offer specific variants of bedding trims, adding an exceptional design to every product. A wide selection of blankets, pillows, mattress protectors made of polyester. Fillings: Polyester fiber in various forms: blown fiber, ball fiber, or microfiber. Blankets, pillows and mattress protectors made with Natural materials. We provide anti-allergy bedding products made from expert fabrics and featuring hypoallergenic finishes.

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Technically, linen is a vegetable. Linen fabric is made from the cellulose fibers that grow inside of the stalks of the flax plant, or Linum usitatissimum, one of the oldest cultivated plants in human history. Flax is an annual plant, which means it only lives for one growing season.

From seed-planting, it is ready to be harvested in about a hundred days. Unless the weather is particularly warm and dry, flax requires little watering or attention during this time. It grows to about three or four feet tall, with glossy bluish-green leaves and pale blue flowers, though on rare occasions, the flowers bloom red. Flax is cultivated around the world not only for its fine, strong fibers, but also for its seeds, which are rich in nutrients such as dietary fiber and omega-3 fatty acids.

Flax oil is also a popular drying oil amongst oil painters. To date, no method of flax cultivation has been discovered that maximizes both quality and yield of both seed and fibers. To obtain the highest quality flax fibers, one must harvest before the plant fully matures, which results in poorer-quality oil. Conversely, if harvest is undertaken after maturation to obtain the best oil, the fiber quality deteriorates.

This type is fairly short and produces many secondary branches, which increases seed yield. The taller the flax plant, the longer the fiber. Flax can grow in a variety of climates, but it flourishes in cool, damp environments. It cannot tolerate extreme heat, so the planting schedule of flax varies from country to country depending upon regional climatic conditions. For instance, in warmer regions flax is sown in the winter so that harvesting can be undertaken before the heat of early spring.

Because it requires a lot of organic components, flax grows best in deep loams and alluvial soils such as the Nile River valley. Flax is ready to be harvested for its fibers when the stem begins to turn yellow and the seeds turn brown.

On some farms however, the plant is harvested prior to seed germination. This yields exceptionally fine fibers, but leaves the grower without any seeds for the next planting and subsequently dependent upon foreign imports.

The stems of the flax plant are preferably pulled up with the root system somewhat intact, rather than cut at the base. This maximizes the quality of the fiber in several ways.

First, the valuable fibers run the length of the stalk all the way into the roots, so pulling up the plant by the root increases the length of the fiber produced. This practice also prevents the plant sap from leaking out of the cut stalk, a process which dries out the fibers and ultimately results in poorer-quality fabric.

Although the agricultural industry has made great strides in mechanized farming, machine harvesting of flax is still unable to preserve the root system during harvest.

For this reason, despite the extremely laborious process of manual harvesting, the highest quality linens are still made from flax plants that were pulled out of the earth by hand. Fabric made from hand-harvested flax is finer, more supple, and more highly prized than fabric made from flax that is machine-harvested. After harvest, flax stalks are allowed to dry in open air for several weeks before they undergo threshing , or removal of seeds from the stalk by crushing open the dried seed pods.

Hand threshing is usually achieved by simply beating the dried stalks until all the seed pods have been crushed, then shaking the seeds free. Flax fibers are considered bast fibers. Bast fibers are fibers collected from the phloem , or the inner-bark of the plant.

Aside from linen, a few other fabrics made from bast fibers include hemp, ramie, and rattan. You may remember from your Biology class that the phloem is one of the two vascular structures inside of plants that carry nutrients throughout the organism the other is the xylem , or the woody core.

These fiber nodes are also what make linen fabric flexible without being brittle. This is achieved via a process called retting --or, literally, rotting. And yes, with the same awful smell!

Plants hold themselves upright by increasing water uptake into their cells, which causes the plasma membrane to swell and increases internal pressure against the cell wall. This pressure keeps the plant structures stiff Biology review: Turgor pressure. Prolonged water exposure during retting eventually causes the cells of the phloem to lyse , or burst open, and allows local micro-organisms that break down the sticky pectins to invade the plant cell.

The image to the right is a c ross section of a bast fiber: "X" is xylem; "P" is phloem; "C" is cortex; "BF" is bast fibers. How do these micro-organisms break down those sticky pectins? A man named Sergei Winogradsky figured out the answer to this question back in the s. Prior to this discovery, scientists believed that all autotrophs were dependent upon sunlight for energy production remember photosynthesis?

But Winogradsky found a little bacterium living in the root nodules of legume plants that changed everything. He identified it as Clostridium Pasteuranium , an obligate anaerobe that, by definition, cannot survive in the presence of atmospheric oxygen O 2.

The presence of this autotrophic bacterium inside of the root nodules, without access to atmospheric oxygen and therefore also without access to sunlight, led Winogradsky to investigate how it managed to survive.

He found that C. Pasteuranium uses water molecules to break up the sticky pectin bonds that hold the bast fibers to the phloem, a process called hydrolysis. It then uses the chemical pieces of the broken up pectins to create ammonia NH 3 out of free, bioavailable nitrogen N 2 in its surrounding environment, which can then be utilized by the bacteria in its metabolic processes. This is is called nitrogen fixation. Scientists have since isolated more than 22 different kinds of autotrophic, pectin-dissolving bacteria from retted flax, mostly belonging to the Clostridium family.

Dew retting is the preferred method in areas where water sources are limited but that enjoy warm daytime temperatures and heavy nighttime dews. Flax stalks are spread out evenly across a grassy field, where the combination of air, sun and dew causes fermentation, which dissolves much of the stem within weeks. Dew-retted fibers are typically of poorer quality and more darkly pigmented than natural water-retted fibers.

Tank retting takes place in large vats that are typically made of cement, as the acidic waste products of the bacteria corrodes metal. Stalks are first leached, or soaked, for hours to removedirt and pigment from the bundles. This water is then changed, and the bundles allowed to soak for more days to complete the retting process. Flax can also be retted chemically, which speeds up the process. It is, however, more harmful to both the environment and the fibers themselves, and is therefore not preferred.

The retted stalks, called straw, are dried mechanically or in natural air, and are then usually stored for anywhere from a few weeks to months in order to allow curing to take place. After curing, the woody stalks that still cling to the bast fibers are further broken, usually by passing the brittle straw through rollers that crush the wood into smaller pieces that can be more easily removed, a process called scutching.

Scutching involves scraping a small wooden knife down the length of the fibers as they hang vertically, pulling the broken woody bits away from the fiber. This is a labor-intensive process. One person scutching can produce only about 15 pounds of flax fibers per day; less if the fibers are coarse, hard, or have been poorly retted. The small pieces of leftover bark that remain after scutching are called shive , and are sometimes used as a filler in thermoplastic composites.

The separated bast fibers are next heckled , or combed through a bed of nails that splits and polishes the fibers, and removes the shorter tow fibers from the mix. These tow fibers can then be spun into a coarse yarn from which low-quality linen products are made. The longer fibers sometimes as long as three feet! The at long last separated flax fibers, called stricks , are traditionally spun by hand using a distaff.

A distaff is simply a long vertical pole that attaches to a spinning wheel from which the fibers are hung. This helps keep the fibers organized and prevents them from turning into a tangled mess. Spinning involves twisting together the drawn out strands of fiber to form yarns, then winding the yarn onto a bobbin, or spool. The yarn is often slightly dampened during spinning, which helps prevent fly-away strands from escaping the twist and creates an especially-smooth yarn check out this really cool photojournal of a woman hand-spinning flax.

Flax is always spun very finely--especially the longest of the fibers--resulting in a thin yarn. In order to create a thicker yarn, multiple skeins of this thin yarn can be spun together, a process called plying. One ply: thin and sufficient. Two or more ply: preferred! The resulting yarn usually 3-ply or thereabouts is typically finished by boiling for several hours in soapy water, which gives it a nice shine.

Linen yarn is generally woven into sheets--a process wherein multiple threads are interlaced both horizontally and vertically on a loom. Occasionally, linen yarn is also knit , or formed into fabric by creating consecutive rows of loops that intertwine with one another.

By virtue of these loops, knit fabrics have a degree of stretch inherent in them, and because linen yarn has no elasticity, it is quite difficult to knit and so more frequently woven. Because the process is still so laborious, even mechanized flax production actually requires a great deal more handwork than other mass industrially-produced textiles like cotton and rayon.

Check out this awesome timelapse video, called The Art and Science Linen, to see what mechanized flax production looks like today. So that's how mechanized production turns flax into linen, but where in the world is it done the best and why?

The quality of the linen fabric is greatly dependent upon the retting process. For example, as you already learned, over-retting produces a mushy, weak fiber, and under-retting makes the bits of shive difficult to remove such that the fibers can be damaged during scutching; factors entirely under the control of the retter.

Read about it here , and the best linens tend to originate from the enclaves within Europe that have long traditions of flax cultivation:. The map below shows the major centers of linen production in Europe. The best quality linen is retted in slow-moving natural water sources such as streams and rivers. In fact, the highest quality linen in the world is retted in Belgium in the River Lys , though to this day chemists have been unable to determine what makes the waters so conducive to the retting process.

Harvested flax is sent to Belgium from France, Holland, and even as far away as South America to be retted in the magical waters of the River Lys, which is typically crowded for miles with weighted down flax bundles. The climate in Ireland is quite favorable for flax processing, and the slow Irish bleaching methods inflict minimal damage on the fibers.

European linens are the next finest, with the French producing the whitest and most delicate of textiles. Scotch linen is generally considered of medium quality, and German linen quality ranges from good to poor.

We wondered this, too. So we decided to look in depth read, microscopically! Cart 0. How Linen is Made Technically, linen is a vegetable. I'd like to receive more original and curated content from Deck Towel.

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Raw materials. Organic Cotton. Organic linen. Organic Virgin Wool.

The fabric is woven in an Austrian linen weavery. The new linen fabric is woven with long flax fibre yarn which makes it especially high-quality. The fabric is thus produced from the fibre to the final fabric in Central Europe.

Ever wondered how your sumptuously soft linen sheets started out? Or where your favourite summer linen shirt began its journey? How is linen made? The story starts with the delicate flax flower that has been grown for thousands of years and whose by-products have been put to a diverse range of uses, from bank notes to cattle feed and dyes to cosmetics.

What is Linen Fabric: Properties, How its Made and Where

Do you know much about the amazing plant that gets us our sheets, clothes and even towels? Flax is a food and fibre crop known for its oil and seeds. Flax fibres are also used to make linen. Flax is also sometimes revered to as one of the most powerful plant foods on the planet. A well known and commonly used vegetable oil known as flaxseed oil or linseed oil is produced from flaxseed. It is an edible oil used for multiple purposes and highly loved by vegetarians and vegans. The other use of this amazing plant is making great fabric material — linen. The fibre is extracted from the flax plant and woven into linen. Flax fibre is soft, flexible and looks very luxurious. Linen woven from flax is of an extremely high quality and is considered to be a great choice for sheeting , since it is considered to last a lifetime.

how linen is made

Linen yarn is spun from the long fibers found just behind the bark in the multi-layer stem of the flax plant Linum usitatissimum. In order to retrieve the fibers from the plant, the woody stem and the inner pith called pectin , which holds the fibers together in a clump, must be rotted away. The cellulose fiber from the stem is spinnable and is used in the production of linen thread, cordage, and twine. From linen thread or yarn, fine toweling and dress fabrics may be woven.

About Linen. Linen is yarn, and fabric made from flax fibres.

We can always guarantee the ecological sustainability of our garments, because we have developed our own global textile and manufacturing supply chain. By monitoring our source materials and the recycling process in detail, we can ensure that the quality of our products meets the standards of our clients and their customers. With the help of the best experts and suppliers in the industry, we have reached a level of textile quality that is the same, and in many cases better, than that of traditional fabrics. Instead, we concentrate on basic garments.

Raymond sets up Rs 250 crore linen manufacturing plant in Maharashtra

Maharashtra Cabinet Expansion likely today. Cabinet expansion in Maharashtra on December Maharashtra impetus to opposition fightback. View: Surgical strike in Maharashtra.

Linen is laborious to manufacture, but the fiber is very strong, absorbent, and dries faster than cotton. Garments made of linen are valued for their exceptional coolness and freshness in hot and humid weather. This word history has given rise to a number of other terms in English, most notably line , from the use of a linen flax thread to determine a straight line. The collective term " linens " is still often used generically to describe a class of woven or knitted bed, bath, table and kitchen textiles traditionally made of flax-based linen but today made from a variety of fibers. The term "linens" refers to lightweight undergarments such as shirts, chemises , waist-shirts, lingerie a cognate with linen , and detachable shirt collars and cuffs, all of which were historically made almost exclusively out of linen.

A Short Guide About Linen/Flax: Uses/Products, Growing & More

Rest assured, we have some interesting news for linenlovers. It is strong, naturally moth resistant, and made from flax plant fibres, so when untreated i. It absorbs moisture without holding bacteria. In fact, it is actually stronger when wet than dry and becomes softer and more pliable the more it is washed. It just gets better and better! All these characteristics have lead many European cultures to form traditions of handing down linen bed-sheets as heirlooms. The Egyptians used it as currency, and it formed an integral part of the mummifying process.

May 9, - It is strong, naturally moth resistant, and made from flax plant fibres, so when sturdiness making it ideal for upholstery and industrial products.

Technically, linen is a vegetable. Linen fabric is made from the cellulose fibers that grow inside of the stalks of the flax plant, or Linum usitatissimum, one of the oldest cultivated plants in human history. Flax is an annual plant, which means it only lives for one growing season.

At that point, the fiber is separated from the plant with retting, the flax is then dressed, spun and the linen yarn is weaved — and linen is made. Machines manufacture a lot of linen these days, but the finest linens are still hand manufactured. You can read more about growing flax, and the manufacturing process of linen from flax fibres at:.

Linen is a flax-based textile that is predominantly used for homeware applications. While linen is similar to cotton, it is made from fibers derived from the stems of the flax plant instead of the bolls that grow around cotton seeds. Garments made of linen are desirable in hot and humid climates.

However, linen is actually constructed from the flax plant, which is grown all over the world.

Наконец, Элли подошла к Роберту и отдала ему Никки. "Кажется, я понимаю, о чем они говорят, - сказала Элли (так утверждал белый, как мел, Роберт). - Они намереваются взять меня с собой". Тут главный октопаук снова повернулся к ним и завел цветовую речь, явно обращаясь к Элли.

Когда решусь. Я сказал Арчи, что сперва должен закончить некоторые - Похоже, у тебя был восхитительный день. А здесь все было спокойно.

За исключением одного: Патрик и Наи наконец назначили день своей свадьбы. она состоится через три недели.

Словом, мы с ней хохотали до тех пор, пока бока не заболели, пытаясь представить, как Может проявить себя робот в постели. - Стыдись, Макс, - отозвалась Николь. - Ну, это не я - мамзелька проявила избыток воображения.

Кстати, меня послали сюда с особой целью: информировать тебя, что за дверью мы приготовили завтрак, чтобы попрощаться с тобой и пожелать bon voyage [счастливого пути (франц.

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