Production manufacturing aggregates, components and parts of optical instruments
China Finance and Economic Review. December , Cite as. We should consider the product composition on trade cost intensity and domestic value-added reseller DVAR , and reduce trade costs in order to promote the export of products with higher domestic value-added rate, and to realize the substantial transformation of foreign trade growth mode. Trade structure is an eternal topic in the theory of international trade. But the trade structure is still not perfect with the high proportion of processing trade that reflects the vertical division as the outstanding characteristic. The proportion of processing trade in the total trade volume in and wasVIDEO ON THE TOPIC: detectoraid.com microscope - ray optics and optical instrument - physics class 12
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Four independent optical parameters are associated to each particle. Basically, it provides a rigorous measurement of the extinction cross section and the complex amplitude of the forward scattered field. Moreover, thanks to the multiparametric single particle approach, it is possible to roughly classify the particles within a size range from a few hundreds of nanometers to some micrometers. By assigning a reasonable single scattering albedo for each population, our data are enough to fit the phase function with acceptable uncertainties.
We report here the results of tests performed with water droplets, generating well controlled data without any free parameters. Data analysis is described in detail. We also report measurements performed on urban aerosol collected in the city of Milan by recovering the optical properties and feeding radiative transfer models. The findings reported here support the importance of an accurate measurement of the phase function, as already established by the Community.
Limited studies have demonstrated that particulate debris thrown off from brakes are toxic to higher plants. The acute phytotoxicity of brake pad wear debris BPWD investigated using cress seeds grown in soil contaminated with increasing concentrations of debris. The results suggested that even through the BPWD generated by the two pads were similar in and morphology, debris from traditional pads were more phytotoxic than that from cementitious pads, causing significant alterations in terms of root elongation and loss of plasma membrane integrity.
It provides simultaneous measurements of the real and imaginary parts of the field scattered in the forward direction by single airborne particles passing through a tightly focused laser beam. The intensity of transmitted light is collected in the forward direction, thus realizing a self-reference interferometric scheme relying on the fundamentals of the optical theorem.
We show that accessing two independent physical quantities allows to exploit physical models to recover the aerosol size distribution from the measurement of the refractive index, either real or even complex. Laboratory measurements have been performed with polydisperse aerosols made of water droplets and NaCl in the submicron range, and the system has been accurately characterized. Examples of measurements of graphite nanoparticles and Pyrethrum smoke are shown. Limitations are discussed.
ABSTRACT: Mineral dust aerosol dust is widely recognized as a fundamental component of the climate system and is closely coupled with glacial-interglacial climate oscillations of the Quaternary period. However, the direct impact of dust on the energy balance of the Earth system remains poorly quantified, mainly because of uncertainties in dust radiative properties, which vary greatly over space and time. Here we provide the first direct measurements of the aerosol optical thickness of dust particles windblown to central East Antarctica Dome C during the last glacial maximum LGM and the Holocene.
By applying the Single Particle Extinction and Scattering SPES technique and imposing preferential orientation to particles, we derive information on shape from samples of a few thousands of particles. These results highlight that clear shape variations occurring within a few years are hidden to routine measurement techniques. With this novel measurement method the optical properties of airborne dust can be directly measured from ice core samples, and can be used as input into climate model simulations.
ABSTRACT: In this work we focus on the characterization of micro- and nano-powders typically adopted for chemical mechanical polishing, extensively used whenever the global and local planarization of surfaces is required as in nanoelectronic fabs.
We present an innovative method for the accurate characterization of water suspensions of nanoparticles. It relies upon the combination of a new approach to extract light-scattering information from single particles and the recently developed diagnostic tool named Single Particle Extinction and Scattering. It can be used in line. Data interpretation becomes independent of any a-priori assumptions about the samples.
The results of accurate measurements performed on ceria as well as aluminium oxide slurries are reported. We show the strong advantages of this method compared with traditional ones by explicitly reporting experimental results on calibrated spheres made of different materials. We discuss possible applications for in-line characterization of ultrapure water, chemicals, slurries for abrasive processes, for example, as well as the detection of any undesired particles — which could be the key for future improvements to advanced process control systems.
ABSTRACT: light obscuration particle counter and coulter based particle counter are both used for measuring the size distribution of insoluble mineral dust particles in ice cores. While the coulter method measures particle volume accurately, the equivalent light obscuration method measurement deviates substantially from the coulter depending on the type of sample. We show that the difference between the light obscuration and the coulter method measurements is mainly caused by the irregular shape of dust particles in ice core samples.
The irregular shape leads means that the calibration routine based on standard spheres must be adjusted. This new calibration routine gives an increased accuracy on light obscuration measurements, which may improve future ice core record intercomparisons.
We derived an analytical model for extracting the aspect ratio of dust particles from the difference between light obscuration and coulter method data. The results demonstrate that the model is accurate enough to discern between samples of aspect ratio 0. Cells were treated with AgNP alone or in combination with classical immune stimuli i. Overall, results indicate immunostimulatory effects. Under certain conditions, in the deeper part of ice cores, the pristine paleoclimate signal can be altered by in situ formation of dust aggregates, following the relocation of the impurities.
Thus, aggregate detection is a critical indication for post-depositional processes. Clues for the presence of aggregates have been provided by anomalously large dust size distributions, while small aggregates were basically invisible to conventional dust analysis techniques. In this paper, we propose an optical approach to this problem based on the single-particle extinction and scattering SPES method, which allows researchers to distinguish between compact and non-compact particles through the analysis of samples populated by isometric particles contained in the core samples.
This method can potentially be used during continuous flow analyses of ice cores. It allows for the detection of even the tiniest aggregates, falling within the typical size interval of aeolian mineral aerosol. This approach will potentially provide key evidence for assessing the integrity of paleoclimate records. Here we show how to determine shape and size distributions of polydisperse water suspensions of micron-sized particles by the analysis of the field scattered in the forward direction by single particles illuminated by a laser beam.
We exploit the novel Single Particle Extinction and Scattering SPES method in connection with shear conditions which give preferred orientations to the particles passing through the scattering volume. Water suspensions of calibrated non-spherical particles, polydisperse standard monophasic mineral samples of quartz and kaolinite, and a mixture of quartz and illite are studied in details.
Application and limitation of the method are discussed. ABSTRACT: The behavior of nanoparticles in biological systems is determined by their dimensions, size distribution, shape, surface chemistry, density, drug loading and stability; the characterization of these parameters in realistic conditions and the possibility to follow their evolution in vitro and in vivo are, in most of the cases, far from the capabilities of the standard characterization technologies.
Optical techniques such as dynamic light scattering DLS are, in principle, well suited for in line characterization of nanoparticle, however their fail in characterizing the evolution of nanoparticle in solution where change in particle dimension and density is present. Here we present an in-line optical technique based on single particle extinction and scattering SPES overcoming the limitations typical of DLS and allowing for the efficient characterization of nanoparticle polydispersity, index of refraction and degradation dynamics in solution.
Our results suggest that SPES could be used as a process analytical technology for pharmaceutical nanoparticle production. ABSTRACT: Here we report the quantitative in situ characterization of size distribution evolution of polymeric nanoparticles incubated in murine serum, filtered and unfiltered murine blood.
We used an analytical optical approach, named Single Particle Extinction and Scattering SPES , which relies on the measurements of two independent parameters of single particles. SPES is based on a robust self-reference interference optical scheme which allows a rejection of the spurious signals coming from the background caused by the medium. We employed polystyrene nanoparticles as reference system and polydisperse poly lactic-co-glycolic acid nanoparticles.
Our results demonstrate that SPES can be used for carrying out ex vivo analysis of nanoparticles to evaluate the modifications that NPs undergo in vivo following different routes of entry. Conversely, Dynamic Light Scattering is not able to provide reliable results for these systems due to the presence of the biological components in solution. The high-throughput characterisation of nanoparticle shape in the dispersion is a fundamental prerequisite for realistic in vitro and in vivo evaluation, however, with routinely available bench-top optical characterisation techniques, it remains a challenging task.
Herein, we demonstrate the efficacy of Single Particle Extinction and Scattering SPES technique for the in situ detection of the shape of nanoparticles in dispersion, applied to a small library of anisotropic gold particles, with potential developments of in-line detection.
The use of SPES paves the way to the routine quantitative analysis of nanoparticles dispersed in biologically relevant fluids, which is of importance for the nanosafety assessment and any in vitro and in vivo administration of nanomaterials.
ABSTRACT: We describe a method for simultaneous measurements of the real and imaginary parts of the field scattered by single nanoparticles illuminated by a laser beam, exploiting a self-reference interferometric scheme relying on the fundamentals of the Optical Theorem. Results obtained with calibrated spheres of different materials are compared to the expected values obtained through a simplified analytical model without any free parameters, and the method is applied to a highly polydisperse water suspension of Poly D,L-lactide-co-glycolide nanoparticles.
Advantages with respect to existing methods and possible applications are discussed. The complex field scattered by single particles is determined by simultaneous measurements of the extinction cross section and the forward-scattered field amplitude.
Moreover, we show how this approach overcomes typical issues encountered with this kind of suspensions such as the presence of aggregates, spurious components, and gas bubbles, at variance with any other method for measuring single particles. Applications are discussed. ABSTRACT: Methods for the facile and in-line characterization of size distribution and physical properties of unsupported nanoparticles are of paramount importance for fundamental research and industrial applications. The state-of-the-art free nanoparticle characterization methods do not provide accuracy, high throughput, and operation easiness to support widespread use for routine characterization.
In this perspective paper, we describe and discuss the opportunities provided by approaches for nanoparticle characterization based on optical measurements of the field scattered by particles.
In particular, we show how insightful is the measure of both the real and the imaginary parts of the field amplitude, a task that has been considered in the past but never had a widespread exploitation. A number of opportunities are generated by this approach, in view of assessing a more efficient characterization and a better understanding of the properties of nanoparticles. We focus our attention on the capability of characterizing nanoparticles of wide interest for applications, considering cases where traditional approaches are not currently effective.
Possible exploitations are both in research and in industrial environments: to validate a synthetic process, for example, or for in-line monitoring of a production plant to generate advanced process control tools, as well as decision-making tools for acting in real time during the production.
Facebook Twitter Linkedin. Past, 14, ABSTRACT: light obscuration particle counter and coulter based particle counter are both used for measuring the size distribution of insoluble mineral dust particles in ice cores.
Single particle optical extinction and scattering allows real time quantitative characterization of drug payload and degradation of polymeric nanoparticles Potenza MAC, Sanvito T, Argentiere S, Cella C, Paroli B, Lenardi C, Milani P Scientific Reports 5 ABSTRACT: The behavior of nanoparticles in biological systems is determined by their dimensions, size distribution, shape, surface chemistry, density, drug loading and stability; the characterization of these parameters in realistic conditions and the possibility to follow their evolution in vitro and in vivo are, in most of the cases, far from the capabilities of the standard characterization technologies.
Free nanoparticle characterization by optical scattering field analysis: opportunities and perspectives Potenza MAC, Milani P J Nanopart Res 16 ABSTRACT: Methods for the facile and in-line characterization of size distribution and physical properties of unsupported nanoparticles are of paramount importance for fundamental research and industrial applications.
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How to Calculate Overall Equipment Effectiveness: A Practical Guide
Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. Modern manufacturing is being revolutionized by the use of optics, which can both improve current manufacturing capabilities and enable new ones. Light can be used to process or probe materials remotely, even through windows isolating harsh or vacuum environments.
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Note: This document is reference material for investigators and other FDA personnel. The document does not bind FDA, and does no confer any rights, privileges, benefits, or immunities for or on any person s. This Guide was initiated by Robert C. Fish asked Barbara-Helene mith, Ph. The workgroup, which also included Thaddeus T. Sze, Ph. We wish to express our appreciation to all who shared inspection reports and FDAs, contributed technical expertise, provided comments, and assisted in the preparation of this Guide.
A schematic diagram of the system to be modeled is shown above. Also, since the shape of this tip end portion is simply formed by three planes, the lensed optical fiber can easily be fabricated with high accuracy and high yield. Single and multi-row micro-lens arrays available in 12, 24 and 48 fiber counts Provides a high-density optical interface requiring minimal maintenance Eliminates inspection requirements. Fiber Components.
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The core component of any optical device is a lens that changes the direction of rays of light. Positive lenses that resemble parentheses face to face— —cause rays of light to converge to a focus. Negative lenses— —cause rays to diffuse, to spread apart. This comes about because light slows as it passes through a dense but translucent medium, like glass or plastic and, in slowing, a ray will refract or bend.
Раздраженно бросил Макс. - Так какого черта они делают. Мы попали в клепаную ловушку. - Он энергично затряс головой. - Вот что - глупо было даже лезть .
Поев, Ричард и Николь продолжили инспекцию предполагаемой энергоустановки. Баки в ней располагались в восемь столбцов и восемь рядов, всего их было шестьдесят четыре, но использовались только двадцать.
- Подумай - какова избыточная мощность, - восторгался Ричард. - Здешние инженеры вполне отчетливо представляют себе перспективы роста.