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Production produce catalysts

Production produce catalysts

Natural Gas - Extraction to End Use. Syngas can be produced from Natural Gas NG , refinery off-gases, naphtha, heavy hydrocarbons and also from coal. The choice of a particular raw material depends on cost and availability of the feedstock, and on downstream use of syngas. Sometimes, pure CO is required for the carbonylation process. Steam reforming is a catalytic and energy efficient technology for producing a H 2 rich syngas from light hydrocarbons like NG, refinery off-gases, LPG or Naphta.

VIDEO ON THE TOPIC: Faces of Chemistry: Catalysts (Johnson Matthey) - Video 3 (16+)

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Gazprom Neft catalyst production project awarded national status by Ministry of Energy

Alternative Fuel. In recent years, biodiesel has gained international attention as a source of alternative fuel due to characteristics like high degradability, no toxicity, low emission of carbon monoxide, particulate matter and unburned hydrocarbons Al Zuhair, ; Vicente et al. Biodiesel is a mixture of alkyl esters and it can be used in conventional compression ignitions engines, which need almost no modification. As well, biodiesel can be used as heating oil and as fuel Mushrush et al.

So far, this alternative fuel has been successfully produced by transesterification of vegetable oils and animal fats using homogeneous basic catalysts mainly sodium or potassium hydroxide dissolved in methanol.

However, the use of homogeneous catalysts leads to soap production. Besides, in the homogeneous process the catalyst is consumed thus reducing the catalytic efficiency. This causes an increase in viscosity and the formation of gels. In addition, the method for the removal of the catalyst after reaction is technically difficult and a large amount of wastewater is produced in order to separate and clean the products, which increases the overall cost of the process.

Thus, the total cost of the biodiesel production based on homogeneous catalysis, is not yet sufficiently competitive as compared to the cost of diesel production from petroleum.

An alternative is the development of heterogeneous catalysts that could eliminate the additional running costs associated with the aforementioned stages of separation and purification. In addition, the use of heterogeneous catalysts does not produce soap through free fatty acid neutralization and triglyceride saponification.

Therefore, development of efficient heterogeneous catalysts is important since opens up the possibility of another pathway for biodiesel production. The efficiency of the heterogeneous process depends, however, on several variables such as type of oil, molar ratio alcohol to oil, temperature and catalyst type.

Thus, the objective of this chapter is to present a review of the effect of the aforesaid variables on important characteristics of biodiesel such as methyl esters content. Some characterization techniques for both, biodiesel and heterogeneous catalysts will also be addressed.

Nowadays, there are four known methods to reduce the high viscosity of vegetable oils to enable their use in conventional compression ignitions engines: blending with diesel, pyrolysis, emulsification and transesterification. The pyrolysis and the emulsification, however, produce heavy carbon deposits, incomplete combustion, an increase of lubricating oil viscosity and undesirable side products such as alkanes, alkenes, alkadienes, aromatic compounds and carboxylic acids.

Also, the direct use of vegetables oils is not feasible due to their high viscosity and low volatility which affect the atomization and spray pattern of fuel, leading to incomplete combustion, severe carbon deposits, injector choking and piston ring sticking Ryan et al. The alcohol used for transesterification is usually methanol. Producing biodiesel is a bulk process; the general scheme of the trasesterification reaction is presented in Figure 1 , where R is a mixture of various fatty acid chains.

In principle, transesterification is a reversible reaction, although in the production of biodiesel, the back reaction does not occur or is negligible because the glycerol formed is not miscible with the product, leading to a two-phase system. Nevertheless, an excess of alcohol is usually employed to force reaction towards the right side. The stoichiometry of reaction is a molar ratio of alcohol to oil, to produce 3 mol of biodiesel and 1 mol of glycerol.

Though, in practice it is usually increased from to to favor the formation of products and increase its performance. In this context, the amount of alcohol used can be reduced by conducting the transesterification in steps: part of the alcohol and catalyst are added at the start of each step, and the glycerol is removed at the end of each step Encinar et al.

Complete conversion of the triglyceride involves three consecutive reactions with monoglyceride and diglyceride intermediates which are reversible reactions as shown in Figure 2 Harvey et al. While transesterification is an equilibrium reaction between esters and alcohols, the reaction may be under kinetic control before thermodynamic equilibrium is achieved, and this would favor the formation of monoalkyl esters Meneghetti et al. The transesterification reaction produces two liquid phases: alkyl esters and crude glycerol the heavier liquid.

In a typical stirred tank reactor, glycerol is collected at the bottom after some time of settling. Phase separation can be observed within short time approximate 10 minutes and can be complete within 2 to 20 h, when the reaction is carried out at laboratory scale Demirbas, In the case of alcohols, these can be primary or secondary monohydric aliphatic alcohols having from 1 to 8 carbon atoms.

Among the alcohols that have been used to produce biodiesel, either homogeneously or heterogeneously, are methanol, ethanol, propanol, isopropanol, butanol, pentanol and amyl alcohol Demirbas, ; Fukuda et al.

The use of methanol is advantageous as it can quickly react with triglycerides polar and shortest chain alcohol and is a relatively inexpensive alcohol, while the same reaction using ethanol has as drawback that the produced ethyl esters are less stable and a carbon residue is observed after reaction. The use of ethanol as solvent, however, is becoming more popular since this alcohol is a renewable resource and does not raise the same toxicity concerns than methanol Demirbas, ; Geise, ; Meneghetti et al.

Similar yields of biodiesel can be obtained using either methanol or ethanol. Also, the reaction time is shorter in the methanolysis because of the physical and chemical properties of methanol: polar character and the short chain alcohol.

For instance, Meneghetti et al. In such a study, maximum yields of esters were obtained after 1h of reaction time with methanol or 5 h with ethanol. Biodiesel is usually prepared in the presence of homogeneous base or acid catalysts. With homogenous base catalysts sodium and potassium hydroxides, carbonates, sodium and potassium alkoxides, principally the reaction is faster than with acid catalysts sulfuric acid, phosphoric acid, hydrochloric and sulfonic acid principally Fukuda et al.

However, the main disadvantage of the aforementioned homogeneous catalysts is the undesirable production of both, soap and glycerol. This fact increases the production costs.

On the other hand, heterogeneous catalysts could improve the synthesis methods by eliminating the neutralization salts in the glycerol and therefore the number of separation steps can be reduced Mac, Leod et al. Also, heterogeneous catalysts exhibit a less corrosive character and can be used in a fixed-bed reactor, leading to safer, cheaper and more environment-friendly operation Dossin et al. In addition to the type of catalyst, important parameters of the transesterification reaction are the molar ratio of alcohol, type of alcohol, temperature, reaction time and degree of refinement of the vegetable oil Fukuda et al.

Also, stirring is a critical point in the efficiency of the process, higher stirring is recommended to create a homogeneous phase. We must remember that the insolubility of fat materials in short chain alcohols reduces the rate of transesterification. In consequence, it has been shown that the use of a cosolvent greatly accelerates the reaction so that it reaches substantial completion within a few minutes.

The primary concerns with this method are the additional complexity of recovering and recycling the cosolvent. Although this can be simplified by choosing a compound with a boiling point near to that of the alcohol in use. The most commonly used cosolvents are tetrahydrofuran and methyl tertiary butyl ether. Nevertheless, hexane has been successfully employed as co-solvent to obtain a Usually, the choice of feedstock depends largely on the resources availability, and depending on the origin and quality of the feedstock, changes to the production process may be necessary.

The use of non-edible oils or spent oils as well as heterogeneous systems is preferred because they are more environmentally friendly. For the production of biodiesel there are not technical restrictions regarding the use of vegetable oils or animal fats.

Nevertheless, there are preferred vegetable oils with high fatty acid content and whose wide world production is significant. Constituent fatty acids of vegetable oils are mostly unsaturated. Oils, therefore, are liquid at room temperature, so that their use as diesel fuel depends mainly on their viscosity. Moreover, animal fats, because of their higher content of saturated fatty acids are solid at room temperature, and cannot be used in diesel engines in its original form.

Although it is not common to use mixtures of vegetable oils with diesel in different proportions, depending on the viscosity of oil, these blends can be used in diesel engines. Though, the most assessed vegetable oils in the transesterification reaction are the castor, corn, cottonseed, crambe, peanut, soybean, palm, rapeseed and sunflower oils, mainly due to their content of glycerides Demirbas, Animal fats have not been studied to the same extent as vegetables oils, however there are some works about poultry fat used to produce biodiesel, for example.

Oil from algae, bacteria and fungi also has been investigated Hernando et al. In addition to vegetable oils and animal fats, other materials such as spent frying oils have been used for biodiesel production; however, some changes in the reaction procedure frequently have to be made due to the presence of water or free fatty acids in the biodiesel Bockisch, In consequence, the main raw material is vegetable oil.

These oils are liquids at room temperature and their direct use as fuel is precluded by high viscosities and requirement of engines modification. Therefore, it is convenient that vegetable oils are converted into their alkyl esters biodiesel by transesterification. Relevant characteristics of oils typically used for biodiesel production are given in table 2.

At the moment almost all commercial biodiesel production plants are using homogenous alkaline catalysts. However, the major disadvantage of homogeneous catalysts is the fact that these cannot be reused. Besides, as above explained, the homogeneous process implies further stages of washing, which involves an increase in production costs. Recently, the biodiesel production using heterogeneous catalysts has been carried out at industrial level and in such a process the employed catalyst has been reported to be a mixed oxide of zinc and aluminium Bournay et al.

Indeed, the development of solid acid or basic catalysts for the transesterification reaction has been an important issue addressed by the scientific community. As a result, various types of catalysts have been assessed such as alkali earth oxides, alkali oxides, not metal oxides, metal oxides, cation exchange resins, metal phosphates and acid supported on different materials.

Despite all the efforts, heterogeneous catalysts for biodiesel production have not been widely exploited at industrial level, yet. Properties of typical vegetable oils employed to produce biodiesel from transesterification reaction Demirbas, This catalyst character determines the transesterification reaction rate. It has been concluded that the stronger basicity and therefore the presence of more active sites improves the performance of catalysts in the transesterification reaction.

Hence, biodiesel is usually produced in the presence of an alkaline catalyst. Different studies, however, have been carried out using acid catalysts Di Serio et al. One should bear on mind that the benefit with solid catalysts, acid or basic, is the lesser consumption of catalyst in the reaction.

For example, to produce tons of biodiesel, 88 tones of sodium hydroxide may be required, while only 5. Besides, heterogeneous catalysts exhibit a less corrosive character and can be used in a fixed-bed reactor, leading to safer, cheaper and more environment-friendly operations and the number of separation steps is less than when using homogeneous catalysts.

The heterogeneous catalysts do not leave neutralization salts in the glycerol, and are plausible to be retained in the reactor by filtration Di Serio et al. A comparison of attained yields with the aforementioned catalysts would lack of objectivity since all the related studies have been performed under significant different operating conditions such as temperature, raw material and molar oil:alcohol ratio.

Therefore, in the following paragraphs a summary of the most relevant results will be presented rather than a comparison. Moreover, the effect of important catalyst characteristics such as active phase, calcination temperature, catalytic support and catalyst concentration will be addressed. However, the use of BaO is not practical enough since it is soluble in methanol and also forms highly toxic compounds.

Regarding SrO, this oxide possesses a strong tendency to react with CO 2 and water present in air to form strontium hydroxide and strontium carbonate, thus losing its catalytic ability Yan et al. Among the above-mentioned oxides, the CaO and MgO have been extensively studied in the transesterification reaction.

About the former, its catalytic activity has been compared with other calcium compounds calcium hydroxide and calcium alkoxides at the same reaction conditions. This is in agreement with Lewis theory: the methoxides of alkaline-earth metals are more basic than their oxides and these are more basic than their hydroxides Gryglewicz, ; Kawashima et al. Veljkovick et al. Yoosuk et al. This treatment is likely associated with crystallites fracture and the generation of more porosity and basic sites.

The catalysts tested were the modified calcium oxide and commercial calcium oxide. Thus, it was concluded that the hydration treatment and subsequent calcination favors the formation of stronger basic sites and possesses a strong effect over crystallinity and crystallite size. In this study, the poisoning of active surface sites of calcium oxide by the atmospheric H 2 O and CO 2 was observed.

Biodiesel Production by Using Heterogeneous Catalysts

In , Topsoe continued to expand its catalyst production capacity to meet the demands from new and existing markets. Two new catalyst production sites were established and the existing production sites boosted the capacity of the current production lines. Together, they make it possible to deliver the entire catalyst product portfolio around the globe. However, new production sites are also being built to meet specific local demands.

In the first section, we present an overview of the different methods to synthesize catalysts making use of microfluidics and in the second section, we critically review catalyst particle characterization using microfluidics. The strengths and challenges of these approaches are highlighted with various showcases selected from the recent literature.

A catalyst is something that helps chemical processes happen. The most common catalyst is heat, but sometimes a catalyst is a substance that facilitates the process without undergoing any transformation itself. Silver is a common catalyst for many manufacturing processes, often producing items that you use every day. Because of its unique chemical properties, silver is a vital catalyst in the production of two major industrial chemicals: ethylene oxide and formaldehyde. Because the silver is not effected by the reaction, it is almost completely recovered after it is used.

Catalyst Development of Microbial Fuel Cells for Renewable-Energy Production

Performance of widely used catalysts for online catalytic upgrading of bio-oil is systematically reviewed and compared with respect to the scale of application, i. Criteria for selection of catalyst for production of bio-oil have been comprehensively outlined. Effect of catalysts on chemical composition of bio-oil is reviewed and discussed in detail. Demonstration scale FCC type process appears to have potentialsfor scale up for commercial production. On the cov er. Catalytic pyrolysis of biomass could be a cost-competitive route for biofuels production. To achieve that, development of dedicated catalysts for selective deoxygenation and cracking of bio-oil would be essential. Such breakthrough catalysts could pave the way for scaling up the existing pyrolysis technologies to achieve commercial production of biofuels through pyrolysis. In this issue of Biofuel Research Journal, Dr.

Optimized Biodiesel Production from Waste Cooking Oil (WCO) using Calcium Oxide (CaO) Nano-catalyst

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Specialty chemicals company Clariant has announced a significant expansion of its catalyst production facility in Panjin, Liaoning Province in northeastern China. MA is an important component of polymers and coatings for the construction, automotive, shipbuilding and energy industries.

Alternative Fuel. In recent years, biodiesel has gained international attention as a source of alternative fuel due to characteristics like high degradability, no toxicity, low emission of carbon monoxide, particulate matter and unburned hydrocarbons Al Zuhair, ; Vicente et al. Biodiesel is a mixture of alkyl esters and it can be used in conventional compression ignitions engines, which need almost no modification. As well, biodiesel can be used as heating oil and as fuel Mushrush et al.

Natural Gas Catalytic Partial Oxidation: A Way to Syngas and Bulk Chemicals Production

Seawater is one of the most abundant resources on earth, offering promise both as a source of hydrogen -- desirable as a source of clean energy -- and of drinking water in arid climates. But even as water-splitting technologies capable of producing hydrogen from freshwater have become more effective, seawater has remained a challenge. Researchers from the University of Houston have reported a significant breakthrough with a new oxygen evolution reaction catalyst that, combined with a hydrogen evolution reaction catalyst, achieved current densities capable of supporting industrial demands while requiring relatively low voltage to start seawater electrolysis. Researchers say the device, composed of inexpensive non-noble metal nitrides, manages to avoid many of the obstacles that have limited earlier attempts to inexpensively produce hydrogen or safe drinking water from seawater.

In this chapter, we focus on microbial fuel cells MFCs that convert the energy from organic matters into electrical energy using microorganisms. MFCs are greatly expected to be used as a relatively low-cost and safe device for generating renewable energy using waste biomass as a raw material. At present, however, it has not reached the desired practical application because of the low-power generation; hence, improvements on fuel cell efficiency, such as electrode materials, are still being examined. Here, we focus on the microorganisms that can be used as catalysts and play a central role in improving the efficiency of the fuel cells. Several kinds of microbial catalysts are used in MFCs.

Global catalyst production ramp-up

TOHO has its advantage in utilizing self sufficient titanium tetrachloride as a starting raw material for the production of THC catalyst. Recognized as an industry standard for its performance and quality consistency. THC is a Mg-Ti based high performance catalyst constituting a catalyst system together with alkylalminium and external donors to polymerize propylene monomer to polypropylene. In response to expectations for improved mechanical properties and processability of polypropylene ever increasing year by year, the catalyst has a major role to answer to the needs of industries. Requirements for catalyst characteristics varies depending polypropylenes processes and polypropylene grades produced. THC catalysts serve to wide range of needs and expectations from customers. Toho Titanium aims realization of the world highest levelof product performance by optimizing products to the maximum performance through uncompromising product development and pursuing process engineering to deliver. Polypropylene is an essential material and used in our everyday life, in such applications as automotive applications, home appliances, hygiene products, packaging, food container and others.

So far, this alternative fuel has been successfully produced by transesterification of vegetable oils and animal fats using homogeneous basic catalysts (mainly.

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Honeywell also inaugurated a new research and development and engineering center to support business development and to meet growing engineering and technical service needs throughout Asia. The heart of the MTO process is a proprietary catalyst that facilitates the conversion of methanol into olefins. Honeywell also celebrated the opening of its new engineering center, also located in Zhangjiagang. In addition, the center will provide greater service capabilities, including new software-enabled services that improve the efficiency of refineries and petrochemical plants.

Catalysts, Petroleum and Chemical Process

When speaking of specialty chemicals, it is typical to assume products such as polyurethanes, personal-care chemicals, specialty coatings and specialty surfactants, etc. These are materials and products that are either precursors to or constituents of the things that surround us in our daily lives. However, amongst the most significant segments of specialty chemicals are catalysts — the material that the end-user does not get to see, but that is indispensable to the process of producing fuels and chemical products, specialty chemicals included. Interestingly, while other specialty chemicals start suffering from commoditization and hence slump in profitability because of the growing number of production facilities and producers, catalyst producers foresaw this threat over ten years ago.

Researchers at the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory and Stanford University have shown for the first time that a cheap catalyst can split water and generate hydrogen gas for hours on end in the harsh environment of a commercial device. The electrolyzer technology, which is based on a polymer electrolyte membrane PEM , has potential for large-scale hydrogen production powered by renewable energy, but it has been held back in part by the high cost of the precious metal catalysts, like platinum and iridium, needed to boost the efficiency of the chemical reactions.

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The first time a catalyst was used in the industry was in by J. Hughes in the manufacture of lead chamber sulfuric acid. Since then catalysts have been in use in a large portion of the chemical industry. In the start only pure components were used as catalysts, but after the year multicomponent catalysts were studied and are now commonly used in the industry. In the chemical industry and industrial research, catalysis play an important role. Different catalysts are in constant development to fulfil economic, political and environmental demands.

September 30, Hydrogen, the most abundant element in the universe, packs a powerful punch. And because it contains no carbon, it produces only water when used as a fuel. But on Earth, hydrogen most often exists in combination with other elements, which means it needs to be extracted.

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  1. Arashicage

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