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Storage production products of fish farming, beekeeping, sericulture, artificial insemination

Storage production products of fish farming, beekeeping, sericulture, artificial insemination

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To browse Academia. Skip to main content. You're using an out-of-date version of Internet Explorer. Log In Sign Up. Animal husbandry. Souvik Chowdhury. Not logged in Talk Contributions Create account Log in Article Talk Read Edit View history Search Wikipedia Animal husbandry From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Main page Animal husbandry is the branch of agriculture concerned with animals that are raised for meat, fibre, milk, eggs, or other Contents products.

It includes day-to-day care, selective breeding and the raising of livestock. Featured content Current events Husbandry has a long history, starting with the Neolithic revolution when animals were first domesticated, from around Random article 13, BC onwards, antedating farming of the first crops. By the time of early civilisations such as ancient Egypt, cattle, Donate to Wikipedia sheep, goats and pigs were being raised on farms. Wikipedia store Major changes took place in the Columbian Exchange when Old World livestock were brought to the New World, and then Interaction in the British Agricultural Revolution of the 18th century, when livestock breeds like the Dishley Longhorn cattle and Help Lincoln Longwool sheep were rapidly improved by agriculturalists such as Robert Bakewell to yield more meat, milk, and About Wikipedia wool.

Community portal A wide range of other species such as horse, water buffalo, llama, rabbit and guinea pig are used as livestock in some Recent changes Cattle feedlot in Colorado, USA parts of the world.

Insect farming, as well as aquaculture of fish, molluscs, and crustaceans, is widespread. Contact page Modern animal husbandry relies on production systems adapted to the type of land available. Subsistence farming is Tools being superseded by intensive animal farming in the more developed parts of the world, where for example beef cattle are What links here kept in high density feedlots, and thousands of chickens may be raised in broiler houses or batteries. On poorer soil such Related changes as in uplands, animals are often kept more extensively, and may be allowed to roam widely, foraging for themselves.

Upload file Special pages Most livestock are herbivores, except for pigs and chickens which are omnivores. Ruminants like cattle and sheep are Permanent link adapted to feed on grass; they can forage outdoors, or may be fed entirely or in part on rations richer in energy and Page information protein, such as pelleted cereals.

Pigs and poultry cannot digest the cellulose in forage, and require cereals and other Wikidata item Cite this page high-energy foods. The desirable characteristics of a domestic animal are that it should be useful to man, should be able to thrive in his company, should breed freely and be easy to tend.

Sheep and goats were the animals that accompanied the nomads in the Middle East, while cattle and pigs were associated with more settled communities. Half-wild dogs, perhaps starting with young individuals, may have been tolerated as scavengers and killers of vermin, and being naturally pack hunters, were predisposed to become part of the human pack and join in The domestication of ruminants, like the hunt.

Prey animals, sheep, goats, pigs and cattle, were progressively domesticated early in the history of agriculture. A cow was a great advantage to a villager as she produced more milk than her calf needed, and her strength could be put to use as a working animal, pulling a plough to increase production of crops, and drawing a sledge, and later a cart, to bring the produce home from the field. Draught animals were first used about 4, BC in the Middle East, increasing agricultural production immeasurably.

Neither was strong enough to pull a plough which limited the development of agriculture in the New World. Around the same time, the wild ass was being tamed in Egypt. Camels were domesticated soon after this,[8] with the Bactrian camel in Mongolia and the Arabian camel becoming beasts of burden.

Honey bees were domesticated from at least the Old Kingdom, providing both honey and wax. In addition, rabbits were domesticated for food by the first century BC. To help flush them out from their underground burrows, the polecat was domesticated as the ferret, its use described by Milking cattle in ancient Egypt Pliny the Elder.

Some aspects such as the herding of animals continued throughout the period. By the 11th century, the economy had recovered and the countryside was again productive. Woodland for [feeding] 70 pigs. Improvements hurdle pen. Medieval France. Horses took over from oxen as the main providers of traction, new ideas on century, MS Douce crop rotation were developed and the growing of crops for winter fodder gained ground.

One of his most important breeding programs was with sheep. Using native stock, he was able to quickly select for large, yet fine-boned sheep, with long, lustrous wool.

The Lincoln Longwool was improved by Bakewell and in turn the Lincoln was used to develop the subsequent breed, named the New or Dishley Leicester. It was hornless and had a square, meaty body with straight top lines. Under his influence, English farmers began to breed cattle for use primarily as beef. Long-horned heifers were crossed with the Westmoreland bull to create the Dishley Longhorn.

As the ecological impact of this land management strategy is similar to the impact of such natural disturbances as a wildfire, this The Lincoln Longwool breed was improved by Robert Bakewell in the agricultural system shares many beneficial characteristics with a natural habitat, including the promotion of biodiversity.

This strategy is 18th century. The mechanized and chemical methods used are causing biodiversity to decline. Killing the animal for food was a secondary consideration, and wherever possible its products, such as wool, eggs, milk and blood by the Maasai were harvested while the animal was still alive.

Extensive systems involve animals roaming at will, or under the supervision of a herdsman, often for their protection from predators. Ranching in the Western United States involves large herds of cattle grazing widely over public and private lands.

Similar ranching systems have been used for sheep, deer, ostrich, emu, llama and alpaca. In between these two extremes are semi-intensive, often family-run farms where livestock graze outside for much of the year, silage or hay is made to cover the times of year when the grass stops growing, and fertiliser, feed, and other inputs are brought onto the farm from outside. The herbivores can be divided into "concentrate selectors" which selectively feed on seeds, fruits and highly nutritious young foliage, "grazers" which mainly feed on grass, and "intermediate feeders" which choose their diet from the whole range of available plant material.

Cattle, sheep, goats, deer and antelopes are ruminants; they digest food in two steps, chewing and swallowing in the normal way, and then regurgitating the semidigested cud to chew it again and thus extract the maximum possible food value. Grasses grow from the base of the leaf-blade, enabling it to thrive even when heavily grazed or cut.

Energy is mainly derived from cereals and cereal by-products, fats and oils and sugar-rich foods, while protein may come from fish or meat meal, milk products, legumes and other plant foods, often the by-products of vegetable oil extraction. The ingredients for the animals' rations can be grown on the farm or can be bought, in the form of pelleted or cubed, compound foodstuffs specially formulated for the different classes of livestock, their growth stages and their specific nutritional requirements.

Vitamins and minerals are added to balance the diet. These include hardiness, prolificness, mothering abilities, fast growth rates, low feed consumption per unit of growth, better body proportions, higher yields, better fibre qualities and other characteristics. Undesirable traits such as health defects, aggressiveness or lack of docility are selected against.

In , a typical broiler chicken at eight weeks old was 4. This may be done by transplanting embryos from high-quality females into lower-quality surrogate mothers — freeing up the higher-quality mother to be reimpregnated.

This practice vastly increases the number of offspring which may be produced by a small selection of the best quality parent animals. On the other, it decreases genetic diversity, increasing the severity of certain disease outbreaks among other risks. When, despite these precautions, animals still become sick, they are treated with veterinary medicines, by the farmer and the veterinarian.

In the European Union, when farmers treat their own animals, they are required to follow the guidelines for treatment and to record the treatments given. Some, like classical swine fever[38] and scrapie[39] are specific to one type of stock, while others, like foot-and- mouth disease affect all cloven-hoofed animals. Vaccines are available against certain diseases, and antibiotics are widely used Vaccinating a goat, Niger where appropriate.

At one time, antibiotics were routinely added to certain compound foodstuffs to promote growth, but this practice is now frowned on in many countries because of the risk that it may lead to antibiotic resistance.

Wild animal populations may harbour diseases that can affect domestic animals which may acquire them as a result of insufficient biosecurity.

An outbreak of Nipah virus in Malaysia in was traced back to pigs becoming ill after contact with fruit-eating flying foxes, their faeces and urine. The pigs in turn passed the infection to humans. This virus is easily transmissible to domestic poultry, and to humans living in close proximity with them. Other infectious diseases affecting wild animals, farm animals and humans include rabies, leptospirosis, brucellosis, tuberculosis and trichinosis.

Widely agreed types of livestock include cattle for beef and dairy, sheep, goats, pigs, and poultry. Various other species are sometimes considered livestock, such as horses,[46] while poultry birds are sometimes excluded.

In some parts of the world, livestock includes species such as buffalo, and the South American camelids, the alpaca and llama. Other animals used to a lesser extent for this purpose include sheep, goats, camels, buffaloes, yaks, Shearing a Merino sheep for its wool reindeer, horses and donkeys. Whereas in the past, cattle had multiple functions, modern dairy cow breeding has resulted in specialised Holstein Friesian-type animals that produce large quantities A modern rotary milking parlour, of milk economically.

Artificial insemination is widely available to allow farmers to select for the particular traits that suit their Germany circumstances. Sheep and goats may be favoured for dairy production in climates and conditions that do not suit dairy cows. The actual types eaten depend on local preferences, availability, cost and other factors, with cattle, sheep, pigs and goats being the main species involved. Cattle generally produce a single offspring annually which takes more than a year to mature; sheep and goats often have twins and these are ready for slaughter in less than a year; pigs are more prolific, producing more than one litter of up to about 11[59] piglets each year.

Some desirable traits of animals raised for meat include fecundity, hardiness, fast growth rate, ease of management and high food conversion efficiency. About half of the world's meat is produced from animals grazing on open ranges or on enclosed The Hereford is a hardy breed of pastures, the other half being produced intensively in various factory-farming systems; these are mostly cows, pigs or poultry, and often beef cattle, now raised in many countries around the world.

The great majority of laying birds used for egg production are chickens. Methods for keeping layers range from free-range systems, where the birds can roam as they will but are housed at night for their own protection, through semi-intensive systems where they are housed in barns and have perches, litter and some freedom of movement, to intensive systems where they are kept in cages. The battery cages are arranged in long rows in multiple tiers, with external feeders, drinkers, and egg collection facilities.

This is the most labour saving and economical method of egg production but has been criticised on animal welfare grounds as the birds are unable to exhibit their normal behaviours. Chickens raised in this way are known as broilers, and genetic improvements have meant that they can be grown to slaughter weight within six or seven weeks of hatching.

Newly hatched chicks are restricted to a small area and given supplementary heating. Litter on the floor absorbs the droppings and the area occupied is expanded as they grow. Feed and water is supplied automatically and the lighting is controlled. The birds may be harvested on several occasions or the whole shed may be cleared at one time.

Farming also implies individual or corporate ownership of the stock being cultivated. Whole bays, lakes or ponds may be devoted to aquaculture, or the farmed animal may be retained in cages fish , artificial reefs, racks or strings shellfish. Fish and prawns can be cultivated in rice paddies, either arriving naturally or being introduced, and both crops can be harvested together.

When large enough these are transferred to growing-on tanks and sold to fish farms to reach harvest size. Some species that are commonly raised in hatcheries include shrimps, prawns, salmon, tilapia, oysters and scallops. Similar facilities can be used to raise species with conservation needs to be released into the wild, or game fish for restocking waterways.

Beekeeping or apiculture is the maintenance of bee colonies, commonly in man-made hives , by humans. Most such bees are honey bees in the genus Apis , but other honey-producing bees such as Melipona stingless bees are also kept. A beekeeper or apiarist keeps bees in order to collect their honey and other products that the hive produce including beeswax , propolis , flower pollen , bee pollen , and royal jelly , to pollinate crops, or to produce bees for sale to other beekeepers. A location where bees are kept is called an apiary or "bee yard".

Когда было принято решение разделить ваш вид на две отдельные группы, я сразу понял, что разделить вас так, чтобы все были довольны, никак не удастся. И я бы хотел, чтобы ты по возможности помогла нам сгладить процесс. Николь разглядывала удивительное лицо и глаза своего инопланетного друга.

Продолжай, Ричард, - Николь ощущала легкое раздражение от того, что муж нарушил ее сон. - Ну. о какой боли ты говоришь. - Каждый раз при мочеиспускании я ощущаю это жжение.

Ты был прав. Уже одно это переживание и все воспоминания, которые оно пробудило, стоят перенесенных неприятных мгновений". Поглядев вокруг, метрах в двадцати от себя Николь заметила небольшие существа, порхавшие между красных веток каких-то странных кустов. Она подошла поближе и накрыла одно из летающих созданий рукой.

С виду оно походило на мотылек. Крылья украшал пестрый узор, лишенный для глаз Николь симметрии и всякого порядка. Она выпустила его, поймала другое существо.

Когда Ричард обернулся к Николь, она увидела, как его глаза расширились. - Не оборачивайся, - спокойно проговорил он секундой позже, - мы не Николь все-таки поглядела.

На противоположной стороне зала, метрах в сорока от людей, на мостках появилась пара октопауков; они медленно приближались к людям. Из-за шума, производимого фабрикой, ни Ричард, ни Николь не услышали знакомого шелеста металлических щеток.

Октопауки остановились, заметив, что люди обнаружили .

Я все понял, когда люди Накамуры показали мне отчеты. Эти создания каким-то образом сумели воздействовать на твой разум, и ты более не осознаешь реальности.

Николь еще не могла отдышаться. Синий Доктор видела напряжение на лице - Нет, я не справляюсь с дорогой, - проговорила Николь, стиснув щупальца октопаучихи изо всех сил. - Иди к Верховному Оптимизатору без меня, в качестве моей подруги. Попроси .

Пока не обоснуетесь в Узле, но Патрик предпочел Носитель. Так что было бы бессердечно не позволить ему проститься с родным отцом. Николь не могла более сдерживаться.

"Его детство было таким болезненным, - подумала Николь, припоминая прошлые разговоры с Ричардом о грубости его отца. - Наверное, он вырос, не умея любить людей и доверять. он дружил только со своими фантазиями или роботами - произведениями собственных рук. " Она на минутку остановила поток своих мыслей. "Но пока мы оставались в Новом Эдеме, он явно переменился.

Один из мирмикотов сказал сети, чтобы она выпустила тебя по первому требованию. Я буду здесь все время, чтобы ты не тревожилась.

- Как рассказывал мне Ричард, - произнесла Николь, все еще не решаясь войти, - для того чтобы вступить с ней в контакт, ему потребовалось довольно много времени.

- Теперь это не проблема, - ответил Орел. - В образце сохранилась информация о методах общения с человеческим мозгом. - Ну что ж, - Николь нервно провела рукой по волосам, - поехала. Пожелай мне удачи. Николь въехала в разрыв посреди ватного переплетения и выключила двигатель коляски.

Recycling of waste or by-product in which the waste of one system becomes Integrated livestock-fish, poultry-fish, and rice-fish farming and crop rotation in Fish farms having an integration with mulberry cultivation, sericulture and silk extraction worms t of waste is produced in which the energy store is 66% of that.

Но Альтернативный Домен _ничем_ не напоминает ваши тюрьмы. Это просто область, где октопауки и другие существа могут жить, не зная регламентации и оптимизации, необходимых для развития и выживания колонии.

Некоторые из альтернатов доживают до очень преклонного возраста и вполне счастливы.

Я попросила вас сходить со мной сюда сегодня, - промолвила Наи, приступая к сортировке белья, - потому что хочу переговорить о Галилее. - Она помедлила в нерешительности. - Простите меня, Николь, но я - заинтересованная сторона. и я не уверена.

Я ничуть не верю в то, что все эти взаимоотношения могли сложиться естественным образом, - проговорила Николь. - Не могу представить себе такую планету. Эволюция не может создать подобной гармонии в отношении между видами. - Ты хочешь сказать, дорогая, что все эти существа, подобно машинам, созданы, чтобы выполнять определенные функции.

Этот шум означает, что кто-то стучит по трубам. Николь на мгновение задержала дыхание, когда над головой неясно загудели голоса.

Попробую еще раз". Она припомнила ссору, закончившуюся несколько часов. - Конечно, ты хочешь туда - к своему дружку-пауку, - горевал Роберт. - И рассчитываешь взять с собой Никки.

И пусть перестанут мне давать лекарства, когда я оставлю "морскую звезду". Не надо спасать меня, если в сердце начнутся какие-нибудь неполадки. Николь глядела прямо вперед - сквозь лицевую пластину своего шлема за окно челнока. "Мое время пришло, - сказала она. - Хватило бы только отваги не дрогнуть".

Был поздний вечер, и Элли только что приятно побеседовала со своей бывшей учительницей и нынешней подругой Эпониной. Элли оставила ее комнату и шла по пыльной дороге, ожидая Роберта, который вот-вот должен был выйти ей навстречу. И вдруг она услышала, как два странных голоска дружно окликают ее по имени.

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  1. Mulrajas

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