Units storage constructive and architectural-building elements of buildings and structures
Information for users! This Law regulates relations, arising between the state bodies, individuals and legal entities in the process of carrying out of architectural, town-planning and construction activity in the Republic of Kazakhstan, and directed to create a full environment and human life, sustainable development of inhabited localities and inter-settlement territories. Living environment includes:. As a rule, this is an environment of inhabited localities, which determines living conditions and psychophysical state of people;. In case of an adverse effect, it is necessary to take environmental measures;. The main parameters are the appearance, architectural style, color scheme, number of storeys, finishing materials.VIDEO ON THE TOPIC: Time Lapse Construction Installation - Salt Storage Facility in Dyersville, IA
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- On Architectural, Town-planning and Construction Activity in the Republic of Kazakhstan
- Phase Change Materials for Energy Efficiency in Buildings and Their Use in Mortars
- Typical structural systems
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- On Architectural, Town-planning and Construction Activity in the Republic of Kazakhstan
- Architectural plan
On Architectural, Town-planning and Construction Activity in the Republic of Kazakhstan
The construction industry is responsible for consuming large amounts of energy. The development of new materials with the purpose of increasing the thermal efficiency of buildings is, therefore, becoming, imperative.
In the present paper, recent experimental studies dealing with mortars or concrete-containing PCMs, used as passive building systems, have been examined. This review is mainly aimed at providing information on the currently investigated materials and the employed methodologies for their manufacture, as well as at summarizing the results achieved so far on this subject.
The scientific community is severely concerned about the increase of world energy consumption. Global demand for energy is growing rapidly and higher consumption of fossil fuels leads to greater greenhouse gas emissions, particularly carbon dioxide CO 2 , which contribute to creating heavy environmental impacts, such as ozone layer depletion, global warming and climate change [ 1 ].
Among all the activities employing a great amount of energy, one of the main sectors in some countries is related to buildings. Energy consumptions in the building sector.
The main cause for the intensified energy consumption is the overall change in the living standards and comfort demands for heating in cold regions and cooling in hot ones [ 3 ]. As a consequence, the energy efficiency of buildings is today a primary objective of policies regarding energy at regional, national and international levels [ 4 ].
The development of novel building materials able to improve the efficiency in energy utilization in the buildings is gaining increasing interest in industrial and academic communities.
In addition, thermal energy storage TES is a useful tool for improving energy efficiency and increasing energy savings. There are three ways to store thermal energy: chemical heat CH, by breaking and forming molecular bonds , sensible heat SH, by heating and cooling a material and latent heat thermal energy storage LHTES, by melting and solidifying a material [ 5 ]. According to the literature, LHTES is the most attractive approach, due to its high storage capability and small temperature variations from storage to retrieval.
The operating principle of PCMs takes advantage of the modification of their state due to changes in temperature: as the temperature increases, the PCM passes from the solid to the liquid state, thus, absorbing and storing energy.
Conversely, when the temperature decreases, the material can release the previously stored energy, passing from the liquid to the solid state, as illustrated in Figure 2 [ 7 ]. The incorporation in building materials of a suitable PCM can reduce the temperature fluctuations, thus, leading to an improvement in human comfort and a reduction in the consumption of energy in the building [ 8 , 9 ].
The use of PCMs in building materials is beneficial, especially in extremely hot and cold climates, where the energy required to maintain the internal conditions of buildings at a comfortable level can achieve significant consumption levels [ 10 ]. One of the oldest research on PCMs, describing the application of these materials in buildings, was published by Telkes [ 11 ] in , followed by another work authored by Lane [ 12 ] in During the last decades, the integration of PCMs in building materials has gained renewed interest.
The PCMs in buildings are used in walls, floors, and ceilings, or in other building components e. Most of the applications in building structures consist of wallboards containing a PCM or in the incorporation of a PCM in a concrete or mortar matrix.
The study of mortars developed using different binders with the incorporation of PCM largely interested the scientific community. The resulting properties of these new materials have been widely investigated, with a special focus on the thermal behavior in order to assess the advantages in terms of thermal energy storage [ 14 ].
This paper presents a literature review of the recent research works dealing with PCMs, taking as an example the production of mortars or concrete-containing phase change materials. After a general summary of the classification and properties of PCMs, the incorporation methods and the applications in the building sector are illustrated. The characteristics and features of different PCMs in mortar or concrete are, then, introduced, highlighting the main differences between the various mortars containing PCMs and describing the different methods employed for their production.
The first classification of materials used for thermal storage appeared in and was proposed by Abhat [ 15 ]. Based on chemical composition, a PCM can be classified as an organic, inorganic or eutectic compound Figure 3.
Organic materials, in turn, can be paraffinic or non-paraffinic. Typically, they can change their state several times without displaying any degradation. Salt hydrates and metals belong to a class of inorganic materials. In Table 1 , the main features of PCMs are summarized. The advantages and disadvantages of each class of PCMs are described in Table 2 [ 18 , 19 ]. It must be underlined, however, that not all existing PCMs can be used for thermal storage in building applications [ 20 ].
In order to be suitable for this use, at least two important requirements must be fulfilled: the PCM must display i appropriate melting temperature and ii melting heat. The melting heat is a measure of the thermal energy that a material absorbs when it changes its state from solid to liquid.
The thermal storage capacity of a PCM is strictly correlated to its melting heat [ 21 ]. According to the literature, the temperature of phase transition of the selected PCM should be very close to the human comfort temperatures i. Nevertheless, PCMs that fall within three temperature ranges have been suggested for use in buildings [ 16 ]:. The PCMs more suitable for building applications are summarized in Table 3 , with the indication of the melting temperature and heat [ 8 , 13 , 14 , 19 , 24 , 25 , 26 , 27 , 28 , 29 , 30 , 31 , 32 , 33 , 34 ].
PCMs for building applications: composition, category, melting temperature and melting heat. Among all possible candidates, the most appropriate PCM for a specific application must be selected taking into account some characteristics that will determine its effectiveness.
For any thermal energy storage application in buildings, in fact, a careful examination of the overall properties of a PCM should be made, comparing the advantages and disadvantages displayed by each available system and, possibly, admitting a certain degree of compromise. The main attractive properties and characteristics that a PCM shoud possess are reported in Figure 4 [ 16 , 19 ].
Although this review mainly focuses on passive building systems for thermal energy storage based on the integration of PCM in building materials, a short overview of all the available solutions is presented.
Generally speaking, the possible introduction of PCMs in building materials is described as follows [ 4 , 5 , 34 , 35 , 36 ]. Free cooling. This system requires a storage unit to accumulate the thermal energy and use it in heat absorption and in heat release. In this way, the storage medium is used to maintain a cold temperature, when the ambient temperature is lower than room temperature. This process is carried out during the night; the cold air flows through the storage unit, removes heat from the liquid PCM through an electrical fan; at this point, the PCM starts to solidify.
When the room temperature rises above a comfortable level, the cold stored in PCM is released. Thus, the PCM absorbs heat from the air, starting the transformation from solid to liquid state [ 23 , 26 , 30 , 37 , 38 ].
Peak load shifting. This method is based on the use of PCMs that shift the peak energy request far from the peak hours of electrical demand; the peak load may be split throughout the day reducing the highest peaks [ 5 , 13 , 39 ].
Active building systems. The storage capability of PCMs can be used in systems such as solar heat pump systems, heat recovery systems, and floor heating systems. An example of incorporating PCMs in an active system is radiant floors [ 5 ]. These systems consist of a lightweight piped radiant floor, where an integrated PCM layer is aimed at buffering internal gains during the summer season without affecting the winter warming capacity [ 22 ].
Passive building systems. For passive applications, PCMs are integrated into building materials to increase their thermal mass. The incorporated PCM melts during the daytime and solidifies during the night: this process can warm the environment during the day. Among all potential applications of PCMs in buildings, the incorporation in construction materials passive building system , aimed at modifying their thermal properties, has proven to be the most interesting.
The combination of building materials with PCMs is an efficient way to increase the thermal energy storage capacity of construction elements. Thereby, wallboards, floors, roof, concrete and other parts are integrated with PCMs in order to improve the thermal performance of the building. The most common solution for implementing PCMs in buildings is the installation of PCM into the interior side of the building envelope.
Thus, the use of suitable PCMs in the interiors of the construction allows to absorb and release heat in any room during a large part of the day. Several experimental investigations showed how this strategy positively affects indoor climate and energy use. Wallboards or plasterboards are very suitable components for the incorporation of PCMs [ 3 , 4 , 5 , 19 , 34 , 41 , 42 ].
These elements are cheap and widely used in building applications, especially in lightweight constructions, to reduce the internal air temperature fluctuations. The PCMs can be incorporated in the panel in different ways, as described below.
A PCM can also be added to conventional and alveolar bricks in constructions [ 3 , 42 ]. The PCM placed in the roof can absorb both the incoming solar energy and the thermal energy from the surroundings; hence, it reduces the internal temperature fluctuations.
The floor is another part of the building that offers a large surface and, thus, a great storage capability. As already described, the floor can often act as an active building system, but it can also be employed in passive ones.
In some applications, in fact, PCMs have been included in the concrete layer placed under the floor; PCM panels have been also employed as an overlay to substitute the floor [ 4 , 5 , 13 , 39 , 41 , 42 , 44 ]. Advantageous effects are obtained by integrating PCMs in a floor, since a great amount of energy is usually lost from the floor, due to the heat transfer with the ground. Emerging solutions are those in which PCMs are placed in windows and sunshades [ 3 , 4 , 5 , 45 , 46 ].
In such applications, a PCM must fill the glass, frame, layer, or any other hollow part, such as the cavity of the shutters. The main issue of this application is due to the lack of transparency of PCMs in both their liquid and solid states. Hence, the windows using such systems are blurry, with a reduced transmission of daylight and solar radiation. Finally, PCMs in mortars or plasters are also considered for interior finishing on walls and ceilings in residential buildings [ 3 , 4 , 5 , 19 , 41 , 42 , 47 ].
Using one or more of the described elements in a house, a significant improvement in energy efficiency is achieved. Such an approach in construction allows to activate thermal inertia and heat storage capability of each room, reducing the internal temperature fluctuations and improving the level of indoor thermal comfort [ 48 ]. It must be emphasized that the terms shape-stabilized and form-stable PCMs have been often considered as synonymous; the two methods, on the other hand, have some distinct characteristics, as following described [ 19 ].
The first research published on PCMs largely focused on their direct incorporation and immersion. Direct incorporation is the simplest, practical and economical method: in this case, in fact, the PCM is directly mixed with the construction material [ 4 , 45 ].
The PCMs, in liquid or powdered form, are added to a mixture of materials such as lime, gypsum, cement paste or concrete during its production. The main advantage lies in the simplicity and inexpensiveness of the procedure, since no extra equipment is required. However, some problems due to the leakage of PCM, when it is in its melting state, can occur, possibly leading to low fire resistance of the impregnated materials and even causing incompatibility between the mixed materials [ 3 , 17 ].
Referring to the immersion method, porous construction materials are immersed in the melted PCM; thus, the porous materials absorb the product by capillary rise [ 22 ].
Once again, the mechanical and durability properties of the construction elements can be affected by leakage of PCMs and its incompatibility with the substrate. In particular, the leaked PCM in contact with the cementitious binder may interfere with the hydration reactions [ 19 , 27 , 44 ]; it may also cause the corrosion of reinforcing steel that, in turn, affects the service life of the concrete structure [ 49 ]. Some organic PCMs are not stable under an alkaline environment, which is typical of concrete, and they can easily react with calcium hydroxide; this can lead to a modification of the PCM, with a consequent decline in its properties.
Furthermore, if a reaction with PCM occurs during the curing process of fresh concrete, the hydration of the cement may be delayed or interrupted, with a consequent reduction in its final strength.
In order to reduce any interference with the building materials, a well-established approach is the encapsulation of PCMs in a suitable shell material [ 51 ]. Two encapsulation approaches are reported in literature for PCMs: micro-encapsulation Figure 5 a,b and macro-encapsulation Figure 5 c methods [ 16 , 52 ].
In order to guarantee a long-term stability of the whole system, the PCM and the container material should display no chemical interactions, irrespective of the encapsulation method [ 53 ]. Reprinted with permission from [ 5 ].
Phase Change Materials for Energy Efficiency in Buildings and Their Use in Mortars
This guide mainly introduced the functions of architectural models, what scale is an ideal option, what material they may be made from and what techniques are available. However, the design is not a lone genius process. The communication during the design process is equally important to the construction project as well. The luxury architectural model making project- Opus Hong Kong.
In the field of architecture an architectural plan is a design and planning for a building , and can contain architectural drawings , specifications of the design, calculations, time planning of the building process, and other documentation. This article will focus on the general meaning of architectural plan as a plan and documentation for a building project. A building is a man-made structure with a roof and walls standing more or less permanently in one place. Buildings come in a variety of shapes, sizes and functions, and have been adapted throughout history for a wide number of factors, from building materials available, to weather conditions, to land prices, ground conditions, specific uses and aesthetic reasons.
Typical structural systems
TitletownTech, in Green Bay, Wis. Image: Pixabay. Brokers and analysts at two major CRE firms observe that tenants are taking longer to make lease decisions. Courtesy Pixabay. The Embodied Carbon Lab at Thornton Tomasetti has calculated the embodied carbon of more than structural engineering projects over the past seven years. Beacon was developed based on the firm's experience and deep data sets. Courtesy Steven Chilton Architects.
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The construction industry is responsible for consuming large amounts of energy. The development of new materials with the purpose of increasing the thermal efficiency of buildings is, therefore, becoming, imperative. In the present paper, recent experimental studies dealing with mortars or concrete-containing PCMs, used as passive building systems, have been examined. This review is mainly aimed at providing information on the currently investigated materials and the employed methodologies for their manufacture, as well as at summarizing the results achieved so far on this subject.
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Member of the academic board of the European Master in Planning and policies for the City, Environment and Landscape www. Supporter of a multidisciplinary approach to city and spatial planning, during the last years he finalized his research activity to the relationship between planning and sustainability, with particular attention to the implementation of bottom-up public policies to define sustainable development in local contexts. Scientific coordinator of several projects granted by competitive bids, among these:. Account Options Sign in.
These buildings are typically used for workshops, factories, industrial and distribution warehouses and retail and leisure. Whilst most single-storey buildings are relatively straightforward building projects, increasing levels of specialisation by steelwork contractors and other supply chain members have, in recent years, led to huge improvements in quality, cost and delivery performance of single storey steel buildings. These improvements have been achieved through increasingly efficient use of the portal frame by design-and-build steelwork contractors, improved project planning , and active supply chain management by main contractors. This article deals specifically with single storey industrial buildings. Single storey buildings in other sectors are addressed in other articles, e. Snetterton Renewable Energy Centre, Norfolk.
On Architectural, Town-planning and Construction Activity in the Republic of Kazakhstan
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